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T. R« Parker 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Pittsburgh Library System 



















But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not con- 
sumed one of another. Gal. v. 15. 





Win. B. AHsn & Co. Printer*. 

13a r. 



v. 3 


COP' / 



From the Battle of Edge-Hill to the calling of the Assembly of Divines 

at Westminster. 

THE king pursues his march to London. Motives of it. Remarks. 
Encouraging prospect of the king's affairs. Ordinance of the parlia- 
ment exhorting to repentance. Treaty of Oxford. The parliament's 
propositions. Rill against innovation* : for punishing scandalous cler- 
gy : against pluralities and non-residence. The king's proposals. — 
Death and character of Dr. Crisp. Lord Brooke's death. Tomkins's 
plot. A new oath or covenant. Proclamation against the city of Lon- 
don. The people reduced to great hardships. Success of the king's af» 
fairs — Sufferings of the puritan clergy, and of the episcopal. Commit- 
tees for religion : for scandalous ministers. Case9 of the Rev. Mr. Sy- 
monds, Rev. Mr. Squire, aud Rer. Mr. Finch. Committee for plunder- 
ed ministers: their proceedings censured. Country committees : their 
instructions. Quality of the persons ejected : sequestration of their es- 
tates : a further explanation of it. Abjuration oath. The effects of 
this ordinance. The king makes reprisals. Vacant benefices filled 
up. Strict observation of the sabbath. Manner of keeping the month- 
ly fast. Occasional fasts. The king dissolves the parliament fast, 
and appoints another. Removal of monuments of superstition : ordi- 
nance for that purpose : manner of the execution of it. Orders for 
restraining the press. 


From the calling the Assembly of Divines at Westminster to the Oxford 


Ordinance for calling an assembly of divines. Names of the lay- 
assessors ; of the divines. Reasons of the episeopaldivines against the 
assembly ; character of it : it opens : rules agreed to by it. Regula- 
tions sent them by the parliament. Assembly's petition for a fast 

Alterations in the thirty-nine articles. Censures of antinomianism. — 
Parliament and assembly apply to the Scots. Reasons of the general 
assembly of Scotland for assisting the English parliament. Committee 
appointed to frame a solemn league and covenant. Mr. Marshall's and 
JVye's letter to the assembly at Westminster. Debates upon it. The 
solemn league and covenant. Manner of taking it. An exhortation 
to taking the solemn league and covenant : answered. Instructions 
for taking the covenant in the country. The influence it had on the 
clergy. The king brings over forces from Ireland. HI consequences 
of it. The king's protestation. Assembly's letter to the foreign 
churches. The king's reply. Remarks. Discipline of the church dis- 



solved. Parliament Dominates men to livings. Committee to examine 
clergymen. Their method of examination. Death of Mr. Chilling- 
worth. Character of Mr. Hampden and of Mr, Pym, 


The Oxford Parliament. Progress of the War. Visitation of the 
University of Cambridge by the Earl of Manchester. Committee for 
plundered, sequestered, and scandalous Ministers. 

The Oxford parliament. The king's letter to the queen. Scots army 
enters England. Earl of Essex defeated in Cornwall. Rise of the 
clubmen. Character of the king's officers, and soldiers. Fight of 
Newbury. Character of the parliament army. State of affairs at the 
cm! of the year. Affairs of the church. Behavior of the university of 
Cambridge. Cambridge visitation. Ordinance for the committee of 
Sequestration. Character of the earl of Manchester. Manner of his 
proceeding. Covenant not tendered to the whole university. Numbers 
ejected. Reasonableness of it. Characters of the ejected professors: 
and of their successors. Remarks. Form of induction of the new 
master ; the oath : and of the fellows. Committee for scandalous min- 
isters. Earl of Manchester's warrant empowering them to act : in- 
structions to them. The earl's letter. Their method of proeeeding. 
Remarks. Numbers ejected : compared with the ejected ministers in 
1(J62. The fifths. The hardships on both sides. 


Of the several Parties in the Assembly of Divines. Presbyterians, E- 
rastiqns, Independents. Their Preceedings about Ordination, and 
the Directory for Divine Worship. The Rise, Progress, and Suffer •* 
ings of the English Anabaptists. 

Parties in the assemblies of Divines. Of the Presbyterians; the 
Erastians : the Indcpendants. Remarks. Vindication of the Inde- 
pendants. Of the Anabaptists. Proceedings of the assembly. Order 
to confer about discipline. Of ordination. Advice of the assembly.— 
Directory for public worship. Preface to it. Variations in it from 
the common prayer. The success of it. Ordinance for enforcing the 
use of the directory. Remarks. King forbids the use of it. Rise and 
progress of the English anabaptists. Their confession of faith: their 

character and sufferings. Mr. Clarkson's recantation. Remarks 

The Palatinate family favorites of the puritans. State of religion. Or- 
dinance for better observation of the Lord's-day : for lavin» aside the 
observation of Christmas. Remarks. The death of bishop 3 Westfeld, 
and of Dr. Downing. 4 


Abstract of the Trial of Archbishop Laud; and of the Treaty of 

Trial of Archbishop Laud. Articles of impeachment. Archbishop's 
answer. Order and method of the trial. Summary of the eharge.— 


Serj. Wild opens the impeachmeut. The archbishop's speech. First 
branch of the charge for subverting the rights of parliament. Mana- 
ger's charge. Archbishop's reply. Arbitrary speeches made for the 
king by the archbishop. King's speech March 29 and May 11,4620, 
and March 27, 1629. Archbishop's reply Arbitrary speeches of the 
arehbisi.op himself. Archbishop's reply. Parliament's power in nut- 
ters of religion. Archbishop's reply. Of the king's prerogative, »nd 
canons of the church. Archbishop's reply. Second charge : attempt 
to set aside the laws: of ship-money, tonnage, and pouudage. Arch- 
bishop's reply. Depopulations and pulling down houses. Archbish- 
op's reply. Illegal commitments and prohibitions in the spiritual 
courts. Archbishop's reply. Bribery objected to the archbishop.— 
His reply. Commutation of penance. Alterations in the coronation 
oath. Archbishop's reply. Attempt to set up an independent power 
in the clergy. Archbishop's reply. Siltiug of the convocation after 
the parliament. Archbishop's reply. Remarks. Third general 
charge: subverting religion. Paintings, and images, and crucifixes. — 
Archbishop's answer. Managers' reply to the antiquity of images in 
churches. Consecration of churches and altars, and feasts of dedica- 
tion Archbishop's answer on consecrating churches : on feasts of ded- 
ication : on consecrating altars and their furniture Manager's reply 
on the antiquity of consecrating churches : on consecrating altars and 
their furniture : on the antiquity of feasts of dedication. Antiquity of 
altars, their situation, and railing them in. Archbishop's answer. — 
Managers' reply on the antiquity of altars, and railing them in: on 
their situation : altars not anciently fixed to the east wall of the chan- 
cel : on their furniture. Antiquity of bowing towards the altar. Arch- 
bishop's answer. Bowing at the name of Jesus. Of copes. Mana- 
gers' reply on bowing to the altar : on the Gloria Patri. and bowing at 
the name of Jesus. On reading the second service: on copes: and the 
university statutes. Book of sports. Archbishop's answer. Mana- 
gers' reply. Remarks. Doctrinal errors. Arminianism. Archbish- 
op's answer. Managers' reply. Preaching on the five points. Abuse 
of t tie press by prohibiting books: by castrating them: by licen- 
sing popish books, and conniving at their importation. Archbishop's 
answer. Managers' reply. Prosecuting puritans. Archbishop's an- 
swer. Managers' reply. Reconciling the church of England with 
Rome, and assuming papal titles, and discouraging foreign protestants. 
Archbishop's answer: on his assuming papal titles : on the church of 
Rome being a true church: on unchurching foreign protestants: on 
corresponding with popish priests. Managers' reply. On his assum- 
ing papal titles and honors: on his forbidding to pray for the queen's 
conversion : on the church of Rome no true church : on his reconciling 
the church of England to Rome : on his unchurching foreign protes- 
tants : on his countenancing popish priests : and discountenancing their 
prosecutors : on his concealing HabernfielcVs plot. The managers' 
conclusion. The archbishop's speech at the close of the trial. Points 
of law debated. Mr. Hearn , $ argument. Censures of the archbishop's 
behavior. His character of the witnesses. His censure of the mana- 
gers. Petitions for justice against him. Condemned by bill of at- 


fainder. His last spcecfc and prayer. His character. Treaty of TTx- 
hridge. The king's cabinet opened. The commissioners. The treaty 
begins. Mr. Love's sermon. Of the militia: of Ireland: of religion : 
The king's instructions to his commissioners. Parliament's instruc- 
f fail's. Mr. Henderson's speech against bishops. Dr. Steward's reply. 
The king's concessions. Remarks. The parliament's reply. Re* 
marks. The treaty breaks up. Reasons of it. Remarks. Earl of 
Glamorgan's treaty with the Irish. Death of Mr. White. 


The Progress of the War. Debates in the Assembly about Ordination. 
The Power >>f the Keys. The Divine Right of Presbyterian Gov- 
ernment. Committees for Comprehension and Toleration of the In- 

Earl of Eesex removed, and the army new-modelled. Character of 
the generals. Rise of enthusiasm in the army. Their strict disci- 
pline. Progress of the king's forces. Battle at Naseby. Parlia- 
ment's care for a regular clergy. Directory for ordination of minis- 
ters. Former ordinations invalid. Debates upon it with the independ- 
ants. Power of ordination given to the assembly pro tempore. The 
divine right of presbytery. Objections of the erastians : and of the 
independants. Presbyterians' reply. Subordination of synods. Com- 
plaints of the independanfs. Conduct of the erastians. The clause 
of the divine right lost in the house of commons. Several petitions of 
the parliament to admit it. Of the power of the keys in excommuni- 
cation : opinion of the independants, of Selden, and of Whitlocke. — 
The ordinance for suspension and excommunication. Parliaments 
proviso. Presbyterians dissatisfied. Ordinance for erecting presby- 
teries. Remarks. Exceptions of the Scots to the new discipline. — 
Parliament's reply. English presbyteriaus' petition against the ordi- 
nance. They are threatened with a praemunire. Questions sent to 
the assembly relating to the jus divinum. Remarks. They are ter- 
rified, and appoint a fast. Committee of accommodation. The com- 
mittees revived. Proposals of the independants. Reply of the pres- 
byteriaus. Answer of the independants. The presbyterjans' reply 

Answer of the independants. Conclusion of the presbyterians. Re- 
marks. Debates about toleration and liberty of conscience. Scots 
declaration against toleration. Independants for a limited toleration. 
Answer to the reasons of the London clergy. The king foments their 
division$. Censures of Paul Pest. Ordinance to seize, the revenues 
of cathedrals. Revenues of the university of Cambridge preserved.— 
Death of Dr. Featly : of Mr. Dad. 


The Conclusion of the first Civil War, by the King's surrendering his 
Royal Person to the Scots. Petitions of the Assembly and City Di- 
vines against Toleration, and for the Divine Right of the Presbyte- 
rial Government, which is erected in London. Debates between the 


King, Mr. Henderson, and the Scots Commissioners. Ills Ma- 
jesty is removed from Newcastle to Holmby -house. Further account 
of the Sectaries. 

The king's melancholy condition at Oxford : surrenders his person 
to the Scots. Conclusion of the first civil war. Articles of peace 
with the Irish papists. Parliament's commissioners protest against it. 
Presbyterians petition against sectaries : and are seconded by the Scots. 
Parliament's answer. Independants oppose it. Assembly's sentiments 
of the jus divinum. Sentiments of the London ministers. Their pa- 
per of considerations and cautions. Classical division of the province 
of Loudon. Remarks. Scots behavior to the king at Newcastle. — 
Conference between the king and Mr. Henderson. The king's first 
paper. Mr. Hendersons first reply. King's second paper. Mr. Hen- 
derson's second reply. King's third paper. Mr. Henderson's third 
reply. King's last papers. Remarks. Mr. Henderson's pretended 
recantation : the falseness of it. Parliament's propositions to the king 
at Newcastle. Great intercession is made with the king to comply : 
but he refuses. His conference with the Scots commissioners. Scots 
kirk will not trust the king. Their solemn warning and declaration. 
Proceedings of the Scots parliaments relating to the king. They de- 
liver him up, and publish their reasons. English commissioners re- 
ceive the king, and convey him to Holmby. Remarks. The king at 
Holmby-house. Ordinance for abolishing archbishops and bishops : 
and for sale of their lands. Presbyterians petition against the secta- 
ries. Proceedings of the parliament upon it. Further account of the 
sectaries. Edivard's Grangrama. Mr. Baxter's account of them : 
lord Clarendon's. Bishop Bramhall, of the papists. Death of the 
earl of Essex : of Mr. Column : of Dr. Twisse : and Mr. Jeremiah 


Proceedings of the Assembly upon their Confession of Faith and Cate- 
chisms. Provincial Assemblies of London. The King taken out of 
the Parliament's custody and conveyed to the Army. His Majesty's 
conduct. He escapes from Hampton- Court, and is confined in the 
Isle of Wight. 

Proceedings of the assembly upon their confession of faith. They 
present it to the parliament. Debates of the commons upon it. Arti- 
cles of discipline rejected : but the whole received by the Scots as- 
sembly and parliament. Censures of it. Assembly's larger and short- 
er catechisms. Scots commissioners take leave of the assembly. They 
appoint a fast for the distractions of England. First provincial as- 
sembly. The second. Their petition to parliament. London minis- 
ters, testimony to truth and against error. Dr. Hammond's vindication : 
and Mr. John Goodwin's : his reply to the Rev. Mr. Jenkins. Views 
of the different parties concerned in the war: of the king: of the par- 
liament and presbyteriaus : of the army and independants. Contro- 
versy between the parliament and army. Council of the officers and 
agitators. The king's answer to the propositions at Newcastle : seized 



and carried to the army : which strikes the two houses with surprise. 
Declaration of the army. The preshyterians in parliament resolve to 
oppose the array. Eleven of their members impeached. Commotions 
in the city. Tumults in the parliament house : which occasion sev- 
eral of the members to retire to the army. Proceedings of the re- 
mainder. Army resolves to march to London. City sui>mils. Pres- 
byterian ministers' vindication of themselves. Remarks. Mr Bax- 
ter's opinion. The king's motions with the army. CromweWs and 
Ireton-a conference with the king. His majesty's mistaken conduct: 
which proves his ruin. Reasons of the army's deserting the king.- — 
The king escapes from Hampton-Court: and is confined in the Isle of 
Wight. Proposals of the army. Agreement of the lords . and of the 
commons. Proposals of the presbyterians. Motive of the king's es- 
cape from Hampton-Court. Private treaty with the Scots. The king's 
concessions from the Isle of Wight. Remarks. The army unite with 
the parliament. Votes of non-addresses. Parliament's remonstrance. 
Ordinance for abolishing the observation of Christinas and other saints' 
days. Time allotted for servants' recreation. The king disapproves 
of it. It occasions tumults. The king's clergy petition to be restored 
to their livings. Fairfax's answer. Counter-petition of the presby- 
terians. Ordinance in their favor. 


The Visitation of the University of Oxford. State of Religion at the 

end of the year. 

Condition of the university of Oxford. Parliament, sends ministers 
to reform it. Their conduct stud success. Parliament resolves on a 
visitation. Ordinance for that purpose. Abstract of the university'* 
reasons against the covenant. Exceptions against the preface: against 
the covenant in general : against the first article : against the second : 
against the third: against the fourth: against the fifth: against the 
sixth: the conclusion. Contradictions in the covenant: doubtful ex- 
pressions in it: absurdities. Salvoes for taking it. Objections to the 
negative oath and directory. Remarks. Visitation opened. The uni- 
versity uses the visitors ill, and will not submit. Parliament resolve 
to support their visitors. Their visitation received. The university 
will not submit. They are heard by their council : but are cast. Their 
stubborn behavior. Earl of Pembroke, chancellor, visits in person. 
His proceedings : reports the behavior of the university to the parlia- 
ment. Numbers ejected. Insolence of the scholars. The garrison 
searches the colleges for arms. Scholars expelled. Heads of the col- 
leges that submitted and kept their places : their characters. Charac- 
ters of the professors that submitted. Heads of the colleges ejected : 
their characters. Professors ejected. New heads of colleges that suc- 
ceeded. New professors. Their behavior. Remarks. Vacancies in 
the university filled up. Causes of the increase of lay-preachers. Pe- 
tition for unordained preachers. Stage-plays put down.' State of re- 
ligion. Death of Mr. Herbert Palmer, of Mr. Henry Wilkinson, of 
Mr. Saltmarsh. 

• 0NTENT8. it 


'T!ie second Civil War. The conclusion of the Assembly of Divines'. 
The progress of Presbytery. The Treaty of the Me of Wight. T.:z 
Death and Character of King Charles I. His Works. Jlnd the Au- 
thors of his unhappy Sufferings. 

The second civil war. The Seots army enters England : and is de- 
feated by Cromwell. Proceedings of the parliament; which is entire- 
ly presbyterian. Rem irks on the confusion of the times. Conclusion 
of tiie assembly of divines. Their works. Their character. Pro- 
ceedings of the third provincial assembly : of the fourth. Provincial 
assembly of Lancashire. Agreement of the people. Country associa- 
tions. Ordinance ag;iiust blasphemy and heresy. Remarks. Ordi- 
nance for settling the presbyterian discipline. Treaty of the Isle of 
Wight. Parliament's proposals, and the kings reply. His conces- 
sions on the article of religion. Conference between the king's and 
parliament's divines. The king's first paper to the parliament divines. 
Abstract of their reply. The king's second paper. Parliament divines' 
reply. The king's last paper. Remarks. Of the coronation oath. The 
king's final concessions. Arguments and motives of the parliament 
commissioners to gain the king's consent. States of Scotland press 
the king's consent. The king's speech to the commissioners. Remarks. 
Archbishop Usher's sentiments. Conclusion of the treaty. Kind's 
letter to the prince. Remarks. The case of the army. Their pro- 
ceedings. Their remonstrance. They seize the king's person a sec- 
ond time. They march to London, and purge the parliament. Voles 
of the remainder of the house of comirons. The army resolves to try 
the king. Voice of the nation. Dr. Gauden's and J)r. Hammond's 
protestations: and the whole body of presbyterian roinisters in Lon- 
don: their further vindication. Behavior of the independants : and of 
the Scots. Proceedings of the army and parliament. The king's tri- 
al and execution. His character. His works. Eilcon Basilike a spu- 
rious performance, Books published for and against the king's death. 
Authors of the king's death. Of the king and his divines. Of the 
presbyterians. Of the independants. Sentiments of Dr. Du Moulin : 
Mr. Baxter: Bishop Burnet: of the papists: and of the convention 


The extent of Mr. Weal's design. An apology for Mr. Weal. Com- 
plaints of the baptists and the Number and variety of here- 
sies in the reign of Charles I. Increase of the antitrinitarians. The 
case of Thomas Webb : of Paul Best: of John Fry. Intolerance of 
the times. The number of antitrinitarian assemblies and publications. 
The imprimatur of John Bachiler. A pamphlet entitled "Religious 
Peace." Edwards's Gangreeua. English baptists : their origin : the 
number of their congregations : their first secession : the church of 
them at Shrewsbury : at Bickenhal : and at Chesterton. Their in- 
Voi, III. % 


crease impeded. Their revival. Their publications. Their confes- 
sion of faith. Two divisions of them. Their opinions defended by 
Lord Brooke, Mr. Daniel Rogers, and bishop Taylor. Severe ordi- 
nances and invectives directed against them. Their sufferings : those 
of Mr. Vavasor Powel, Mr. Edward Barber, Mr. Cox, Mr. Henry 
Denne, Mr. Coppe, Mr. Lamb, Mr. Paul Hobson, Mr. Hanserd Knol- 
lys, Mr. John Sims, Mr. Jlndrew Wyke, and Mr. Samuel Oates. The 
imprudence and impetuosity of their zeal. The iniquity of persecution, 
hut one good effect of it. The writings of the baptists in favor of tol- 
eration. Distinguished preachers among them : Mr. Helwise, Mr. 
John Morton. Mr. Neal's representation of the baptists censured by 
Mr. Crosby. Origin of the quakers. A stricture on Mr. Neat's ac- 
count of it. 



PAGE 28, The sincerity of the parliament in their petition for 
peace; the charge of treachery in the king confirmed; and Mr. Neal 
vindicated against Dr. Grey. p. 29, Who of the Brentford prisoner* 
were condemned to die, ascertained. Dr. Downing and Mr. Marshall 
defended against a charge of Dr. Grey. p. 30-1, Mr. Neal's ch;irge 
of the king's want of faith supported. A stricture of Dr. Grey con- 
sidered. The king's violation of his word. p. 33, Mr. Neal's veracity 
defended, p. 34, The policy and design of the cessation of arms grant- 
ed to the Irish, p. 35, The nature of the king's proposals for the ease 
of tender consciences, p. 40, The preamble of the king's reply to the> 
propositions from the parliament, p. 42, The king's civility to the 
commissioners of the parliament, p. 46, The different constructions 
put on the death of lord Brooke, p. 48, A reference, p. 66, The 
length of the religious services of the parliament party. A proposal 
for a round-head's feast, p. 68, The banter cast on the zeal with which 
crosses were pulled down. p. 71, References from Dr. Grey. 


Page 73, The constitution of th« Westminster assembly, p. 80, A 
reference from Dr. Grey. p. 82, Dr. Grey's censure of the Westmin- 
ster divines, p. 82, 83, Selden's sentiments concerning convocations. 
p. 87, An error corrected, p. 88, A ground of the king's resentment- 
p. 90, Bishop Burnet's reflection on the unanimity and speed with 
which the assembly adopted the proposed solemn league and covenant. 
p. 98, Bishop Warburton animadverted on. p. 103, The charges of 
cruelty brought by Dr. Grey against the English adherents to the par- 
liament, p. 110, A remark adopted from bishop Warburton. p. 113, 
On the precedency granted to the English bishop at the synod of Dort. 
p. 114, Mr. Baxter's reflection on the imprisonment of Dr. Featly. p. 
118, Dr. Cheynel's treatment of Chillingworth : the spirit of his book 
against him. A counter-part to it in Dr. Snape's writings. An ex- 
cellent reflection of bishop Hoadley. p. 119, 20, Particulars concerning 
Mr. Hamden. p. 120, 21, Mr. Pym's character vindicated. 


Page 122, The parliament vindicated from the charge of high-trea- 
son. Its power to raise contributions. The king's impolicy in calling 
the Oxford parliament, and Mr. Selden's representation of it. p. 123, 
A date supplied, p. 124, Bishop Warburton's opinion of the king's 
views, p. 126, Mr. Neal's account of prince Rupert's cruelty sup- 
ported by authorities, p. 127, Mr. Neal's character of lieut.-general 
Wilmot Vindicated, and an instance of the generosity of the general 
considered, p. 129, The character of the parliament army. The 
same according to Dr. Grey. Mr. Baxter's character of the same ex- 
plained, p. 130, Dr. Grey's misapplication of his authorities, p. 139» 


Anecdote of Dr. Lazarus Seaman. Dr. Cudworth's intellectual sys- 
tem. Who was his daughter, p. 140, Character of Dr. Whichcot. 
Archbishop Laud's friendship to Mr. Palmer, p. 141, Character of 
Dr. Anthony Tuckney. 


Page 155, The name, Puritan, lost in other distinctions, p. 164, 
Bishop Hall's complaint of being restrained in his power of ordination, 
and Dr. Grey's conclusion from it. p. 169, The Westminster assem- 
bly set aside dipping, and declare sprinkling sufficient in the adminis- 
tration of baptism, p. 175, Mr. Baxter's character of the baptists. 
p. 177, A reflection on recantations. Mr. Clarkson's case. p. 179, 
The elector Palatine's views. On his pension, p. 180, High repute 
of the covenant, p. 182, Observation of Christmas appointed. 


Page 1S9, Dr. Grey's vindication of archbishop Laud's speech, p. 
197, A charge against Mr. Neal. p. 207, Archbishop Laud's expla- 
nation of a passage from the psalms, used at the consecration of Creed- 
Church, p. 216, Mrs. Macaulay's remark on the ceremonies and 
measures adopted by archbishop Laud. p. 218, Dr. Grey's opinion of 
the authority of the canons, when licensed by the king. p. 220, Mrs. 
Macaulay's reflections on the manner in which the reformation was 
conducted, p. 222, On the connexion between arminianism and des- 
potism, p. 233, Reflections on L;uid's disavowal of popery, p. 240, 
The length and expences of Laud's trial, p. 243, The defect of the 
law in not providing for the punishment of attempting to introduce a 
despotic government, p. 244, The frivolousness of Laud's plea from 
the concurrence of others in his measures, p, 245, Laud's charge against 
Prvnne of instructing witnesses, p. 2i6-7, The conduct of the coun- 
cil against Laud. The character of serjeant Wild, and the charges 
against him examined, p. 248, On Prynne's management of the trial 
of Laud. p. 249, Dr. Grey's remark on the bill of attainder against 
Laud. The severity of the parliament to the archbishop, p. 250, 
Mrs. Macaulay's remarks on his last speech, p. 252, The same on 
his being executed, p. 253, On the archbishop's learning. His mu- 
nificent acts. p. 254, His superstition, and the publication of his Di- 
ary, p 255, Mrs. Macaulay's delineation of his character, p. 256, 
The reception which the king gave to the commissioners, p. 257, Mr. 
Neal vindicated, and the subterfuges of the king. The same, and (he 
proceedings against Mr. Love. p. 260, A quotation from Rapin ex- 
plained, p. 261, Reply to a stricture of bishop Warburton ; and his 
defence of the king. p. 265, The inaccuracy of a reference. Earl of 
Pembroke's judgment on episcopacy and presbyterianism. p. 266, A 
mistake concerning the design of Hooker's ecclesiastical polity, p. 270, 
A reference to Dr. Grey. p. 270-1, Mr. Neal's veracity vindicated. 
The earl of Southampton rides post to the king. The Marquis of 
Montrose's letters, p. 272, The queen's influence over the king. p. 
573-4, On the earl of Glamorgan's commission to the Irish rebels, p. 
375, White's character defended. 




Paeje 276, Remarks on the self-denying ordinance, and (he power 
iven to sir Thomas Fairfax, p. 282-3, One instance of liberality in 
the assembly at Westminster, p. 290, On the insolence of majorities. 
p. 313, Toleration opposed by the presbyterians. p. 319, 20, Dr. Feat- 
ley's spirt in his work against the baptists, and his disputation with 
his fellow -prisoner, Mr. Deune. p. 322, An instance of the happy 
influence of Dod's sayings. 


Page 329, The agreement the Scots made with the king. p. 326, 
The king's letter to the Irish papists June 11. The articles of the 
treaty with them, their number, and tenor, p. 327, The ninth article. 
The remonstrance of the clergy on these articles, p. 328, The truth 
of Mr. Neal's asserlion,that the king refused to deliver up the Irish 
forts, discussed, p. 329 The intolerance of presbyterianism. p. 336, 
The boldness of a Scotch rniuisler preaching before the king at New- 
castle, p. 337, The abilities displayed by the king in his controversy 
with Henderson, p. 3-16, The same, and Dr. Harris's reflection on the 
subject, p. 347, The cause of Henderson's death, p. 349, Henderson's 
character of Charles I. proved a forgery, p. 350, The importance of 
it, if genuine, p. 353, The humble and earnest solicitations of the com- 
missioners, p 354, Mr. Neal's omission, and Dr. Grey's fears, p. 
355, A reference to Dr. Grey. p. 359, The tranquillity of the king's 
temper, p 360, The question, whether the Scots sold the king, con- 
sidered. From whom the money paid to the Scots was borrowed, p. 
361, The infelicities of the king's situation at Holmby-house. p. 366, 
Some account of Mr. Thomas Edwards, p. 374, Anecdotes concern- 
ing Dr. Twisse and Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs. 


Page 379, The number of copies of the assembly's confession printed, 
p. 37U, The remark of Mr. Robinson on the directory's instructions to 
preachers, p. 379, The plan of Scots presbyterianism. p. 386, The 
intolerant principle of the assembly's catechism, p. 387. One instauce 
of the liberality of the Westminster assembly, in not requiring subscrip- 
tion to their confession, and negativing the motion for subscription to 
the shorter catechism, p. 399, The causes of the secession of the 
members of both houses, p. 401, The Westminster assembly's pe- 
tition for peace, p. 403-4, A remark of bishop Warburton on the in- 
tolerance of presbyterians. The liberality of modern presbyterian es- 
tablishments inimical to liberty, p. 401, A reference to Dr. Grey. p. 
422, A reference to Dr. Grey. 


Page 425, The names of those who drew up a paper of reasons a- 
gainst the covenant, p. 442, Anecdotes of Dr. Morley and a geuerous 
reply of his. p. 449, An anecdote of Dr. Pocock. p. 451, Charitable 
and munificent acts of Dr. Sheldon, p. 452, An omission in Mr. Neal. 
p. 453, Dr. Sanderson's modesty and mode of lending money, p. 454. 
Mr. Greaves, enquiries after antiquities, p. 455, Character of bishop 


Wilkins, his institutions, philosophical chimseras and witty reply t* 
the dutchess of Newcastle, p. 459, Dr. Seth Ward's character, bene- 
factions and endowments, p. 460, Dr. John Wallis's inventions. 


Page 461, The reasons of the execution of Sir Charles Lucas and 
Sir George Lisle. The king's grief for the former. Bishop Burnet's 
vindication of the duke of Hamilton, p. 462, The number of the Scots' 
forces that entered England, July 8, 1648. p. 465, Cromwell's victory, 
and the spirit of Dr. Grey's remarks, p. 479. Bishop Warburton's 
question answered, p. 481, A stricture on bishop Warburton. p. 485, 
A faet stated by the bishop, and Cromwell's reply to the London min- 
isters, p. 484, The ordinance of the parliament against heresy censur- 
ed. Dr. Disney's reflection on the punishment it appointed, p. 486, 
The opposition to it. p. 488, Who were allowed to attend the king 
at Hampton court, p. 489, The attachment of the parliament to pres- 
hyterianism. p. 490, The sum granted to the king in lieu of the court 
of wards. His adherence to the delinquents, p. 501-2, A reference to 
Dr. Grey. p. 505-6, Mr. Neal's reasons for the unsuccessfulness of 
the treaty at Newport defended against Dr. Grey's remarks : and his 
reflection on the king's insincerity and dilatoriness supported, p 511, 
Mr. Neal's character of the officers of the army explained, p. 512, 
Ludlow's state of the question in dispute between the king and the par- 
liament, p. 514, The number of representatives proposed in a paper 
called " The Agreement of the People." The vote of the 5th of De- 
cember reversed, p. 515, The protest of the secluded members, p. 
523, The king tries his fortune by the Sortes Virgilianee. p 524. Tha 
king's insincerity in the treaty at Newport. Some remarkable circum- 
stances, which attended the exeention of the king. p. 525, Bishop 
Warburton's remark on the anniversary sermons of 30th of January. 
p. 526, A concession of bishop Warburton concerning the king's breach- 
es of faith, p. 527, The great sale of the Eikon Basilike, and the ef- 
fects it produced, p. 529, Bishop Warburton's sentiments on its au- 
thenticity, p. 531, Bishop Warburton's description of the operations 
of the army. p. 533, Bishop Warburton's construction of the conduct 
of the presbyterians with respect to the death of the king. p. 535, 
Bishop Warburton's opinion, who had the greatest hand in it. 


Page 547, Republication of bishop Taylor's defence of the baptists, 
p. 553, A letter of Mr. Hanserd Knollys. p. 555, Some account of the 
church in Deadman's-place ; and of its ministers, Mr. Hubbard and 
Mr. Stephen Moore. 


NO period of civil history has undergone a more critical examina- 
tion than the last seven years of king Charles I. which was a scene of 
such confusion and inconsistent management between the king and 
parliament, that it is very difficult to discover the motives of action 
on either side ; the king seems to have been directed by secret springs 
from the queeu and her council of papists, who were for advancing the 
prerogative above the laws, and vesting his majesty with such an ab- 
solute sovereignty as might rival his brother of France, and enable 
him to establish the Roman-catholic religion in England, or some how 
or other blend it with the protestant. This gave rise to the unparal- 
leled severities of the star-chamber and high-commission, which, after 
twelve years triumph over the laws and liberties of the subject, brought 
on a fierce and bloody war, and after the loss of above a hundred thous- 
and lives, ended in the sacrifice of the king himself, and the subver- 
sion of the whole constitution. 

Though all men had a veneration for the person of the king, his 
ministers had rendered themselves justly obnoxious, not only by set- 
ting up a new form of government at home, but by extending their ju- 
risdiction to a neighboring kingdom, under the government of distinct 
laws, and inclined to a form of church discipline very different from 
the English : This raised such a storm in the North, as distressed his 
majesty's administration; exhausted his treasure; drained all his ar- 
bitrary springs of supply ; aud (after an intermission of twelve years) 
reduced him to the necessity of returning to the constitution, and cal- 
ling a parliament ; but when the public grievances came to be opened, 
there appeared such a collection of ill-humors, and so general a dis- 
trust between the king and his two houses, as threatened all the mis- 
chief and desolation that followed. Each party laid the blame on the 
other, and agreed in nothing but in throwing off the odium of the civil 
war from themselves. 

The affairs of the church had a very considerable influence on the 
welfare of the state : The episcopal character was grown into contempt, 
not from any defect of learning in the bishops, but from their close at- 
tachment to the prerogative and their own insatiable thirst of power, 
which they strained to the utmost in their spiritual courts, by reviving 
old and obsolute customs, levying large fines on the people for contempt 
of their canons, and prosecuting good men and zealous protestants, for 
rites and ceremonies tending to superstition, and not warranted by the 
laws of the land. The king supported them to the utmost ; but was 
obliged, after some time, to give vr&x,jir$t x to an act for abolishing the 

16 fkETtXCi,. 

high commission, hy a clause in which the power of the bishops, spirit- 
ual courts was in a manner destroyed ; and at last to an act depriving 
them of their seats in parliament. If at this time any methods could 
have been thought of, to restore a mutual confidence between the king 
and his two houses, the remaining differences in the church might eas- 
ily have been compromised; but the spirits of men were heated, and 
as the flames of the civil war grew fiercer, and spread wider, the 
wounds of the church were enlarged, till the distress of the parlia- 
ment's affairs obliging them to call in the Scots, with their solemn 
league and covenant, they became incurable. 

When the king had lost his cause in the field, he put himself at the 
head of his divines, and drew his learned pen in defence of his prerog- 
ative, and the church of England; but his arguments were no more 
successful thau his sword- I have brought the debates between the 
Jcin"' and Mr. Henderson, and between the divines of both sides at the 
treaties of Uxbridg? and Newport upon the head of episcopacy, into as 
narrow a compass as possible; my chief design being to trace the pro- 
ceedings of the parliament and their assembly at Westminster, which 
(whether justifiable or not) ought to be placed in open view, though 
none of the historians of those times have ventured to do it. 

The Westminster assembly was the parliament's grand council in 
matters of religion, and made a very considerable figure both at home 
and abroad through the course of the civil war, till they disputed the 
power of the keys with their superiors, and split upon the rocks of di- 
vine right and covenant uniformity. The records of this venerable as- 
sembly were lost in the fire of London ; but I have given a large and 
just account of their proceedings, from a manuscript of one of their 
members, and some other papers that have fallen into my hands, and 
have entered as far into their debates with the erastians, independants, 
and others, as was consistent with the life and spirit of the history. 

Whatever views the Scots might have from the beginning of the 
.war, the parliament would certainly have agreed with the king upon 
tiie foot of a limited episcopacy, till the calling the assembly of divines, 
after which the solemn league and covenant became the standard of all 
their treaties, and was designed to introduce the presbyterian govern- 
ment in its full extent, as the established religion of both kingdoms. 
This tied up the parliament's hands, from yielding in time to the 
king's most reasonable concessions at Newport, and rendered an ac- 
commodation impracticable; 1 have therefore transcribed the covenant 
at large, with the reasons for and against it. Whether such obliga- 
tions upon the consciences of men are justifiable from the necessity of 
affairs, or binding in all events and revolutions of government, I shall 
not determine; but the imposing them upon others was certainly a ve- 
ry great hardship. 

The remarkable trial of archbishop Land, in which the antiquity 
and use of the several innovations complained of by the puritans, are 
stated and argued, has never been published entire to the world. 


The archbishop left in his diary a summary of his answer to the charge 
of the commons, and Mr. Prynne in his Canterbury's doom, has pub- 
lished the first part of his grace's trial, relating principally to points 
of religion: but all is imperfect and unmethodical. I have therefore 
compared both accounts together, and supplied the defeats of one with 
the other; the whole is brought into a narrow compass, and thrown 
into such a method, as will give the reader a clear and distinct view 
of the equity of the charge, and how far the archbishop deserved the 
usage he met with. 

I have drawn out abstracts of the several ordinances relating to the 
rise and progress of presbytery, and traced ;he proceedings of .the com* 
mittee for plundered and scandalous ministers, as far as was* l 
ry to my general design, without descending too far into particulars, or 
attempting to justify the whole of their conduct: and though I am of 
opinion that the number of clergy who suffered purely on the account 
of religion, was not very considerable, it is certain that many able and 
learned divines, who were content to live quietly, ami mind the duly 
of their places, had very hard measure from t lie violence of parlies, 
and deserve the compassionate regards of posterity ; some being dis- 
charged their livings for refusing the covenant, and others plundered 
of every thing the unruly soldiers could lay their hands upon, for not 
•omplying with the change of the times. 

In the latter end of the reign of Queen Ann, Dr. Walker of Exeter 
published an attempt to recover the number and sufferings of the clergy 
of the church of England; but with notorious partiality, and in lan- 
guage not fit for the lips of a clergyman, a scholar, or a christian) 
every page or paragraph, almost, labors with the cry of rebellion, trea- 
son, parricide, faction, stupid ignorance, hypocrisy, cant, and down- 
right knavery and ivickedness on one side ; and loyalty, learning, prim- 
itive sanctity, and the glorious spirit of martyrdom, on the other. 
One must conclude from the doctor, that there was hardly a yvise or 
honest patriot with the parliament, nor a weak or dishonest gentleman 
with the king. His preface* is one of the most furious invectives 
against the seven most glorious years of Queen Ann that was ever* 
published; it blackens the memory of the late King William III. to 
whom he applies that passage of scripture, I gave them a king in my 
answer, and took him away in my wrath ; it arraigns the great duke of 
Marlborough, the glory of the English nation, and both houses of 
parliament, as in a confederacy to destroy the church of England, and 
dethrone the queen. •• Rebellion, says the doctor, was esteemed the 
£ most necessary requisite to qualify any one for being intrusted with 

* the government, and disobedience the principal recommendation for 

* her majesty's service. Those were thought the most peoper per- 

' sons to guard the throne, who, on the first dislike, were every whit 
' as ready to guard the scaffold ; yea, her majesty was in effect told all 
' this to her face, in the greatest assembly of the nation. And to say 

•Preface, p. 8, 9, 10, II. 

Vol. in. 3 

18 fREFACK. 

4 all that can be said of this matter, all the principles of 16'4l, an& 
'even those of 1618, have been plainly and openly revived." 

Thus has this obscure clergyman dared to affront the great author, 
under Gon, ofwill our present blessings ; and to stigmatize, the Marl- 
boroughs, the Godolphins, the Stanhopes, the Sunderlands, the 
Cowpers and others, the most renowned heroes and statesmen of 
the age. 

It must be confessed, that the tumults and riotous assemblies of the 1 
lower sort of people, are insufferable in a well-regulated government; 
and without all question, some of the leading members of the long 
parliament made an ill use of the populace, as tools to gupport their 
secret designs ; but how easy were it to turn all this part of the doc-- 
tor's artillery against himself and his friends ; for Prynne, Burton, and 
Bastwick, in their return from their several prisons, were not attended 
with such a numerous cavalcade, as waited upon the late Dr. Saehe- 
verel,in his triumphant progress through the western counties of Eng- 
land and Wales ; nor did they give themselves up to the same excess 
of licentiousness and rage. If the mob of 1641 insulted the bishops^ 
and awed the parliament, so did the doctor's retinue in 1710 ; nay, their 
sseal outwent their predecessors, when they pulled down the meeting- 
houses of protestant dissenters, and burnt the materials in the open 
streets, in maintenance of the doctrines of passive obedience and non- 
resistance, which their pious confessor had been preaching up ; " a bold 
« insolent man, (says bishop Burnet) with a very small measure of re- 
' ligion, virtue, learning, or good sense :" but to such extremes do men's 
passions carry them, when they write to serve a cause! I have had 
occasion to make some use of Dr. Walker's confused heap of materials, 
but have endeavored carefully to avoid his spirit and language. 

No man has declaimed so bitterly against the proceedings of parlia- 
ment upon all occasions, as this clergyman; nor complained more 
loudly of the unspeakable damage the liberal arts and sciences sustain- 
ed, by their purging the two universities; the new heads and fellows 
of Oxford are called, •' a colony of presbyterian and independent novi- 
4 ces from Cambridge; a tribe of ignorant enthusiasts and schismatics ; 
4 an illiterate rabble swept from the plough-tail, from shops and gram- 
4 mar-schools, &c."* The university of Cambridge is reported by the 
same author, "to be reduced to a mere muster by the knipper-dolings 
4 of the age, who broke the heart-strings of learning and learned men, 
4 who thrust out one of the eyes of the kingdom, and made eloquence 
4 dumb ; philosophy, sottish ; widowed the arts ; drove away the mu- 
4 ses from their ancient habitation, and plucked the reverend and ortho- 
' dox professors out of their chairs. — They turned religion into rebellion* 
4 changed the apostolical chair into a desk for blasphemy. — They took 
4 the garland from off the head of learning, and placed it ou the dull 
I brows of ignorance. — And having unhived a numerous swarm of la- 
' boring bees, they placed in their room swarms of senseless drones. — "t 
Such is the language of our historian, transcribed from Dr.Burwkk! 

• Walker's Iotroduet. p. 139, 140. ,t Ibid. p. lis. Querela Cant. 


\ have carefully looked into this affair, and collected the characters of 
4rhe old and new professors from the most approved writers, that the 
disinterested reader may judge, how far religion and learning suffered 
by the exchange. 

The close of this volume, which relates the disputes between the 
parliament and army ; the ill success of his majesty's arms and treaties ; 
the seizure of his royal person a second time by the army ; his trial 
before a pretended high court of justice, and his unparalleled execution 
before the gates of his royal palace by the military power, is a most 
melancholy and affecting scene ; in which, next to the all disposing pro- 
vidence of God, one cannot but remark the king's inflexible temper, 
together with the discretion of his friends, especially his divines at a 
time when his crown was lost by the fortune of war and his very life 
at the mercy of his enemies ; nor is the unwarrantable stiffness of the 
parliament less unaccountable, when they saw the victorious army 
drawing towards London, flushed with the defeat of the Scots and 
HagMuh loyalists, and determined to set aside that very uniformity they 
•were contending for. If his majesty had yielded at first what he did 
at last, with an appearance of sincerity ; or, if the two houses had 
complied with his concessions while Cromwell was in Scotland ; or if 
the army had been made easy by a general indulgenoe and toleration, 
with the distribution of some honors and bounty-money among the offi- 
cers, the crown and constitution might have been saved ; " but so ma- 

* ny miraculous circumstances contributed to his majesty's ruin, (says 

* lord Clarendon*) that men mi^ht well think that heaven and earth 
6 conspired it." 

The objections to the first volume of the History of the Puritans, by 
the author of The Vindication of the government, doctrine and worship 
of the Church of England, obliged me to review the principal facts in 
a small pamphlet, wherein I have endeavored to discharge myself as 
an historian, without undertaking the defence of their several princi- 
ples, or making myself an advocate for the whole of their conduct. I 
took the liberty to point out the mistakes of our first reformers, as I 
passed along, but with no design to blacken their memories; for, with 
all their foibles, they were giorious instruments in the hand of Provi- 
dence, to deliver this nation from anti-christian bondage ; but they were 
free to confess, the work was left imperfect ; that they had gone as 
far as the times would admit, and hoped their successors would bring 
the reformation to a greater perfection. 

But the state of the controversy was entirely changed in the time of 
the civil wars ; for after the coming in of the Scots, the puritans did not 
fight for a reformation of the hierarchy, nor for the generous principles 
of religious liberty to all peaceable subjects ; but for the same spiritual 
power the bishops had exercised ; for when they had got rid of the op- 
pression of the spiritual courts, under which they had groaned almost 
fourscore years,they were for setting up a number of presbyter ian consis- 
tories in all the parishes of England, equally burthensorae and oppress 

* V,1. y, p, 253, 


sive. Unhappy extreme ! That wise and good men should net dissev- 
er the beautiful consistency of truth and liberty ! Dr. Barrow and oth- 
ers have observed* that in (he first and purest ages of Christianity, the 
church had no coercive power, and apprehend that it may still subsist 
very well without it, 

The body of protestant dissenters of the present age have a just ab- 
horrence oft he persecuting spirit of their predecessors* and are content 
that their actions be set in a fair light, as a warning to posterity. 
They have no less a dread of returning into the hands of spiritual 
courts* founded on the bottomless deep of the canon law* and see no 
reason why they should not be equally exposed, till they are put upon 
a better foot; though it is an unpardonable crime, in the opinion of 
some churchmen, to take notice, even in the most respectful manner, 
of .he least blemish in our present establishment, which, how valuable 
softer in itself, is allowed by all to be capable of amendments. Some 
lit I it* essays of this kind have fired the zeal of the bishop of Litchfield 
and Coventry.* who, in a late charge to the clergy of his diocese, is 
pleased to lament over the times in the following mournful language : 
" At so critical a juncture, (says his lordship) when common Christian- 
ity is treated with an avowed contempt and open profaneness ; when 
•an undisguised immorality prevails so very generally; when there is 
' scar e honesty enough to save the nation from ruin; when, with re- 
' gard to the established church in particular, the royal supremacy is 
' professedly exposed, as inconsistent with the rights of conscience, 
' even that supremacy, w hich was the ground-work of the reform a- 

* tion among us from popery, which was acknowledged, and sworn to 
4 by the old puritans, though now, inconsistently enough, disowned and 

* condemned in the new history, and vindication of them and their prin- 
ciples : — When so destructive an attempt has been made on the legal 
' maintenance of the clergy, by the late tithe bill* and consequently, on 
1 the fate, of the christian religion among us : — When an attempt has been 
6 lately made on the important outworks of our ecclesiastical eslablish- 
•ment, the corporation and test acts* with the greatest insolences to- 
' wards the church, and most undutiftil menaces to the civil govern- 
t nient : — When the episcopal authority has been well nigh undermined, 
'under pretewe of reforming the ecclesiastical courts; ;»nd if that or- 
' der had been rendered useless, as it must have been, when it had lost 
'its authority* then the revenues would have been soon thought useless; 

* and hi the result of things, the order itself might have been consider- 
< ed. as superfluous, and perhaps in due time thought. fit to be abolishr 
i e( ] ;_- When churches have been put into such a method of repair, as 
'would end in their ruin in a little time; and when the correction of 
'the abuses of the matrimonial licensee has been labored in so absurd 
'a manner, as to permit the marriage of minors without consent of /heir 
'parents or guardians : — When these melancholy circumstances have 
' so lately concurred, it is natural to infer, our zeal for the church should 
'he in proportion to its danger; and if these are not proper occasions 
'for zeal for our ecclesiastical constitution, it is not easy to assign cir- 
{ cumstance that may justly demand it."t How fine and subtile are these 

* 9r. Smallbrook. 1" Charge, p. 41, 42. 44. 


spe«ulations ! I have not observed any insolences towards the chureh, or 
uudutiful menaces to the civil govertiment,in the late writings of the dis- 
senters; but if one pin of the hierarchy be removed by the wisdom oftha 
legislature, the whole building is supposed to fall, and all religion along 
with it. His lordship therefore advises his clergy to study the bishopt of 
London's codex, in order to defend it ; and it can do them no real preju- 
dice to examine at the same time, the principles of law and equity, on 
which it is founded | As to the dissenters, hi* lordship adds, " however 

* it will become us of the clergy, in point of prudence, not to give any 
'just suspicions of our disgust to the legal toleration of them, while 

* they keep within dne bouuds; that is. while they do not break in upon 
'the privileges and rights of the established church, by declaring 
'against all legal establishments, or the legal establishment of the 
'church of England in particular, or by not being quiet with the pres- 
' enl limits of their toleration, or by affecting posts of authority, and 
'thereby breaking down the fences of the church, and placing them- 
' selves on a level with it."* But whether this would remain a point 
of prudence with his lordship, if the boundaries of his episcopal power 
were enlarged, is not very difficult to determine. 

The dissenters have no envy nor ill-will to the churches* of England 
or Scotland, established by law, (attended with a toleration of all peace- 
able dissenters,) any further than they encroach on the natural or so- 
cial rights of mankind ; nor are they so weak as not to distinguish be- 
tween high dignities, great authority, and large revenues secured by 
law, and a poor maintenance arising from the voluntary contributions 
of the people, that is, between an establishment and a toleration. 

But I am to attend to the charge of inconsistency brought against 
myself: I had observed, upon the reign of the bloody Queen Jilary,§ 
that an absolute supremacy over the consciences of men, lodged with a 
single person, might as well be prejud' cial as serviceable to true religion : 
And in the beginning of the reign of Queen EUzabeth.\\ that the pow- 
ers then claimed by the kings and queens of England, were in a manner 
the same with those claimed by the popes in the times preceding the refor- 
mation, e ccept the administration of the spiritual offices of the church. 
This was that supiiemast. which was the ground-work of the refor- 
mation ; of which I say, let the reader judge how far these high pow- 
ers are agreeahle or consistent with the natural rights of mankind. 
His lordship calls this a professed exposing the royal supremacy, and 
the rather, because " that supremacy was acknow ledged, and sworn 
'to by the old puritans themselves, though now inconsistently enough 
< disowned and condemned by their historian." But surely his lordship 
should have informed his clergy at the same time, in what sense the 
puritans took the oath, when it was before his eyes, in the same page ; 
and my words are these: "The whole body of the papists refused the 
' oath of supremacy, as inconsistent with their allegiance to the pope ; 
' but the puritans took it under all these disadvantages, with the queen's 

t Dr. Gibson. | See a late excellent Examination of the Codex Juris Eccl. Angl. 

* Charge, p. 4P. j Hist. Pur. vol. i. p. SS. I Ibid. p. 85, 86. 

-"33 PREFACE". 

' explication in her injunctions, that is, that no more was intended, than 
' that her majesty, under Gud, had the sovereignty and rule over all 
« persons born in her realm, either ecclesiastical or temporal, so as no 
* foreign power had, or ought to have any superiority over them."* 
Where is the inconsistency of this conduct of the old puritans, or their 
new historian ? Or, where is the dissenter iu England, who is not 
ready to swear to it with this explication ? 

But his lordship is pleased to reason upon this head, and in order 
to support that absolute supremacy, which was the ground-work of the 
reformation, affirms, that " all christian kings and emperors have the 
4 same power of reforming religion, and are under the same obligations, 
'as the Jewish kings were in cases of the like nature"\ without pro* 
ducing the least evidence or proof; whereas his lordship knows, that 
the government of the Jews was a theocracy ; that God himself wag 
their king, and the laws of that nation strictly and properly the laws 
of God, who is Lord of conscience, and may annex what sanctions ha 
pleases; their judges and kings were chosen and appointed by God, 
not to make a new codex or book of laws, either for church or state, 
but to keep the people to the strict observation of those laws andstat* 
utes that he himself had given them by the band of Moses. 

His lordship is pleased to ask, H if any high pretender to spiritual 
' liberty, and the rights of conscience, should enquire what authority the 
i respective Jewish and Christian powers had to interpose in matters that 
' regarded the rights of conscience ; since in fact their assumed suprem- 

< acy was an usurpation of those natural rights ?"§ 1 answer, that 

with regard to the Jews, it was no usurpation, for the reasons before 
mentioned ; and when his lordship shall prove a transfer of the same 
power to all christian princes, the controversy will be brought to a short 
issue. " — But will it not be replied (says the bishop) that those kings 
4 and emperors were intrusted by God with the care of the ecclesiastical, 
1 as well as civil constitution ? — "|| If, by the care of the constitution, be 
meant no more than the preserving their subjects in the enjoyment of 
their unalienable rights, nobody denies it; but if, under this pretence, 
they assume a sovereign and arbitrary power of modelling the eccle- 
siastical constitution, according to their pleasure, and of enforcing their 
subjects obedience by canons and penal laws, I should doubt whether 
they are obliged to comply, even in things not absolutely sinful in them- 
selves, because it may derogate from the kingly office of Christ, who is 
sole king and lawgiver in his own kiugdom, and has not delegated this 
branch of his authority to any vicar general upon earth. But I readily 
agree with his lordship, that if any high pretender to the rights of con- 
science, should have asked the first christian emperors, by what 
authority they took on themselves the alteration or change of religion ? 
they would have thought the question unreasonable, and worthy of 
censure ; they would have affirmed their own sovereignty, and have 
taught the bold enquirers, as Gideon did the men of Succoth, with bri- 
ars and thorns of the wilderness. 

•Hut. Pnr. p. 8S. See Strype's Anfc, ?•!. i. p. 159. + Charge, p. 20. 

♦ Qufge, p. 81. |i Ifcjd. p. J2. 

JREFACfc. 23 

The bishop goes on ; * Let us now transfer this power ofjeivish kings 
*and Christian emperors to our own kings, and the case will admit of 
*an easy decision. — "t If indeed au absolute supremacy in matters of 
religion, be the natural and unalienable right of every christian king 
and emperor, the dispute is at an end ; but if it depend upon a trans- 
fer, we must beg pardon, if we desire his lordshop to produce his com- 
mission for transferring the same powers, that Almighty God gave the 
Jewish kings of his own appoiutment, to the first Christian emperors, 
who were neither chosen by God, nor the people, nor the senate of 
Rome, but usurped the supreme authority, by the assistance of the mil- 
itary arm, and were some of them the greatest tyrants and scourges of 

His lordship adds, " Have not the English kings, since the reforma- 
f tion, actually been invested with the same suprema«t, as the Jewish 
* kings and Christian emperors were ?"t I answer, such a supremacy is* 
in my judgment, inconsistent with our present constitution, and the 
laws in being. The supremacy claimed by King Henry VIII. and his 
successors, at the reformation, was found by experience too excessive, 
and therefore abridged in the reigns of King Charles I. and King Wil- 
liam III. No one doubts but the kings of England are obliged to pro- 
tect religion, and defend the establishment, as long as the legislature 
think fit to continue it ; but as they may not suspend or change it by 
their sovereign pleasure, so neither may they publish edicts of their 
own to enforce it, as was the case of the first christian emperors: The 
reader will excuse this digression, as necessary to support a principal 
fact of my history. . 

I am sufficiently aware of the delicacy of the affairs treated of iu. 
this volume, and of the tenderness of the ground I go over ; and though 
I have been very careful of my temper and language, and have endeav- 
ored to look into the mysterious conduct of the several parties, with 
all the indifference of a spectator, I find it very difficult to form an ex- 
aet judgment of the most important events, or to speak freely without 
offence ; therefore if any passionate or angry writer should appear 
against this, or any of the former volumes, I humbly request the read- 
er to pay no regard to personal reflections, or to insinuations of any 
ill designs against the established religion, or the public peace ; which 
are entirely groundless. I am as far from vindicating the spirit and 
conduct of the warmer puritans, as of the governing prelates of those 
times ; there was hard measure on both sides, though, if we separate 
politics from principles of pure religion, the balance will be very much 
in favor of the puritans. In historical debates, nothing is to be receiv- 
ed upon trust, but facts are to be examined, and a judgment formed up- 
on the authority by which those facts are supported ; by this method 
we shall arrive at truth; and if it shall appear, that in the course of 
this long history, there are any considerable mistakes, the world may 
be assured, I will take the first opportunity to retract or amend them; 
having no private or party views, no prospect of preferment, or other 

+ CbSTje. p. 27. 


reward for my labors, than the satisfaction of doing some service to 
truth, and to the religious and civil liberties of mankind ; and yet, af- 
ter all, I must bespeak the indulgence and candor of my readers, which 
those* who are sensible of the labor and toil of collecting so many ma- 
terials, and ranging them in their proper order, will readily allow to 
one, who sincerely wishes the prosperity and welfare of all good men, 
and that the violence and outrage of these unhappy times, which brought 
such confusion and misery both on king and people, may never be im- 
itated by the present, or any future age. 


London, Nov. 4, 1730. 


FROM the two volumes of this edition of Mr. Weal's History of the 
Puritans, which are already before the public, it sufficiently appears 
in what manner it hath been conducted, so as to preclude any further 
explanation of the Editor's design and method. This volume will 
shew, that he has continued to examine the strictures of Bishop War- 
burton and Dr. Grey. He is not conscious of having been backward to 
meet the severest auimadversions of those writers. The reader will 
judge with what care he has investigated, and with what success he has 
attempted to obviate, their objections. 

The chief thing which the Editor has now to ohserve is, that in this 
volume lie has pursued the History of some Sectaries, who sprang up 
among the Puritans, more fully than in the preceding ones ; particularly 
that of the English Baptists ; whose history has been written by Mr. 
Crosby, in four volumes octavo ; a performance which is scarce ; and, 
though not judiciously composed, it contains materials which, it is 
hoped, will form an acceptable addition to Mr. Neat's work, and ren- 
der this edition of it more complete and valuable ; as it will contain 
an abstract and the substance of the former to the period of time with 
which the latter concludes. 

Taunton, llf/t February, ir9 ; 7. 

Vol. III. 






'From the Battle of Edge-Hill to the Calling the Assem- 
bly of Divines at Westminster. 

JL HE king Laving recruited his army at Oxford, after the 
battle of Edge-Hill, by the assistance of the university, 
who now gave his majesty all their money, as they had 
before done their plate, resolved to pursue his march to 
London, in order to break up the parliament, and surprise 
the city ; while the earl of Essex, imagining the campaign 
was ended, lay quiet about Warwick, till being informed of 
the king's designs, he posted to London, and ordered his 
forces to follow with all expedition. The earl arrived Nov. 
7, 164£, and was honorably received by both houses of 
parliament, who presented him with a gratuity of five thou- 
sand pounds, and to strengthen his army passed an ordi- 
nance, that such apprentices as would list in their service 
should be entitled to a freedom of the city at the expiration 
of their apprenticeship, equally with those who continued 
with their masters. In the beginning of November, the 
king took possession of Reading without the least resist- 
ance, the parliament garrison having abandoned it, which 
alarmed both houses, and made them send an express to 
desire a safe conduct for a committee of lords and commons, 


to attend his majesty with a petition foi* peace ;* the com- 
mittee waited on his majesty at Colnbrook, fifteen miles 
from London, and having received a favorable answer, § re- 
ported it to the two houses, who immediately gave orders 
to forbear all acts of hostility, and sent a messenger to the 
king, to desire the like forbearance on his part ; but the 
committee had no sooner left Colnbrook, than his majesty, 
taking the advantage of a thick mist, advanced to Brent- 
ford about seven miles from London, f which he attacked 
with his whole army, Nov. 13, and after a fierce and bloody 
rencounter with the parliament garrison, wherein consid- 
erable numbers were driven into the Thames and slain, he 
got possession of the town, and took a great many prison- 
ers. The consternation of the citizens on this occasion 
was inexpressible, imagining the king would be the next 

* Rushworth, vol. v. p. 58. 
§ " He seemed to receive the petition with great willingness ; and 
6 called God to witness, in many protestations, that he was tenderly 
i compassionate of his bleeding people, and more disirotis of nothing 
' than a speedy peace." May's Parliamentary History, b. iii. p. 33 — ; 
The immediate subsequent conduct of the king was, certainly, not con- 
sistent with such professions : yet Dr. Grey is displeased with Mr. 
Neal, for insinuating that it was a breach of promise, and accuses him 
of not giving the fairest aceount of this action, which he says, the 
king sufficiently justified. But, when the doctor passed this censure, 
it seems that he had not looked forward to the next paragraph, where 
the motives of the king's behavior are stated. The committee, deput- 
ed by the parliament to Colnbrook, consisted of the earls of Northum- 
berland and Pembroke, lord Wainman, Mr. Pierpont, sir John Ipsley, 
and sir John Evelyn : when the king refused to admit the last gentle- 
man, because he had named him a traitor the day before, the parlia- 
ment, though extremely displeased with the exception, so as to vote it 
a breach of privilege, yet, from their ardent desire of accommodalion, 
permitted the petition to be presented without sir John Evelyn. May, 
b. iii. p. 32. — This yielding conduct leaves the king more inexcusable, 
as it serves to shew the sincerity of the parliament in their overtures ; 
and lord Clarendon says, that it was believed by many, that had the 
king retired to Reading, and waited there for the answer of the par- 
liament, they would have immediately withdrawn their garrison from 
Windsor, and delivered that castle to his majesty for his accommodation 
to have carried on the treaty he had proposed. History, vol. ii. p.7'3. 
-—The motives, on which the king acted, in the action at Brentford, 
which Mr.Neal has compressed into one paragraph, Dr.Grey, by large 
quotations on different authorities, has extended through four pagesj 
which affords a parade of confuting Mr. Neal. Ed. 

t Whitlocke, p. 62. 


morning at their gates ; upon which the lord-mayor order- 
ed the trained bauds immediately to join the earl of Essex's 
forces, which were just arrived at Turnham-Grreen, under 
the commaud of major-general Skipjion ; and there being 
no further thoughts of peace, every one spirited up his 
neighbor, and all resolved as one man to live aud die to- 
gether. Major Skijjjion went from regiment to regiment, 
and encouraged his troops with such soldier like speeches 
as these ; Come, my hoys/ my brave boys ! 1 will run the 
same hazards with you ; remember the cause is for God 
and the defence of yourselves, your icives and children. 
Come, my honest brave boys / let us fray heartily, and fight 
heartily, and God will bless us. When they were drawn 
up, they made a body of about twenty-four thousand men 
eager for battle ; but their orders were only to be on the 
defensive, and prevent the king's breaking through to the 
city. The two armies having faced each other all day, his 
majesty retreated in the night to Kingston, aud from thence 
to Reading, where having left a garrison, he returned to 
Oxford about the beginniug of December with his Brent- 
ford prisoners, the chief of whom were condemned to die.jj 
and had been executed for high treason, if the two houses 
had not threatened to make reprisals. £ The parliament, 

|| Rushworth, vol. v. p. 93. 

||The persons named by Rushworth, m iiom Mr. Neal qnotes, were Clif- 
ton Catesby, John Lilburne, and Uobert V ivers. Dr. Grey says, that 
« it does not appear that these three were takeu prisoners at Brentford. *• 
He should have added from this place in Rushworth, to which the re- 
ference is here made. For, in p. S3, Rushworth informs his readers 
with respect to Lilburne in particular, that he owned that he was at 
Breuiford : and by the others being included in the same sentence, it 
is probable, that they were involved in the same charge of acting 
against the king at Brentford. 

\ On the authority of lord Clarendon and Mr. Eachard, Dr. Grey 
charges the chaplains of the parliament army. Dr. Downing and Mr. 
Marshall, with publicly avowing, " that the soldiers lately taken at 
Brentford, and discharged by the king upon their oaths that they would 
never again hear arms against him, were not obliged by that oath." 
and with absolving them from it. The doctor is also displeased with 
Air. Oldmixon for treating this account as a falsehood. But he sup- 
presses the grounds of Mr. Oldmixon's censure of it, which are these ; 
in the first place, that there was no occasion to use these arts, when 
the prisoners amounted to but 150 meu ; which could not be wanted 


to prevent a like surprise of the city for the future, impow- 
cred the lord-mayor to cause lines of circuuivallation to be 
drawn around it, and all the avenues fortified. 

It was not without reason that the two houses complained 
of the king's extraordinary conduct on this occasion, which 
was owing to the violent counsels of prince Rupert and 
lord Digby, animated by some of his majesty's friends in 
the city, who imagined, that if the royal army appeared in 
the neighborhood of London, the parliament would accept 
of his majesty's pardon and break up ; or else the confu- 
sions would be so great, that he might enter and carry all 
before him ; but the project having failed, his majesty en- 
deavored to excuse it in the best manner he could : he al- 
ledged, that there being no cessation of arms agreed upon, 
he might justly take all advantages against his enemies. 
He insisted further upon his fears of being hemmed in by 
the parliament's forces about Colnbrook, to prevent which, 
it seems, he marched seven miles nearer the city. Lord 
Clarendon says,§> prince Rupert having advanced toHoun- 
elow without order, his majesty at the desire of the prince 
marched forward, to disengage him from the danger of the 
forces quartered in that neighborhood ; which is so very 
improbable, that in the opinion of Mr. Rapin, it is need- 
less to refute it.|| Upon the whole, it is extremely prob- 
able, the king came from Oxford with a design of surpris- 
ing the city of London before the earl of Essex's army 
could arrive ; but having missed his aim, he framed the 
best pretences to persuade the people, that his marching 
to Brentford was only in his own defence. 

Though his majesty took all occasions to make offers of 
peaee to his parliament, in hopes the nation would compel 
them to an agreement, by leaving him in possession of all 
his prerogatives, it is sufficiently evident he had no inten- 
tions to yield any thing to obtain it,* for in his letter to 
duke Hamilton, dated December 2, 1612, he says, " He 

when the city of London was pouring out recruits : — and then priest- 
ly absolution was not the practice, nor the power of it the claim, of 
puritan divines. Rushworth, vol. v. p. 50. Oldinixyn's History of 
the Stuarts, p. 214. Ed. 

§ History, p. 24. || Rapin, vol. ii. p. 465, folio. 

* Without controverting Mr. Neal's authority, Dr.Grey calls this a 
hold assertion, and appeals to various messages for an accommodation., 


< had set up liis rest upon the justice of his cause, being 

* resolved that no extremity or misfortune should make him 

* yield, for (says his majesty) I will be either a glorious 

* king or a patient martyr ; and as yet not being the first, 
f nor at this present apprehending the other, I think it no 

< unfit time to express this my resolution to you."* The 
justice of the cause upon which his majesty had set up his 
rest, was his declaration and promise to govern for the fu- 
ture according to the laws of the land ; but the point was, 
to know whether this might be relied upon. The two 
houses admitted the laws of the land to be the rule of gov- 
ernment,! and that the executive power in time of peace 
was with the king ;J but his majesty had so often dispens- 
ed with the laws by the advice of a corrupt ministry, after 
repeated assurances to the contrary thereof, that they durst 
not confide in his royal word, and insisted upon some ad- 
ditional security for themselves, and for the constitution. |J 

which the king sent to the parliament. But of What avail, to prove a 
yielding and accommodating temper, are speeches without actions ; or 
softening overtures, unless they be followed up by mild and pacific mea- 
sures, adopted with sincerity? and adhered to with firmness ? Did 
Charles I. act with this consistency ? Let them who are acquainted with 
the history of his reign answer the question. Even lord Clarendon 
owns his belief, that in matters of great moment, an opinion that the 
violence and force used in procuring bills rendered them absolutely 
void, influenced the king to confirm them. History, vol. i. p. 430. — > 
What confidence could be placed in the profession and sincerity of a 
man who could be displeased with the earl of Northumberland, because 
he would not perjure himself for lord lieutenant Strafford ? " Sidney's 
State Papers" quoted by Dr. Harris, '• Life of Charles I." p. 79. who 
has fully stated the evidence of Charles's dissimulation and want of 
faith. See also " An Essay towards a true idea of the character and 
« reign of Charles I." p. 93, &c. Ed. 

*Duke of Hamilton's Memoirs, b. iv. p. 203. f Rapin, vol. ii. p. 466, 

| " Our laws have no where (that I know of) distinguished," says 
Dr. Grey, " between times of peace or war, with regard to the king's 
executive power*" This is true ; but it was the iufelicity of the times, 
of which Mr. Neal writes, that there arose new questions out of the 
present emergency for which the standing laws had made no provi- 
sion ; and difficulties to which they did not apply. Ed. 

|| "Mr Neal," says Dr. Grey, " has not produced one single proof 
'in support of this assertion, audi challenge him to instance in partic- 
< ulars." This may appear a bold challenge from a writer, who pro- 
fessed to be conversant in the historv of those times. But the Doctor 


Oil the olhcr hand, his majesty averred the constitution 
was in no danger iroui him. but from themselves, who 
were acting every day in defiance of it. To which it was 
answered, that it was impossible the laws should have 
their due course in time of war as in the height of peace, 
because this must effectually tie up their hands. Neither 
party by law could raise money upon the subject, without 
each other's consent ; the king could not do it without con- 
sent of parliament, nor the parliament without the royal 
assent, and yet both had practised it since the opening of 
the war. To have recourse, therefore, to the laws of a 
well-settled government in times of general confusion, was 
weak and impracticable. Besides, his majesty refused to 
give up any of his late ministers to the justice of parlia- 
ment ; for in his letter to duke Hamilton, he says, that his 
abandoning the earl of Strafford had gone so near him, 
that he urns resolved no consideration should make him do 
the like again. Upon these resolutions, he declined the 
mediation of the Scots commissioners, which gave the sev- 
eral parties engaged against him, a fair opportunity of 
uniting their interests with that nation. 

This was a nice and curious affair ; the friends of the 
parliament, who were agreed in the cause of civil liberty, 
were far from being of one mind in points of church dis- 
cipline ; the major part were for episcopacy, and desired 
no more than to secure the constitution, and reform a few 
exorbitances of the bishops ; some were Erastians, and 
would be content with any form of government the magis- 
trate should appoint ; the real presbyterians, who were for 
an entire change of the hierarchy upon the foot of divine 
right, were as yet but few, and could carry nothing in the 
house ; it was necessary therefore in treating with the 
Scots, who contended earnestly for their kirk government, 
to deliver themselves in such general expressions, that 
each party might interpret them as they were inclined, or 
as should be expedient. This contented the Scots for the 
present, and left the parliament at full liberty, till they saw 

has thrown it out, we will produce an instance of the king's violation 
of his word. He gave his assent to the Petition of Eight, a kind of 
Magna Charta ; which he immediately violated, and continued to do 
for twelve years together. " Essay towards a Trne Idea," &c. p. 94. Ed. 


what terms they could make with the king. Nor could 
the church-men he dissatisfied, hecause they knew if they 
could put a period to the war without the Scots, the two 
houses would not call in their assistance, much less sub- 
mit to a kirk discipline they had no manner of acquaint- 
ance with ; and therefore lord Clarendon was of opinion, § 
that eveu at the treaty of Uxbridge, if the parliament could 
have obtained an act of oblivion for- what was past, and 
good security for the king's governing by law, the affair of 
religion might easily have been compromised ; but it re- 
quired all the prudeuce and sagacity the two houses were 
masters of, to keep so many different interests in points of 
religion, united in one common cause of liberty and the 
constitution, at a time when great numbers of the king's 
friends in the very city of London, were forming conspi- 
racies to restore him without any terms at all. 

The king's affairs had a promising aspect this winter ; 
his forces in the north under the earl of Newcastle were 
superior to those of lord Ferdinando Fairfax. In the 
western and midland counties there were several sieges 
and rencounters with various success, but nothing decisive. 
Divers counties entered into associations for their mutual 
defence on both sides. f The four northern counties, of 
Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Dur- 
ham, associated for the king ;* after which the two houses 
encouraged the like in those that owned their authority, 
and appointed generals to command tiieir troops ; the chief 
of which was the eastern association of Essex, Cambridge- 
shire, the isle of Ely, Hertford, Norfolk, Suffolk, and the 
city of Norwich, whose militia were trained, and ready to 
march where necessity should require within their several 
limits. In some parts of England the inhabitants resolve 

§Dr. Grey asks, " where does lord Clarendon discover this opinion? 
' As he" i. e. Mr. Neal, "is faulty even when he quotes his authori- 
' ties. I am unwilling to take his word, when he makes no reference at 
' all." What will the reader think of the candor of this insinuation, 
when he is told, that the passages to which Mr. Neal refers are to be 
found in p. 581 and 594 of the second volume of lord Clarendon's His- 
tory j and that they are expressly quoted, and the references are point- 
ed out, in Mr. Neal's account of the treaty at Uxbridge ? Ed. 

t Rushworth, vol. v. p. 66. * Ibid. p. 94. 

Vol. III. 5 

drh THE HISTORY (2.HAP. 4. 

to stand neuter, and not be concerned on either side ; but 
the parliament condemned and disannulled all such agree- 

As the two houses depended upon the assistance of the 
Scots, his majesty had expectations of foreign aids from the 
queen, who had endeavored, by the influence of her son- 
in-law the prince of Orange, to engage the states of Hol- 
land in the king's interest, but they wisely declared for a 
neutrality ; however, they connived at her private negoci- 
ations, and gave her a general passport, by virtue where- 
of she transported a very large quantity of arms and am- 
munition to Burlington-Bay, and conveyed them to the 
king at York. His majesty also, in order to bring over the 
Irish forces under the command of the duke of Ormond, 
consented to a truce with the Irish rebels, [signed Sept, 15, 
1613,] in which he allowed the catholics to remain in pos- 
session of what they had conquered since the rebellion, to 
the great grief of the protestants, who by this means were 
legally dispossessed of their estates : A most unpopular ac- 
tion, in favor of a people who, by their late massacre, were 
become the very reproach and infamy of human nature !* 
Thus the whole kingdom was marshalled into parties, with 
their drawn swords eager to plunge them into each other's 
breasts. $ 

The parliament's cause having a dark and threatening 
aspect, the lords and commons were not forgetful to im- 

*To wipe off the reflections which this transaction brings on the 
character of Charles I. Dr. Grey is large in producing authorities to 
shew, that the situation of the protestants and of the army, in Ireland, 
through the length of the war, and the failure of supplies from England, 
required a cessation of arms. But, if the reader would see a full in- 
vestigation of this business, he should consult Mrs. Macaulay's Histo- 
ry, vol. iv. 8vo. p. 63 — 90. Two circumstances will afford a clue into 
the policy and design of this truce. To prevent opposition to it in the 
Irish council, the members who were suspected of an attachment to 
the parliament of England, were committed close prisoners to the Cas- 
tle. And the king derived from it, as the price of granting it, 38,Q0t)I. 
to assist him to carry on the war against his protestant subjects in 
England. I will only add. that the main point aimed at by the reb- 
els, and which the king encouraged them to expect, was a new parlia- 
ment ; which, as the kingdom was circumstanced, would have put the 
whole power of government into their hands. 

Mrs. Macaulav, p. 845. Ed, 
§ Rushworth, vol. v. p. 537, 538, 539. 548. 


plore the divine blessing upon their counsels and arms ; for 
which purpose they published an ordinance, Feb. 15, llH2- 
3, exhorting to the duty of repentance, as the only remedy 
to prevent public calamities. It was drawn up by some 
of the puritan divines; and because bishop Ken net has 
branded it with the reproachful characters of cant, broad 
hypocrisy, and a libel against the church, I will transcribe 
the substance of it in their own words. 

"That flourishing kingdoms have been ruined, by im- 
( penitent going on in a course of sin, the sacred story 
e plainly tells us ; and how near to ruiiv our sinful nation 

* now is, the present lamentable face of it does too plainly 
6 shew. And though we should feel the heavy strokes of 
c God's judgments yet seven times more, it is our duty to 

* accept the punishment of our iniquities, and to say, High- 
' teous art thon, O Lord, and just are thy judgments. Yet, 
c because the Lord, who is just, is also merciful, and in his 
' infinite mercy has left the excellent and successful reme- 

* dy of repentance to nations brought near to the gates of 
i destruction and despair, O ! let not England be uegli- 

< gent in the application of it. Humble addresses of a 

* penitent people to a merciful God have prevailed with 
1 him : They have prevailed for Nineveh when sentence 

* seemed to be gone out against her ; and may also pre- 
( vail for England. 

(i It is therefore thought necessary, by the lords and 

< commons in parliament assembled, that all his majesty's 
6 subjects be stirred up to lay hold of this only and unfail- 

* iug remedy of repentance, freely acknowledging, and 
6 heartily bewailing with deepest humiliation, both their 
' own personal sins, and those of the nation ; a confession 
6 of national sins being most agreeable to the national judg- 
i meuts under which the land groans, and most likely to 
' be effectual for the removing of them. 

u Among the national sins are to be reckoned, the con- 
tempt of God- s ordinances, and of holiness itself ; gross 
1 ignorance, and unfruitfulness under the means of grace ; 

< multitudes of oaths, blasphemies, profanation of the sab- 
' bath by sports and games ; luxury, pride, prodigality in 
( apparel, oppression, fraud, violence, &fc. a connivance, 
*■ and, almost a toleration of the idolatry of popery, the mas- 


c sacre of Ireland, and the bloodshed of the martyrs in 
4 queen Mary's time, which, having been a national sin, 

* still calls for a national confession. 

" Now, that all the sin and misery of this polluted and 
i afflicted nation may be bitterly sorrowed for, with such 
' grief of heart, and preparedness for a thorough reforma- 
6 tion, as God may be pleased graciously to accept, it is 
6 ordained that all preachers of (rod's word do earnestly 
6 inculcate these duties on their hearers, that at length we 
6 may obtain a firm and happy peace, both with God and 
6 man ; that glory may dwell in our land ; and the prospe- 
( rity of the gospel, with all the privileges accompanying 

* it, may crown this nation unto all succeeding ages. ?? # 

The reverend prelate abovementioned makes the follow^ 
ing remark upon this ordinance. (i When once the two 
6 houses could descend to have such fulsome penitential 
6 forms put upon them, to adopt, and to obtrude in their 
' name upon the nation, it was a sure sign, that all that 
6 was sound and decent in faith and worship was now to 
'be commanded into enthusiasm and endless schisms." I 
leave the reader to examine, whether he can find any 
ground for so severe a censure. 

Though the king had rejected the Scots mediation, and 
set up his rest upon the justice of his cause, he was pleas- 
ed before the beginning of the campaign to admit of a trea- 
ty with his two houses, for which purpose he sent a safe 
conduct to six lords, and as many commoners, with their 
attendants, to repair to him at Oxford, who, being admit- 
ted to an audience in one of the colleges, produced the fol- 
lowing proposals y which were read by the earl of North- 
umberland : — 

1. " That the armies may be disbanded on both sides, 
6 and the king return to his parliament. 

S. " That delinquents may submit to a legal trial, and 
< judgment of parliament. 

3. " That all papists be disbanded and disarmed. 

4. " That his majesty will please to give his consent t© 
4 the five bills hereafter mentioned. 

* Rush worth, vol. v. p. 141. 


5. " That an oath may be established by act of parlia- 

* merit, wherein the papists shall abjure and renounce the 
( pope's supremacy, transubstantiation, purgatory, worship - 
' plug the consecrated host, crucifixes and images ; and the 

< refusing such oath lawfully tendered shall be a sufficient 

' conviction of recusancy. That your majesty will gra- 

'ciously please to consent to a bill for the education of the 
' children of papists in the protestant religion. — And to an- 
f other bill for the better putting the laws in execution a- 
( gainst them. 

6. " That the earl of Bristol, and lord Herbert, may be 
6 removed from your majesty's counsels, and from the court. 

7. " That the militia may be settled in such manner as 
( shall be agreed upon by both houses. 

8. " That the chief justices and judges of the several 
6 courts of law may hold their places quam diu se bene 
i gesseriht. 

Q. ( f That such persons as have been put out of the com- 

< missions of the peace since Apiil, 1, 164S, may be restor- 
*ed, and that those whom the parliament shall except a- 
' gainst be removed. 

10. " That your majesty will please to pass the bill 
e now presented, to secure the privileges of parliament 

* from the ill consequences of the late proceedings against 
6 the lord Kimbolton and the five members. 

11. (i That an act maybe passed for satisfying such 
6 public debts as the parliament has engaged the public 
6 faith for. 

12. " That your majesty will please to enter into alli- 
6 ances with foreign protestant powers, for the defence of 
6 the protestant religion, and recovering the Palatinate. 

13. " That in the general pardon, all offences commit- 
ted before the 10th of Jan. 1641, which have been, or 
' shall be questioned in the house of commons before the 

i 10th of Jan. 1643, be excepted. That all persons con- 

6 cerned in the Irish rebellion be excepted ; as likewise 
6 William earl of Newcastle, and George lord Digby. 

14. " That such members of parliament as have been 

* turned out of their places since the beginning of this par- 
c liament may be restored, and may have some reparation, 
6 upon the petition of both houses. J? * 

* Rushworth, vol. v. p. 165, 166. 


These things being granted and performed, we shall 
be enabled (say they) to make it our hopeful endeavor, 
that your majesty and your people may enjoy the blessings 

of peace, truth, and justice. 

The bills mentioned in the fourth proposition were these : 
The first is entitled, an act for the suppression of divers 
innovations in churches and chapels in and about the wor- 
ship of God ; and for the due observation of the Lord's 
day, and the better advancement of preaching God's holy 
word in all parts of this kingdom. 

It enacts, " That all altars and rails be taken away out 
6 of churches and chapels before April 18, 1643, and that 
( the communion table be fixed in some convenient place in 
6 the body of the church. That all tapers, candlesticks, 
' basons, crucifixes, crosses, images, pictures of saints, and 

* superstitious inscriptions in churches, or church-yards, 
c be taken away or defaced. 

" That all damages done to the churches, or windows of 
6 churches, by the removal of any of the aforesaid innova- 
tions, be repaired by the proper officers of the parish or 

• chapel. 

" This act is not to extend to any image, picture, or 
6 monument for the dead. 

It enacts further, " That all bowing towards the altar, 
6 or at the name of Jesus, shall be forborne ; and for the 

* better observation of the sabbath, that all dancing, gam- 
' ing, sports and pastimes, shall be laid aside. That ev- 

• ery minister that has cure of souls shall preach, or ex- 

• pound the scriptures, or procure some other able divine 
' to preach to his congregation every Lord's day in the 
i forenoon ; and it shall be lawful for the parishoners to 
-'provide for a sermon in the afternoon, and a lecture on 
4 the week-day, where there is no other lecture, or preach- 

* ing at the same time ; and if any person oppose or hinder 
' them, he shall forfeit forty shillings to the poor, ? 'f 

The second, entitled an act for the utter abolishing, and 
taking away of all archbishops, bishops, their chancellors, 
and commissaries, &c. has been already inserted in the 
former part of this history .% 

+ Husband's Collections, fcl. 119. | Vol. ii. p. 515, 6. 


The third is entitled, an act for punishing scandalous 
clergymen, and others. 

It ordains, " That the lord-chancellor, or lord-keeper, 

* for the time being, shall award commissions under the 
e great seal, to persons of worth and credit in every coun- 
ty of England and Wales; which commissions, or any 

* three or more of them, shall have power to enquire by the 
4 oaths of twelve lawful men of the said county of the fol- 
4 lowing offences in the clergy, viz. not preaching six times 
4 at least in a year, by any ecclesiastical person having 
4 cure of souls under the age of sixty, and not hindered by 
'sickness or imprisonment; of blasphemy, perjury, or 
4 subornation of perjury, fornication, adultery, common 
4 ale-house or tavern hunting, drunkenness, profane swear- 
6 ing or cursing, done or committed within three years past, 
4 by any parson or vicar, or other person having cure of 
f souls, or by any lecturer, curate, stipendiary, schoolmas- 
6 ter, or usher of any school. The commissioners shall 
6 take information by articles in writing ; the party com- 
4 plaining to be bouud in a recognizance of ten pounds to 
4 prosecute at a time appointed : the articles of complaint 
6 being first delivered to the party complained of, twenty 
4 days before the trial, that he may prepare for his defence. 
4 Upon conviction, by the verdict of twelve men, the party 
'complaiued of shall be deprived of his spiritual promo- 

* tions, and be adjudged a disabled person in law, to have 
4 and enjoy the same incumbency or ecclesiastical prorao- 
4 tion. This act to continue till Nov. 1, 1645, and no 
1 longer."* 

The fourth is entitled, an act against the enjoying plu- 
ralities of benefices by spiritual persons, 8£ non-residence. 

It enacts, " That all persons that have two or more be- 
4 nefices with cure of souls, of what yearly value soever 
6 they be, shall resigu them all but one, before April 1, 
' 1643, any licence, toleration, faculty, or dispensation t© 
i the contrary notwithstanding. 

" That if auy spiritual person, having cure of souls, 
' shall be absent from his cure above ten Sundays, or eigh 

* Husband's Collections, fa), 14©. 


i ty days in a year, except in case of sickness, imprison- 
6 ment, or except he be a reader in either university, or be 
6 summoned to convocation ; and be thereof lawfully con- 
'victed in any court of justice, that his living shall be 
i deemed void, aud the patron have power to nominate an- 

< other person, as if the former incumbent was dead." 

The fifth, for calling an assembly of learned and godly 
divines to be consulted with by the 'parliament, for the set- 
tling of the government and liturgy of the church, and for 
the vindication and clearing of the doctrine of the church 
of England from false aspersions and interpretations, will 
be inserted at large, when we come to the sitting of the 

To the forementioned propositions and bills, bis majes- 
ty, after a sharp reply* to the preamble, returned the fol- 
lowing answer : That though many of them were destruc- 
tive of his just power and prerogative, yet because they 
might be mollified and explained upon debates, he is pleas- 
ed to agree that a time and place be appointed for the 
meeting of commissioners on both sides to discuss them, 
and to consider the following proposals of his own. 

1. "That his majesty's revenues, magazines, towns, 

< forts, and ships, may be forthwith restored. 

2. "That whatsoever has been done or published, con- 
trary to the known laws of the land, and his majesty's 

* legal rights, may be renounced and recalled. 

3. (i That whatever illegal power over his majesty's 
6 subjects has been exercised by either, or both houses, or 
' any committee, may be disclaimed, and all persons that 
6 have been imprisoned by virtue thereof be forthwith dis- 

< charged. 

% u That a good bill may be framed, for the better pre- 

* serving the book of common prayer from the scorn and 
i violence of Brownists, Anabaptists, and other sectaries, 

* Dr. Grey disputes the propriety of this epithet, applied to the 
king's reply. The reader may judge of it hy referring to Lord Clar- 
endon's History, vol. ii. p. 133, &c. Ed. 

* Rushworth, vol. v. p. 169. 

C1IA1 1 . 1. OF THE PURITANS. 41 

1 with such clauses for the ease of tender consciences as 
' his majesty has formerly offered. || 

5. " That all persons to* be excepted out of the general 
c pardon shall be tried per 'pares, according to common 
< course of law, and that it be left to that, to acquit or con- 
<demn them. 

6. u That in the mean time there be a cessation of arms, 
'and free trade for all his majesty's subjects for twenty 
• days." 

His majesty desired the last article might be first set- 
tled, by which he proposed not only to gain time, but to 
provide himself with several necessaries from Loudon, 
and to convoy safely to Oxford the ammunition and other 
stores the queen had lately landed at Burlington Bay \\ 
but the parliament were too sensible of his designs to con- 
sent to it. They therefore empowered their commission- 
ers to begin with the first proposition, concerning, restor- 
ing the revenues of the crown, and the delivery of his 
majesty's magazines, towns, forts, and ships, &c. All 
which they were authorized to agree to, on condition the 
persons with whom he would intrust them were such as 
they could confide in. To which the king replied, that the 
oaths of the officers were a sufficient security, and if they 
abused their trust he would leave them to the law. The 
commissioners then went upon the other articles, and spun 
out the treaty till the 12th of April, without concluding 
one single point. The king would be restored to the con- 
dition he was in before the war, upon a bare promise, that 
he would govern for the future according to law ; but the 
parliament were resolved not to trust themselves nor the 
constitution in his hands, without the redress of some 
grievances, and a better security. Mr. Whitlock says, 
that the commissioners (of which he was one) having been 
with the king one evening till midnight, gave his majesty 
such reasons to consent to a very material point, which 
would have much conduced to an happy issue, and success 
of the treaty, that he told them, he was fully satisfied, and 
promised to let them have his answer in ivriting, accord- 

|| The king had never made any offer of this kind hut in general 
terms. Mrs. Macaulay. Ed. 

fUapiu, vol. ii. p. 476. folio. 

Vol. III. 6* 


ing to their desire next morning.* But when the. com- 
missioners were withdrawn, some of the king's bed-cham- 
ber, and they went higher, fearing the king's concessions 
would tend to peace, never left persuading him, till he 
had altered his resolution, and gave orders for the follow- 
ing answer to be drawn up, directly contrary to what he 
had promised the commissioners.^ 

" As soon as his Majesty is satisfied concerning his own 
' revenue, magazines, ships, and forts, in which he desires 

< nothing, but that the just known legal rights of his Maj- 
' esty, devolved to liim from his progenitors, and of the 
' persons trusted by him, which have violently been taken 
'from both, be restored to him and them — 

" As soon as all the members of both houses shall be 

< restored to the same capacity of sitting and voting in par- 
' liament as they had on the 1st of Jan. 16 H, the same right 
6 belonging unto them by their birthrights, and the free 
'elections of those that sent them; and having been voted 
'from them for adhering to his Majesty in these distrac- 
' tions ; his Majesty not intending that this should extend 
' either to the bishops, whose votes have been taken away 
'by bill ; or to such in whose places, upon new writs, new 
' elections have been made. 

" As soon as his Majesty and both houses may be se- 
' cured from such tumultuous assemblies, as to the great 
'breach of the privileges, and the high dishonor of parlia- 
' ments, have formerly assembled about both houses, and 

* Whitlock's Memoirs, p. 65. 

t Dr. Grey censures Mr. Neal, for not giving his reader Mr. Whit- 
lock's account of the kiug's great civility to the parliament commis- 
sioners. We will supply the omission. " The commissioners were 

* allowed hy his majesty, a very free debate with him, and had access 
'to him at all times. He used them with great favor and civility; 
' and his General Riithen aud divers of his lords and officers came fre- 
' fluently to their table. The king himself did them the honor some- 

* times to accept of part of their wine and provisions, which the earl 

* (viz. of Northumberland) sent to him when they had any thing ex- 

* traordinary." Whitlock adds ; "In this treaty the king manifested 

< his great parts and abilities, strength of reason, and quickness of ap- 

< prehension, with much patience in hearing what was objected agaiust 
'him; wherein he allowed all freedom." Memorisls, p. 65. Ed. 


( awed the members of the same ; and occasioned two sev- 

* eral complaints from the house of lords, and two several 

* desires of that house to the house of commons, to join in a 
1 declaration against them, the complying with which de- 

* sire might have prevented all the miserable distractions 

* which have ensued ; which security his majesty conceives 
1 can be only settled by adjourning the parliament to some 
' other place, at the least twenty miles from London, the 

* choice of which his majesty leaves to both houses. 

^ His majesty will then most cheerfully and readily con- 
c sent, that both armies be immediately disbanded, and 
' give a present meeting to both his houses of parliament, 
1 at the same time and place, at and to which the parlia- 
' ment shall agree to be adjourned. 

" His majesty, being confident that the law will then re- 
' cover its due credit and estimation, and that upon a free 
' debate, in a full and peaceable convention of parliament, 
' such provisions will be made against seditious preaching 
f and printing against his majesty, and the established laws, 
' which hath been oue of the chief causes of the present 
' distractious ; and such care will be taken concerning the 
1 legal and known rights of his majesty, and the property 
'and liberty of his subjects, that whatsoever hath been 
' published or done in, or by color of any illegal declara- 
tions, ordinances, or order of one or both houses, or any 
' committee of either of them, and particularly the power 
'to raise arms without his majesty's consent, will be in 
' such manner recalled, disclaimed, and provided against, 
'that no seed will remain for the like to spring out of for 
1 the future, to disturb the peace of the kingdom, and to 
1 endanger the very being of it."§ 

This resolute answer broke off the treaty, and left the 
quarrel to be decided by the sword ; upon which bishop 
ICennet makes the following remark : " It is to be lament- 
' ed, that some of the king's most intimate friends were 

* against his concluding a peace, and others were against 
'his obtaining an absolute victory. They were afraid he 
•' should comply, lest his prerogative might not be great e- 
'nough to protect him ; and yet afraid he should conquer, 

§ Rushwqrth, vol. v. p. 259, 2fiO t 


' lest lie might be tempted to assume an arbitrary power."* 
It is plain from hence, that by peace the king meant noth- 
ing but being restored to all the prerogatives of his crown 
as before the war, without any additional security ; and 
that there was no room for a treaty till the previous ques- 
tion was determined. Whether there was just reason to 
confide in the king, and restore him to his rights upon his 
hare promise of governing by law for the future P For all 
the propositions necessarily led to this point, and till this 
was decided it was in vain to lose time upon the others. 

Thus ended the year 1642, in which died the famous 
Tobias Crisp, D. D. third son of Ellis Crisp, of London, 
esq. he was born in Bread- street, London, 1600, educat- 
ed at Eton-school, and having taken the degree of bachel- 
or of arts at Cambridge retired to Oxford, and was incor- 
porated into Baliol college in the beginning of Feb. 16&6. 
In the year 1627? he became rector of Brinkworth in Wilt- 
shire, and a few years after proceeded D. D. At Brink- 
worth he was much followed for his edifying manner of 
preaching, and for his great hospitality. Upon the break- 
ing out of the war he was obliged to fly to London, to a- 
void the insolencies of the king's soldiers ; where his pe- 
culiar sentiments about the doctrines of grace being dis- 
covered, he met with a vigorous opposition from the city 
divines. The doctor in his younger years had been a fa- 
vorer of arminianism, but changing his opinions, he ran 
into the contrary extreme of antinomianism. He was cer- 
tainly a learned and religious person, modest and humble 
in his behavior, fervent and laborious in his ministerial 
work, and exact in his morals. Mr. Lancaster, the pub- 
lisher of his works, says, " That his life was so innocent 
6 and harmless from all evil, so zealous and fervent in all 
k 'good, that it seemed to be designed as a practical con- 
futation of the slander of those who would insinuate, that 
c his doctrine tended to licentiousness." The doctor was 
possessed of a very large estate, with which he did a great 
deal of good ; but being engaged in a grand dispute against 
several opponents (if we may believe Mr. Wood) he over- 
heated himself, and fell sick of the small-pox, of which he 

* Compl. Hist. p. 135. 


died Feb. 27, 164&, and was buried in the family vault in 
Bread-street, London.* In bis last sickness he was in a 
most comfortable and resigned frame of mind, and declar- 
ed to them that stood by, his firm adherence to the doctrines 
he had preached ; that as he had lived in the belief of the 
free grace of God through Christ, so he did now with con- 
fidence and great joy, even as much as his present condi- 
tion was capable of, resign his life and soul into the hands 
of his heavenly father. He published nothing in his life- 
time, but after his death his sermons were published in 
three volumes from his notes, which, with some additions, 
were reprinted by his son, in one volume quarto, about 
the year 1689, and gave occasion to some intemperate 
heats among the non-conformist ministers of those times. 
Towards the end of this year died Robert lord Brooke, 
a virtuous and religious gentleman, a good scholar, and an 
eminent patriot, but a determined enemy of the hierarchy. 
In the beginning of the war he took part with the parlia- 
ment, and being made lord lieutenant of the counties of 
Warwick and Stafford, put himself at the head of twelve 
hundred men, and marched against the earl of Chesterfield 
at Litchfield, whom he dislodged from the town, March 
1, but the next day, as he was looking out of a window 
with his beaver up, and giving direction to his soldiers to 
assault St. Chad's church, adjoining to the close where the 
earl of Chesterfield'' s forces lay, a musket-ball struck him 
near the left eye, of which he instantly died. The Parli- 
amentary Chronicle^ calls him M the most noble, and ever- 
f to-be honored, and renowned, pious lord Brooke, whose. 
f most illustrious name and memory, both for his piety, 
{ prudence, incomparable magnanimity, and heroic martial 
' spirit, for his loyalty to the king, and fidelity to his coun- 
6 try, deserves to remain deeply engraven in letters of gold 
tf on high-erected pillars of marble. "f On the other hand 
archbishop Laud, in his Diary, || has some very remarka- 
ble observations upon his death, which shew the supersti- 
tion of that prelate. "First, (says his grace) I observe, that 
6 this great and known enemy to cathedral churches died 

* Wood's Athen. Oxon. vol. ii. p. 12, 13. § P. 272. 
t Parliamentary Chronicle, p. 272. ||P. 211. 


c thus fearfully, in the assault of a cathedral; a fearful 
6 manner of death in such a quarrel ! Secondly, That this 
' happened upon St. Chad's day, of which saint the cathe- 
<dral bears the name. Thirdly, That this lord coming 
"from dinner about two years sinee from the lord Herbert's 
6 house in Lambeth, upon some discourse of St. Paul's 
6 church then in their eye upon the water, said to some. 
6 young lords that were with him, that he hoped to live to 
' see that one stone of that building should not be left upon 
6 another ; but that church stands yet, and that eye is put 
' out, that hoped to see the ruins of it."f 

While the treaty of Oxford was depending, his majes- 
ty's friends in the city were contriving to bring him to 
London, and deliver the parliament into his hands. { Mr. 
Tomkins, Chaloner, and Waller a member of the House 
of Commons, in conjunction with some others, were to car- 
ry off the king's children, to secure the most active mem- 
bers of the house of commons, as Mr. Pym, Hampden, 
Strode, &c. to seize the Tower and the gates of the city, 
with the magazines, and to let in a party of the royal forces, 
who were to be at hand ; for all which they had the king's 
commission, dated March 16,1643. The day of rising 
was to be the last Wednesday in May : but the plot being 
discovered by a servant of Tomkins's before it was ripe for 
■execution, the conspirators were apprehended and tried ; 
Tomkins and Chaloner confessed the facts, and were exe- 
cuted ; but Waller purchased his life for ten thousand 
pounds, and was banished. || 

Upon this discovery both houses resolved to strengthen 
themselves by a new covenant or row, which was tendered 
first to their own members, then to the army, and such of 

t " It was the opinion of some of the royalists, and especially of the 
6 Roman Catholics, that the bullet was directed by St. Chad. Itisob- 
' servable, that the same man who was by one party looked upon as a 
' monument of divine vengeance, (see South's Sermons, i. 270) was by 
' the other reverenced as a saint. Baxter has placed him in heaven 
1 (Saint's Everlasting Rest, p. 82. 83, edit. 1649) together with White, 
'Pym, and Hampden." Granger's History of England, vol. ii. p. 144, 
Svo. See also Mrs. Macaulay's History, v. iii. p. 417, 18, note, Svo. Ed o 

| Rushworth, vol. v. p. 322. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 487, folio. 

| Rushworth, p. 326, 27. 


the people as were willing to take it.§> In it they declare 
4 their abhorrence of the late plot, and engage not to lay 
4 down their arms as long as the papists were protected 
4 from justice, but to assist the parliament according to their 
' abilities in the just defence of the protestant religion, and 
'the liberties of the subject, against the forces raised by 
' the king without their consent." Nevertheless the king's 
friends were not disheartened from entering into several 
other combinations against the parliament ; one was dis- 
covered in August, and another towards the latter end of 
the year : even the lower sort of women, to the number of 
two or three thousand, with white silk ribbons in their 
liats, went in a body to Westminster with a petition for 
peace upon the king's terms, and could not be dispersed 
without the military arm :f all which was occasioned by 
the correspondence the king held in London, notwithstand- 
ing the ordinance the parliament had published in April 
last, to prevent spies andiutelligencies from Oxford or the 
royal army, coming to any part of the parliament's 

The king, having failed in hie designs of surprising the 
city, resolved at last to starve the citizens into their duty, 
for which purpose he issued a proclamation, July 17, pro- 
hibiting all intercourse of trade and commerce with them, 
and expressly forbidding all persons to travel to London, 
or to carry any goods, merchandize or provisions thither, 
without special license from himself. J By another pro- 
clamation [Oct. 17?] his majesty forbids his subjects of 
Scotland, and all foreign kingdoms and states in amity with 
him, to bring any ammunition, provision, goods, or merch- 
andize, of any sort to London, or any other town or city in 
rebellion against him. The prohibiting foreign merchan- 
dizes had very little influence upon the trade of the city, 
because the parliament were masters of the seas; but the 
town of Newcastle being garrisoned by the king, the Lon- 
doners were distressed the following winter for coals, which 
obliged them to have recourse to the digging turf, and cut- 
ting down nUfell wood on the estates of delinquents with- 
in sixty miles of London. By another proclamation his 

§ Rushworth, vol. v. p. 325. f Ibid, p 357. 

\ Husband's Collections, folio. 237, 366. 


majesty forbad all his subjects, upon pain of high treason, 
to obey the orders of parliament ; and all tenants to pay 
their rents to such landlords as adhered to the rebellion, 
but to reserve them for his majesty's use. 

After this account of things, it is reasonable to suppose 
that very extraordinary burdens must be laid upon the peo- 
ple on both sides to support the expenees of the war. The 
parliament at Westminster excised every thing, even the 
necessaries of life : all butchers meat paid one shilling in 
twenty ; every rabbit an halfpenny ; and pigeons one pen- 
ny in the dozen. The king's parliament at Oxford did the 
like in his majesty's quarters ; and by an ordinance of 
March 36th following, all persons within the cities of Lon- 
don and Westminster, and the bills of mortality, were to 
pay the weekly value of one meal a week, on every Tues- 
day, for the public service, which they were supposed to 
abate in their families.* Such were the hardships of the 
limes ! 

The king's affairs this summer were very prosperous, 
and threatened the ruin of his enemies ; for besides his ar- 
my, which had been recruiting in the winter, the queen fur- 
nished him with foreign money, and with two thousand 
foot, a thousand horse, a hundred waggons laden with am- 
munition of all sorts, six pieces of cannon, and two mor- 
tars, t Upon which the house of commons impeached her 
of high treason, for levying forces without consent of par- 
liament. In the month of April the earl of Essex besieg- 
ed and took the town of Reading, from whence he march- 
ed within ten miles of Oxford, where prince Muperi with 
a party of horse beat up his quarters, and killed the famous 
Mr. Hampden in Chalgrave Field, after which Essex re- 
tired, and put his sickly forces into quarters of refresh- 
ment. In the north the king's armies had a train of suc- 
cesses. Lord Fairfax was defeated by the earl of New- 
castle at Atherston Moor, June 30, and sir William Wal- 
ler at the battles of Lansdown and lloundaway-down, 
July 5th and 13th, which was followed with the loss of 
Weymouth, Dorchester, Portland Castle, Exeter, and al- 

* For a more minute detail of the ways by which the parliament 
raised money, see Dr. Grey, vol. ii. p. 42, &c. and " Historical Ac- 
< count of all Taxes," p. 296, 7. 

t Rapin, vol. ii. p. 477, folio. 


fcllAP. i. OF THE PURITANS. 49 

most all the west. About the latter end of July prince 
Rupert besieged and took the city of Bristol, and the king 
himself sat down before Gloucester, [Aug. 10th] which so 
alarmed the two houses, that the shops in London were or- 
dered to be shut till the siege was raised, and a strong bo- 
dy of the trained bands dispatched to join the earl of Es- 
sex's broken troops, who, by this means, was in a condi- 
tion in fifteen days to march to the relief of that important 
city ; upon the earl's approach the king raised the siege, 
and Essex entered the town, when reduced to the last ex- 
tremity : and having supplied it with necessaries, after 
three days returned towards London. The king being 
joined by prince Rupert with five thousand horse, got be- 
fore him to Newbury, where both armies engaged with, 
pretty equal success, till night parted them, when his ma- 
jesty retired to Oxford, and left the way open for the earl 
to pursue his march.* In this battle the city trained bands, 
by their undaunted bravery, are said to have gained im- 
mortal honor. But it is the opinion of most historians, 
that if, instead of sitting down before Gloucester, the king 
had marched his victorious army directly to London after 
the taking of Bristol, he might have put an end to the war, 
the parliament being in no readiness to oppose him ; how- 
ever, it is certain, that about this time the royal cause was 
iu the height of its prosperity, and the parliament's at so 
low an ebb, that they were obliged to throw themselves 
into the bauds of the Scots. It is no part of my design to 
give a particular description of sieges and battles, or a re- 
cital of the military exploits of the heroes of these times, 
any further than to inform the reader of the true situation 
of affairs, and to enable him to form a just idea of the 
grounds and reasons of those exttaordinary measures that 
each party- took for the support of their cause. Let us 
now, therefore, attend the affairs of the church. 

The clergy on both sides had a deep share in the ca- 
lamities of the times, being plundered, harrassed, impris- 
oned, and their livings sequestered, as they fell into the 
hands of the enemy. The king's party were greatly in- 
censed against the puritan clergy, as the chief incendiaries 

*Rushworth, vol. y. p. 293, 94. 

Vol. III. 7 


of the people and trumpeters of rebellion. Such as refus- 
ed to read the king's proclamations and orders against 
the parliament were apprehended, and shut up in the com- 
mon gaols of York, and other places within his majesty's 
quarters. When any parties of the royal army got pos- 
session of a town that adhered to the parliament, they en- 
quired presently for the minister's house, which was ri- 
fled and plundered of every thing that was valuable, and 
himself imprisoned, if he could be found ; but the incum- 
bents usually took care to avoid the danger, by flying to 
the next parliament garrison. Above thirty puritan min- 
isters took shelter in the city of Coventry after the fight of 
Edge-Hill. Great numbers came to London with their 
families in a naked and starving condition, leaving their 
booits, and every thing they could not bring away, to the 
mercy of the king's soldiers. The prisoners underwent 
uncommon hardships, and would have been executed as 
rebels, if the parliament had not threatened reprisals. 

On the other hand, the ejjiscopal clergy were no less 
barrassed by the parliament soldiers ; these being in pos- 
session of the best livings in the church, were liable to suf- 
fer the greatest damage ; multitudes of them left their cures, 
and took sanctuary in the king's armies or garrisons, hav- 
ing disposed of their goods and chattels in the best manner 
they could. Others, who had rendered themselves ob- 
noxious by their sermons, or declarations for the king, 
were put under confinement in Lambeth, Winchester, Ely, 
and most of the bishops' houses about London ; and for 
want of room about twenty (according to Dr. Walker) 
were imprisoned on board of ships in the river Thames, 
and shut down under decks, no friend being suffered to 
come to them.* The same writer observes, that about 
one hundred and ten of the London clergy were turned 
out of their livings in the year 1642, and 1643, and that 
as many more fled to prevent imprisonment : yet it ought 
to be remembered, that none were turned out or imprison- 
ed, for their adhering to the doctrine or discipline of the 
church of England, till after the imposing of the Scots cov- 
enant, but for immorality, false doctrine, non-residence, or 
for taking part with the king against the parliament. How- 

* Walker's Suffering Clergy, part ii. p. 180. 


ever, it is to be lamented that several pious and worthy 
bishops, and other clergymen * who withdrew from the 
world, and were desirous to live peaceably without joining 
either side, suffered afterwards in common with the rest of 
their brethren ; their estates andlivings being sequestered, 
their houses and goods plundered by ungovernable sol- 
diers, and themselves reduced to live upon the fifths, or a 
small pension from the parliament, either because they 
could not take the covenant, or comply with the new direc- 
tory for public worship. Among these we may reckon the 
most reverend archbishop Usher, bishop Morton, Hall, 
and many others. When the bishops' lauds were seized 
for the service of the war, which was called Belliun Epis- 
copate, or the Bishops' War, it was not possible to shew 
favor to any under that character ; and though the two 
houses voted very considerable pensions to some of the 
bishops, in lieu of their lands that were sequestered, due 
care was not taken of the payment ; nor would several of 
their lordships so far countenance the votes of the houses 
as to apply for it. 

In order to account for these things, it will be necessary 
to set before the reader the proceedings of the several com- 
mittees of religion from the beginning of the present par- 
liament. It has been remembered, that a grand committee, 
consisting of the whole house of commons, was appointed 
November 6th, 164jO, to enquire into the scandalous immo- 
ralities of the clergy,* of which the famous Mr. White, 
member of parliament for Southwark, a good lawyer, and, 
according to Mr. Whitlock, an honest, learned, and faith- 
ful servant of the public, was chairman. Great numbers 
of petitions, with articles of misbehavior, were brought 
before them, relating to superstition, heresy, or the immor- 
ality of their ministers, insomuch that the house was forc- 
ed to branch the committee into several sub-divisions, for 
the quicker dispatch of business. November 19, 16-10, a 
sub-committee was appointed " to consider how there may 
6 be preaching ministers set up where there are none ; how 
1 they may be maintained where there is no maintenance, 

* and all other things of that nature ; also to enquire into 

• the true grounds and causes of the great scarcity of preach- 

* Walker's Attempt, p. 63. 


<ing ministers throughout the kingdom, and to consider of 
'some way of removing scandalous ministers, and putting 
* others in their places." For which purposes the knights 
of shires and burgesses of the several corporations were or- 
dered to bring informations within six weeks, of the state 
of religion in their respective counties. The sub-committee 
consisted of sixty-one members, together with the knights 
and* burgesses of Northumberland, Wales, Lancashire, 
Cumberland, and the burgesses of Canterbury. Mr. White 
was chairman of this, as well as of the graud committee j 
they had their regular meetings in the Court of Wards,, 
and from the powers aboveinentioned, were sometimes cal- 
led the committee for preaching ministers, but more usual- 
ly for scandalous ministers. They had the inspection of 
all hospitals and free-schools, and were authorised to con- 
sider of the expediency of sending commissions into the sev- 
eral counties, to examine such clergymen as were accused, 
and could not with convenience be brought up to London. 
But presentments against the clergy came in so fast, that 
for the dispatch of business they were obliged to divide 
again into several smaller committees, which from the 
names of the geutlemen in the respective chairs, were cal- 
led Mr. White's, Corbet's, Sir Robert Harlow's and Sir 
Edward Deering' s committees, &c* Within a short space 
above two thousand petitions were brought before them, of 
which Mr. Corbet's committee had no less than nine hun- 
dred. Great complaints have been made of their severity, 
by those who will not believe the clergy were so corrupt as 
really they were ; nor remember the political principles for 
which most of them suffered. The forms of proceeding in 
the committee were certainly unexceptionable, for they 
were obliged to give proper notice to the party accused to 
make his appearance ; the witnesses were usually examin- 
ed upon oath in his presence ; a copy of the articles was 
given him if desired, and a reasonable time assigned to pre- 
pare for his defence.f The articles of enquiry on which 
they proceeded were, 1. Scandalous immoralities of life, 
as drunkenness, swearing, incontinency, and sometimes 
blasphemy and sodomy. 2. False or scandalous doctrine, 

* Walker's Attempt, p. 65. f Ibid. p. 8.1. 


i. e. popish aud aruiinian, these being understood to be in- 
consistent with the articles of the church of England. 3. 
Profanation of the sabbath, by readiug and countenancing 
the book of sports. <1. Practising and pressing the late in- 
novations, after they had been censured by the parliament 
as illegal. 5. Neglect of their cures, by not preaching ac- 
cording to their duty. 6. Malignancy and disaffection to 
the parliament, discovered by their assisting his majesty 
with money, and persuading others to do so ; by reading 
the king's declarations, and refusing to read the parlia- 
ment's ; by not observing the parliament's fasts, but cal- 
ling them rebels, traitors, and wishing the curse of God 
upon them and their cause. These were apprehended rea- 
sonable matters of enquiry, and just grounds of exception, 
as matters stood between the king and the two houses. — 
And after all, the final determination was not with the com- 
mittee ; their opinion, with the evidence, was first laid be- 
fore the grand committee, then it was reported to the whole 
house, aud finally referred to the house of lords before it was 
decisive. One would think, here should be little room for 
complaint, and yet there was too much passion and preju- 
dice on both sides, which was owing to the confusion of 
the times, and the violent resentments of each party. The 
commissioners were too forward iu exposing the failings 
of the clergy, and encouraging witnesses of slender credit; 
on the other hand, the clergy were insufferably rude to the 
committee, defaming their witnesses, and threatening re- 
venge, for being obliged to plead their cause before lay- 
men. However, few clergymen were sequestered by the 
committee for scandalous ministers before it was joined 
with that for plundered ministers ; an account of which I 
shall lay before the reader, after I have given two or three 
examples of the proceedings of the present committee, from 
the relations of those clergymen who have left behind them 
an account of their sufferings. 

The first is Mr. Symmonds, of Rayue in Essex, who 
acknowledges, that he was sequestered for preaching and 
publishing, that ie the king being the supreme magistrate 
4 hath immediate dependance on God, to whom alone he is 

6 accountable That authoritv is a sacred thins, and es- 

i sential to the king's person That resistance is against 


6 the way of God, destructive to the whole law of God, in- 
( consistent with the spirit of the gospel, the perpetual prac- 
tice of Christianity, the calling of ministers, common pru- 
* dence, the rule of humanity, nature itself, reason, the oath 
6 of allegiance, and even the late protestation."* Besides, 
he had notoriously defamed the parliament, and pressed 
his auditors to believe the king's declarations, because a 
divine sentence was in his month, and he cannot err. And 
that if David' 's heart smote him for cutting off Saul's gar- 
ment, what would it have done if he had kept him from 
his castles, towns, and ships ? For which reasons the lords 
and commons in parliament assembled,ordered [March 3, 
1642,] his living to be sequestered into the hands of Rob- 
ert Atkins, M. A. who was appointed to preach every 
Lord's day till further order. Mr. Symmonds endeavored 
to discredit the evidence, but was so far from disowniug 
the charge, that he afterwards vindicated it in a pamphlet 
entitled, The loyal Subject's Belief. 

A second gentleman, who has left an account of his suf- 
ferings, is the reverend Mr. Squire of Shored itch ; he was 
articled against for " practising and pressing the late inno- 
' vations, for saying the papists were the king's best sub- 
6 jects, because of their loyalty and liberality ; for declar- 
' ing that none should come to the sacrament, unless they 
' were as well affected to the king as the papists ; for com- 
£ paring his majesty to the man that fell among thieves, be- 
e ing wounded in his honor, and robbed of his castles, and 
6 of the hearts of his people ; that the priest passing by, 
& was the protestant ; the forward professor the levite, but 
6 the papist was the good Samaritan ; and for affirming, 
6 that the king's subjects, and all that they had were at his 
( command."| Mr. Squire denied some of these articles, 
and extenuated others ; he procured a certificate from sev- 
eral of his parishioners of his diligence in preaching, in 
catechising, and in beating down popery, for thirty years 
past, all which might be true ; but Dr. Walker adniits,|| 
that from the beginning of the war he was a most strenu- 
ous champion for allegiance ; that is, for passive-obedience 
and non-resistance, and most earnestly exhorted his peo- 
ple to the practice of it, which, as the times then were, 

* Walker's Suffering Clergy, p. 67. | Ibid. |) Ibid. p. 176. 


might be a sufficient reason for the parliament to silence 

The other clergyman is Mr. Finch of Christ-Church, 
who was articled against for extortion, sujierstition, non- 
residence, and neglect of his cure, and for being a common 
swearer, tavern-hunter, and drunkard, which was proved 
by very substantial evidence. Dr. Walker's defence of 
tills gentleman is very remarkable : " Common charity 
i (says he) will oblige every one to give more credit to the 
i bare word of a clergyman, though in his own vindication, 
' than to that of his known and professed enemies."* And 
yet, in the next page,f he owns he was not satisfied in Mr. 
Finch's character, nor in some parts of his defence, in 
which he thinks he does by no means acquit himself from 
having been a man of an ill life. His case was reported 
by the grand committee to the house of commons, and by 
them to the lords, who all agreed he was unfit to hold any 
ecclesiastical living. 

It must be left with the impartial world to judge, wheth- 
er the parliament had reason to sequester these clergymen, 
in their own defence ? The last was a man of an immoral 
life, and the two former, allowing them to be otherwise 
good men, were certainly incendiaries against the two hou- 
ses, and preached up those doctrines which were inconsist- 
ent with the constitution and freedom of this country, as 
most of the parochial clergy at that time did. 

The committee for Plundered Ministers took its rise 
from those puritan clergymen, who, being driven from their 
cures in the country by the king's soldiers, fled to London 
with their families, leaving their substance and household 
furniture to the mercy of the enemy : these being reduced 
to very great exigencies, applied to the parliament for re- 
lief; the commons first ordered a charitable collection for 
them at their monthly fast, and four days after, viz. De- 
cember 31, 1642, appointed a committee to consider of the 
fittest way for the relief of such godly and well-affected 
■ministers as have been plundered; and what malignant 
clergymen have benefices in and about the town, whose ben- 
efices being sequestered may he supplied by others who may 
receive their profits. The committee consisted of Mr, 

* Walker's Attempt, p. 71. f Ibid. p. 72. 

§6 THE HISTORt «HAP. i. 

Solicitor General, Mr. Martyn. Sir Gilbert Gerrard, Sir 
William Armyn, Mr. Prideaux, Mr. Holland, Mr. House, 
Mr. Case, Mr. Knightly, Sir William Hayman, Mr. 
Wentworth, Mr. Muthen, Mr. Wheeler, and Mr. Spur- 
stow, to whom were afterwards added some others; among 
whom Dr. Walker supposes wa3 the famous Mr. White, 
who sat in the chair of this committee, March %, 1642-3. 
The commissioners were upon their oath ; any four had a 
power to act ; they were distinguished by the name of the 
committee for plundered ministers ; but the royalists, by 
way of reproach, calling them the committee for plunder- 
ing ministers. They began their meetings in the court of 
."Ex chequer, Jan. S, in the afternoon ; two days after, they 
were ordered to examine the complaints against Dr. Soam, 
minister of Twittenham and Stains, to send for parties 
and witnesses, to consider of proper persons to supply the 
cures, to apply the revenues to their use if they found it 

necessary, and to report the proceedings to the house. 

July &7, 1613, they were impowered to consider of infor- 
mations against scandalous ministers, though there were 
no malignancy proved against them and to put out such 
whose scandal was sufficiently proved ; from which time 
the committee for scandalous and plundered ministers were 
in a sort united, and so continued to the end of the long 

In order to silence the clamors of the royalists, and jus- 
tify the severe proceedings of these committees, it was re- 
solved to print the cases of those whom they ejected, and 
submit their conduct to the public censure ; accordingly, 
towards the latter end of the year Mr. White the chair- 
man published a pamphlet, entitled, The first Century of 
scandalous malignant Priests, made and admitted into ben- 
efices by the prelate, in ivhose hands the ordination of min- 
isters and government of the church hath been ; or, a nar- 
ration of the causes for ivhich the parliament has ordered 
the sequestration of the benefices of several ministers com- 
plained of before them, for vitiousness of life, errors in doc- 
trine, contrary to the articles of our religion, and for prac- 
tising and pressing superstitious innovations against law. 
and for malignancy against the parliament. The author 

* Walker's Attempt, p. 73. 


in his preface says, the reason of his appearing in print 
was, that the 'parliament might appear just in their doings, 
that the mouth of iniquity might be stopt; that all the world 
might see, that the tongues of them that speak evil of the 
parliament are set on fire of hell ; that they hide themselves 
under falshood, and make lies their refuge. And then 
adds, that the grossest faults which were charged on the 
clergy were proved by many witnesses, seldom less than 
six. The whole, century were convicted of malignity, or 
disaffection to the parliament ; and about eighty of them 
of scandalous immoralities in their lives. Dr. Walker has 
endeavored to recover the reputation of seven or eight, and 
would insinuate that the rest were convicted upon too slen- 
der evidence, the witnesses not being always upon oath, 
nor in his opinion of sufficient credit to impeach a clergy- 
man ; that some of the crimes were capital, and therefore 
if they had been proved, must have touched not only the 
livings but the lives of the criminals ; and that the parlia- 
ment who set up for precise morals, accepted the mere 
verbal evidence of the most infamous people. However, 
the doctor himself has admitted and confirmed the centu- 
7'ist*s account of many of these scandalous ministers, by 
the enquiries he has made into their characters in the pla- 
ces from whence they were ejected. Mr. Fuller confes- 
ses, " that several of the offences of the clergy were so 
'foul that it is a shame to report them, crying to justice 
i for punishment. 7 ' But then adds, in favor of others, 
" that witnesses against them were seldom examined on 
' oath. That many of the complainers were factious peo- 
' pie. That some of the clergy were convicted for deliv- 
' ering doctrines that were disputable, and others only for 
' their loyalty/'f Bishop Kennet says, that several of 
them were vicious to a scandal. And Mr. archdeacon 
Eachard is of the same mind. But Mr. Baxters testimo- 
ny is more particular and decisive, who says, "that in all 
6 the countries where he was acquainted, six to one at least, 
6 if not many more, that were sequestered by the commit- 
•tees, were by the oaths of witnesses proved insufficient or 
• scandalous, or especially guilty of drunkenness and 

t Church History, h. xi. p. 207. 

Vol. ITT. 8 


'swearing. This I know (says the reverend author) will 
6 displease the party, but 1 am sure that this is true."* 

It is impossible to account for the particular proceed- 
ings of ail the committees, of which great outcries have 
been made by the friends of the sufferers. "If the mean- 

< est and most vicious parishioners could be brought to 
' prefer a petition against their -parson to the house of com- 

< mous, how falsely soever, (says lord Clarendon) he was 

' sure to be prosecuted for a scandalous minister. ,? f His, 
lordship adds, "that the committees accepted of the evi 
1 deuce not only of mean people, but of them who were 
i professed enemies of the discipline of the church ; that 
i they baited the clergy with rude and uncivil language j 
'that they obliged them to a long and tedious attendance, 

< and were very partial in voting them out of their livings,. 
' right or wrong." In another place he says, " that these 
'complaints were frequently exhibited by a few of the 
* meanest of the people against the judgment of the par- 
ish." The like representation is made by most of the. 
royalists ; but the writers on the side of the parliament de- 
ny the, charge, and complain as loudly of the contemptu- 
ous behavior of the king's clergy to the commissioners, 
treating them as a combination of illiterate laymen, who 
had nothing to do with the church ; nay as rebels and trai- 
tors. Some refused to obey their summons, and others who 
appeared took up their time in examining the spelling of 
words, the propriety of grammar and other little evasions, 
foreign to the purpose. They declared roundly, they did 
not own the tribunal before which they stood ; they insult- 
ed the witnesses,and threatened reprisals out of court, when 
things should revert to their former channel ; and upon the 
whole behaved as if they had engrossed all the law, learn- 
ing, and good sense of the nation to themselves. The 
commissioners, provoked with this usage, were obliged to 
behave with some sharpness, in order to support their own. 
authority ; they would not indulge them the peculiar priv- 
ilege they claimed as clergymen, nor allow them as schol- 
ars to debate the truth of those doctrines of which they 
were accused, but confined them to matters of fact. When 
they excepted against the witnesses as ignorant mechan- 

* Baxter's Life, p. M. t Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 64. 


ica, factious, schismatical, enemies to the church, &c. they 
over-ruled their exceptions, as long as there were no legal 
objections to their competency or credibility. 

With regard to the country committees, the commission- 
ers were chosen out of the deputy lieutenants, and the best 
couutry gentlemen iu the parliament interest. Most of the 
crimes for which the clergy were sequestered were confes- 
sed by themselves ; superstition aud false doctrine where 
hardly ever objected, far the greatest part being cast out 
for malignity ; and yet the proceedings of the sequestrators 
were not always justifiable ; for whereas a court of judica- 
ture should rather be counsel for the prisoner than the pro- 
secutor, the commissioners considered the king's clergy as 
their most dangerous enemies, and were ready to lay hold 
of all opportunities to discharge them their pulpits. 

Eut whatever might be the excesses, or partiality of par- 
ticular committees, no reasonable blame can be laid upon 
the two houses, whose instructions were, in my opinion, 
unexceptionable ; the words of the ordinance are these : — 
;< Aud to the end that those who will appear before the com- 
6 mittee may have the witnesses examined in their preseuce, 
i it is further ordained, that summonses, with sufficient 

* warning of the time and place when and where the charge 
•' against them shall be proved, be either given to their per- 

< sons, or left at their houses ; and if they desire it, they 

* shall have a copy of the articles against them, with a con- 

♦ venient time to give iu their answer uuder their hands, 

< which together with their charge, and the proofs upon 
6 every particular of it, the said deputy lieutenants, and 

< committees of parliament, shall send up to the committee 
1 of this house, appointed to provide for plundered minis- 

• ters; which committee shall from time to time transmit 
i them to this house."* And further to prevent all abuses, 
it is ordained, in the ordinance for sequestration, " that if 
i any person or persons find themselves aggrieved with any 
f acts done by the sequestrators, their agents or deputies, 

< and shall not therein be relieved by the sequestrators, up- 
( on complaint made to them, or any two or more of them ; 
f then upon information given to both house of parliament, 
' or to the committee of lords and commons aforementioned,. 

* Husband's Collectious, p. 811. 


e such farther order shall be taken therein as shall be agree- 
' able to justice.' 7 * Here was an appeal from a lower to a 
higher court ; and to prevent a scrutiny into the lives and 
manners of the clergy, when their witnesses might be dead, 
they were limited to such crimes as had been committed 
within three years before the beginning of the present par- 
liament ; so that if the committees observed their orders 
there could be little cause of complaint ; yet as no one will 
undertake to vindicate all their proceedings, we must not, 
on the other hand, give ear to the petulant and angry 
complaints of every discontented clergyman. f I shall on- 
ly observe further, that these country committees hardly 
began to sit till the latter end of the year 1643, or the be- 
ginning of 1644; that they exercised their power very 
sparingly while the war was in suspense, but when the 
royal forces had been beat out of the field, and victory de- 
clared on their side, they proceeded with more freedom, 
especially against those who had made themselves parties 
in the war. 

Very different accounts are given of the numbers and 
quality of the ejected clergy by their several friends. Lord 
Clarendon says, that all the learned and orthodox divines 
of England were deemed scandalous. And Dr. Walker 
lias taken a great deal of pains to increase their numbers, 
and vindicate their characters. By this account one would 
think most of them were of the first rank and character ; 
but Mr. Baxter, % who was much better acquainted with 
them, says, " that when the parliament purged the minis - 

* try, they cast out the grosser sort of insufficient and scan- 

* dalous ones, and also some few civil men who had as- 
c sisted in the wars against the parliament, or set up bow- 

* ing to altars, and such innovations ; but they left in near 
6 one half of the ministers that were not good enough to do 
' much service, nor bad enough to be utterly intolerable. 
< These were a company of poor weak preachers, who 
' had no great skill in divinity, nor zeal for godliness, but 
c preached weekly that that was true, and were free from 
6 notorious sins." This seems a pretty fair relation of the 
matter ; however we shall have occasion to consider it 
more fully hereafter. 

* Husband's Collections, p. 15. t Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 84, 

J Life, p. 95. 


Besides the sequestratiou of benefices, the parliament con- 
sidered the king's clergy as parties in the war, and seized 
their estates both real and personal under that character, 
towards defraying the expenses of it ; for this purpose they 
passed the following ordinance, April 1, 164?3, the pream- 
ble to which sets forth,* " that it is most agreeable to com- 
mon justice, that the estates of snch notorious delinquents 
as have been the causers or instruments of the public ca- 
lamities, which have hitherto been employed to the fo- 
menting and nourishing of this miserable distraction, 
should be converted and applied towards the support of 
the commonwealth. 

" Be it therefore enacted, that the estates, as well real as 
personal, of all such bishops, deans, deans and chapters, 
prebends, archdeacons, and of all other persons ecclesi- 
astical or temporal, who have, or shall raise arms against 
the parliament ; or have been, or shall be in actual tear 
against the same ; or who have, or shall voluntarily con- 
tribute money, horse, plate, arms, ammunition, or other 
aid or assistance, towards the maintenance of any force 
raised against the parliament, or for the plundering the 
king's subjects, who have willingly contributed, or yield- 
ed obedience to the commands of both houses of parliament, 
and of all such who have joined, or shall join in any oath 
or association against the parliament, &c. shall be seized 
into the hands of sequestrators, to be named by both hou- 
ses of parliament, which sequestrators, or their deputies, 
are to seize into their hands, as well all the money, goods, 
chattels, debts, and personal estates, and all the manors, 
lands, tenements, hereditaments, rents, revenues, and pro- 
fits, of all the said delinquents before specified ; and also 
two parts of all the personal and real estates of every pa- 
pist, and to let, set, and demise the same from year to 
year, as the respective landlords or owners thereof might 
have done. And the authority of both houses is engaged 
to save them harmless from paying any rents to their land- 
lords being delinquents : and all the monies, rents, and 
revenues, that shall arise from this ordinance, shall be 
applied to the maintenance of the army and forces raised 
* by the parliament, and such other uses as shall be dircc- 

* Husband's Collections, fol. 13. 


*ted by both houses of parliament for the benefit of the 
i commonwealth." 

August 19th, 1(348, this ordinance was further explain- 
ed, as including in the number of delinquents, such as ab- 
sented from their usual places of abode, or betook them- 
selves to the king's forces, such as should embezzle or con- 
ceal any of their effects, to avoid payment of taxes, and as- 
sessments to the parliament ; or who kept out of the way 
so that no tax could be levied upon them ; or who conceal- 
ed or harbored the goods or persons of delinquents ; or 
who should seize or molest any person for obeying or ex- 
ecuting any of the parliament's orders. f A clause was 
then added to the ordinance, empowering the commission- 
ers to allow to the wives and children of such delinquents, 
for their maintenance, any portion of their goods, provided 
it did not exceed one fifth part. This clause was constru- 
ed to extend to the wives and children of all clergymen 
"who were ejected their livings, on any account whatsoev- 
er. The commissioners were also to seize two thirds of 
the estates of papists, both real and personal, and for the 
discovering of them, were to tender to such whom they sus- 
pected, the following oath : — 

i( 1 .5. B. do abjure and renounce the pope's suprema- 
£ cy, and authority over the catholic church in general, and 
£ over myself in particular. And I do believe that there is 
4 not any transubstantiation in the sacrament of the Lord's 
"' supper, or in the elements of bread and wine after conse- 

* oration thereof by any person whatsoever. And I do al- 
tf so believe that there is not any purgatory, or that the con- 

* secrated host, crucifixes, or images, ought to be worship- 

* ped ; or that any worship is due to any of them. And I 
i also believe, that salvation cannot be merited by works ; 
< and all doctrines in affirmation of the said points, I do 

* abjure, and renounce, without any equivocation, mental 
f reservation, or secret evasion whatsoever, taking the 
' words by me spoken according to the common meaning of 

* them. "So help me GOD." 

Divers clergymen of considerable learning, and blame- 
less lives, sound protestants, and good preachers, lost their 

t Scabs! 1 * Collections, p. 49* 


estates and livelihoods, by falling within the compass of 
this ordinance. How far such severities are justifiable by 
the law of arms, in a time of civil war and confusion, I 
shall not determine. It had been well, if those who would 
have given security for their peaceable behavior, could 
have been distinguished. But what could the parliament. 
do in their circumstances with men who were always deal- 
ing in politics, privately sending the king money, preach- 
ing publicly that he was above law, and stirring up the 
people to sedition and disaffection to those powers by 
whom they were protected ? If others suffered in this man- 
ner it was a very hard measure ; their estates might have 
been double taxed, as those of papists and nonjurors have 
since been ; but to take away their whole property, and 
reduce them to & fifth, and this at the mercy of sequestra- 
tors, was extremely rigorous and severe. 

However his majesty pursued the same measures, and 
gave directions to seize the lands and goods of the parlia- 
mentarians, as appears by his proclamation of April 7? 
and May 8, wherein he forbids all his subjects to submit 
to their orders ; and by another dated May 15, 1643, com- 
plains, " that divers of his clergy, eminent for piety and 

* learning,because they publish his royal and just commands 

* and declarations, and will not (against the known laws 
6 of the land, and their own consciences) submit to contr - 
' butions, nor publicly pray against us and our assistants. 

* but conform to the book of common prayer established 
i by law, and preach God's word according to the purity 

* of it, and in their sermons will not teach sedition, nor 
i publish illegal commands and orders for fomenting the 
i unnatural war levied against us, are some of them driven 
i from their cures and habitations, others silenced and dig-- 
6 charged from their cures, and persecuted, and their cur- 

* ates, if orthodox, displaced, in whose places factious and 

6 seditious persons are introduced. His majesty there- 

' fore forbids all his subjects to hinder any of his clergy 

* from exercising their functions, or to displace them : and 
6 if any transgress this command his majesty declares them 
; assistants of the rebellion, and will proceed against them 

* according to law, as soon as he can apprehend them, and 
•' in the mean time will give direction for taking their lands 


< and goods into safe custody."* Such were the extremi- 
ties on both sides ! 

The silencing so many clergymen at once made it very 
difficult to find persons qualified to fill the vacant pulpits. 
This was an inconvenience that attended the reformation 
of queen Elizabeth, and was the case of the established 
church again in the year 1662, when near two thousand 
ministers were ejected on account of their non-conformity. 
Lord Clarendon, with his usual candor, says, that from 
the beginning of this parliament he is confident not one 
learned or orthodox man was recommended by them to any 
church in England ; and yet some of the greatest orna- 
ments of the church for learning and good sense, in 
the reign of king Charles II. were of their promotion, as 
bishop Reynolds, bishop Wilkins, Dr. Lightfoot, Dr. Cud- 
worth, Dr. Wallis, and others. Mr. Baxter, who was a 
more competent judge in this respect, says, % "That though 
' now and then an unworthy person, by sinister means, 
' crept into the places of the ejected ministers, yetcommon- 
6 ly those whom they put in were such as set themselves 
e laboriously to seek the saving of souls. Indeed the one 
£ half of them were very young, but that could not be help- 
' ed, because there were no others to be had ; the parlia- 
1 ment could not make men learned or godly, but only put 
' in the learnedest and ablest they could have ; and though 
6 it had been to be wished, that they might have had leis- 
1 ure to ripen in the universities, yet many of them did (as 
( Ambrose) teach and learn at once so successfully, as that 
' they much increased in learning themselves whilst they 
'profited others, and proportionably more than many in the 
' universities do." Those clergymen who had been silen- 
ced and imprisoned by archbishop Laud were set at liber- 
ty and promoted ; some who had fled to Holland and New- 
England on account of non-conformity returned home, and 
were preferred to considerable lectures in the city, or to 
livings that had decn sequestered. The parliament enter- 
tained and promoted several Scots divines, and yet, after 
all, wanted a supply for several vacant benefices, which 
obliged them to admit of some unlearned persons, and plu- 
ralists, not of choice, but through necessity ; for when things 

* Husband's Collections, p. 177. J Hist, of Life and Times, p. 74. 


were more settled, the assembly of divines declared against 
both ; and it deserves to be remembered, that the parlia- 
ment, instead of giving their divines an absolute and full 
possession of the sequestered livings, reserved to them- 
selves a right in their warrants to displace them if they saw 
occasion, which shews their great prudence and caution ; 
for by this means it was in their power, upon the conclu- 
sion of a peace, to restore those who had been ejected mere- 
ly for their attachment to the king, without any injustice to 
the present possessor. To put some stop to the clamors of 
the royalists at Oxford, who gave out, that the parliament 
admitted butchers, coblers, bricklayers, and those who had 
no call from God or men, they ordained July 27 > 1643, 
(i That the committees should not nominate any person to 

* vacant benefices, but such as should be examined and 

* approved by the assembly of divines then sitting at West- 

* minster." Upon the whole it is evident, that the two 
houses did the best they could in their present circumstan- 
ces, aud perhaps better thau the royalists did at the res- 
toration 1660, when, according to Dr. Walker, all the se- 
questered clergy who survived were restored to their liv- 
ings, even those who had been convicted of the most scan- 
dalous immoralities, without any marks of repentance or 

The parliament's affairs beinglow, and their counsels di- 
vided, they not only applied to heaven by extraordinary 
fastings and prayers, but went on vigorously with their in- 
tended reformation. They began with the sabbath, and 
ou March 22, 1642-3, sent to the lord- mayor of the city of 
London, to desire him to put in execution the statutes for 
the due observation of the Lord's day; his lordship accord- 
ingly issued his precept the very next day to the alder- 
men,* requiring them to give strict charge to the church- 
wardens aud constables within their several wards, that 
from henceforth " they do not permit or suffer any person 

* or persous, in time of divine service, or at any time on the 
4 Lord's day, to be tiplingin any tavern, inn, tobacco-shop, 
' ale-house, or other victualling-house whatsoever ; nor 
< suffer any fruiterers or herb- women to stand with fruit, 
i herbs, or other victuals or wares in any streets, lanes, or 

* Husband's Collections, p. 7. 
Vol. m. 9 

#& -THE HISTOltr CHAP. 4. 

6 alleys, or any other ways to put things to sale, at any 
' time of that day, or in the evening of it ; or any milk-wo- 

* man to cry milk ; nor to suffer any persons to unlade any 

* vessels of fruit, or other goods, to carry them on shore ; 
6 or to use any unlawful exercises or pastimes ; and to give 
6 express charge to all inn-keepers, taverns, cook-shops, 

* ale-houses, &c. within their wards, not to entertain any 
6 guests to tipple, eat, drink, or take tobacco in their hou- 
c ses on the Lord's day, except inu-keepers, who may re- 
( ceive their ordinary guests or travellers, who come for 
c the dispatch of their necessary business ; and if any per-- 
6 sons offend in the premises, they are to be brought before 

* the lord-mayor, or one of his majesty's justices of the 
6 peace, to be punished as the law directs." This order 
had a very considerable influence upon the city, which be- 
gan to wear a different face of religion to what it had for- 
merly done.* May 5. the book tolerating sports upon the 
Lord's day was ordered to be burnt by the hands of the 
common hangman in Cheapside, and other usual places ; 
and all persons having any copies in their hands were re- 
quired to deliver them to one of the sheriffs of London to 
be burnt. 

Next to the Lord's day they had a particular regard to 
their monthly fast : April S4, all constables, or their depu- 
ties, were ordered to repair to every house within their 
respective liberties, the day before every public fast, and 
charge all persons strictly to observe it according to the 
said ordinances. And upon the day of the public fast, they 
were enjoined to walk through their said liberties, to search 
for persons who either by following the work of their call- 
ing, or sitting in taverns, victualling, or ale-houses, or any 
otherways should not duly observe the same; and to return 
their names to the committee for examination, that they 
might be proceeded against for contempt. The fast was 
observed the last Wednesday in every month, the public 
devotions continued with little or no intermission from nine 
in the morning till four in the afternoon, f and (as has been 
already observed) with uncommon strictness and rigor. 

* Husband's Collections, p. 159. 
t These services were prolracted, undoubtedly, to a tiresome and un- 
reasonable length ; and became the subject and ridicule to the roy- 


Besides the stated fasts, it was usual upon extraordina- 
ry emergencies to appoint occasional ones; as when the 
army was going upou any hazardous enterprize, or were 
within sight of the enemy, or under very disadvantageous 
circumstances. When the earl of Essex was shut up in 
Cornwall, the two houses appointed a day of fasting and 
prayer in six churches within the lines of communication, 
and in such other churches where it should be desired ; 
and the crowds of serious and attentive hearers on such oc- 
casions is almost incredible. 

The king apprehending the parliament's monthly fast 
was perverted from its original design, and turned into a 
nursery of rebellion, was pleased to dissolve it, and ap- 
point another, for the reasons contained in the following 
proclamation from Oxford, dated October 5, 1643. " When 
' a general fast was first propounded to us in contemplation 
e of the miseries of our kingdom of Ireland, we readily 

* consented to it. — But when we observe what ill use has 
i been made of these public meetings, in pulpits, in prayers, 
6 and in the sermons of many seditious lecturers, to stir up 
6 and coutinue the rebellion raised against us within this 

' kingdom; We thought fit to command that such an 

' hypocritical fast, to the dishonor of God, and slander of 
{ true religion, be no longer continued and countenanced 
' by our authority. — And yet we being desirous to express 

* our own humiliation and the humiliation of our people, 

* for our own sins, and the sins of the nation, are resolved 
' to continue a monthly fast, but not on the day formerly 
1 appointed. — We do therefore hereby command, that from 
1 henceforth no fast be held on the last Wednesday in the 

* mouth, as for many months it has been ; nor on any oth- 
i er day than is hereby appointed by us. — But we do ex- 
i pressly charge and command, that in all churches and 

* chapels, &c. there be a solemn fast religiously observed 

al party. Of which this proposal in a pamphlet entitled, " New Or^ 
<ders New" is a proof : viz. " That every year there shall be the 

* round-heads feast celebrated, a well-lunged, long-breathed cobler 

* shall preach a sermon six hours, and his prayers two hours long, and 
'at every messe in this feast shall be presented a godly dish of tur- 
i nips, because it is very agreeably to our natures ; for a turnip hath a 

* round-head, and the anagram of a puritan is a turnip." Dr. Grev, 
p. 76. Note. Ed, 


e on the second Friday in every month, with public 
* prayers and preaching where it may he had, that as one 
i man we may pour out our prayers to (rod, for the contin- 
uance of his gracious presence and blessing upon us, and 
'for establishing a happy peace ; for which purpose we 
e have caused devout forms of prayer to be composed and 
i printed, and intend to disperse them, that they may be 
'used in all parts of our kingdom."* Agreeably to this 
proclamation, the king's friends in the counties of Corn- 
wall and Devonshire took an oath, and entered into an as- 
sociation upon sundry articles, of which this was one, 
That if any minister shall refuse, or wilfully neglect to 
observe the fast appointed by his majesty, or shall not 
read the service and prayeys appointed for that fast, and 
being carried before a justice of peace, shall not promise 
and protest for their future conformity, he shall be forth- 
with secured, and his estates sequestered ; the like course 
to be taken with such ministers as absent themselves that 
day, unless upon sickness, or other cause allowed by two 
justices of peace ; and with those that will not read such 
books as shall be appointed to be read by his majesty ; 
and the constables are to certify their defaults to the next 
justice of peace. This was a new hardship upon clergy 
and people, for the parliament having enjoined the con- 
tinuance of the fast on Wednesday, the royalists were 
obliged to an open separation, by changing it to Friday. 
Thus the devotions of the kingdom were divided, and Al- 
mighty Grod called into the quarrel on both sides. 

The next thing the parliament undertook, was the re- 
moval of those monuments of superstition out of churches, 
&c. which had been voted down the last year, but without 
any considerable effect, because of the dissent of the house 
of lords. In the beginning of May, sir Robert Harlow, by 
order of the two houses, took down the crosses in Cheap- 
side, Charing-Cross, and St. Paul's Cross,§ which was a 
pulpit of wood covered with lead, in form of a cross, and 

* Husband's Collections, p. 353. \\ Rushworth, vol. v. p. 884, 72. 

§ The zeal shewed for pulling down the crosses gave occasion for 
the publication of an humorous piece, entitled, " A dialogue betwixt 
( the Cross and Cheap and Charing-Cross, comforting each other, as 


mounted on several steps of stone about the middle of St. 
Paul's church-yard, where the first reformers used to preach 
frequently to the people ; and upon a further representa- 
tion of the assembly Of divines, they passed the following 
ordinance " that before the first of November all altars and 

* tables of stone shall be utterly taken away and deinol- 
i ished ; and all communion-tables removed from the east 
' end of every church, chapel, or place of public worship, 
< and be set in some other fit and convenient place or plac- 

* es of the body of the church or chapel ; and all rails what- 
4 soever which have been erected near to, or before, or a- 
'bout any altar or communion-table, in any of the said 
4 churches or chapels, shall before the said day be taken 
4 away, aud the chancel ground of every such church, or 
' chapel, or other place of public prayer, which has been 
i within these twenty years raised for any altar or commun- 

* ion-table to stand upon, shall before the said day be laid 
'down and levelled as it was before ; and all tapers, can- 
' dlesticks, and basins, shall before the said day be remov- 

* ed and taken away from the communion-table in every 
4 church, chapel, or place of public prayer, and not be us- 
<ed again afterwards. And all crucifixes, crosses, iina- 
'ges, and pictures, of any one or more persons of the Trin- 
4 ity, or of the Virgin Mary ; and all other images, and 

* pictures of saints, or superstitious inscriptions in, or up- 
c on any of the said churches, church-yards, or other places 
6 belonging to the said churches or church-yards, or iu any 

* fearing their fall in these uncertain times." It was also hantered in 
a pamphlet, with this title. "New Orders New, agreed upon by the 
'parliament of Round-Heads, confirmed by the brethren of the new 
'separation, assembled at Round-Heads' Hall, without Cripplegate, 

* with the great discretion of master Long-Breath, an upright, new 
' inspired cobler, speaker of the house. Avowed by Ananias Dul- 
4 man, alias Prick Ears."' Of the strain of this piece the following 
passage is a specimen : " That we have no Crosses, for they are meer 
'popery, and tend to the confusion and opposition of scripture: espe- 
' cially let thesight of Cheapside- Cross be a detestation unto you all, 
'and let these streets that are called Crosses, as Red-Cross-street, and 
' White-Cross-street, &c. be turned otherwise and called after the name 
' of some of our own family, as Green, Spencer, &c. and call it rather 

* Green-street, than Red-Cross-street, &c. That thus all profaneness 
'being rooted and extirpated from our conventions, nothing but holi- 
' ness may remain amongst us." Dr.Grey, vol. ii. p. 80, 81. note. Ed. 

*?& <i'HE HISTORY CHAt». i. 

other open place, shall, before the said first of Novem- 
ber, be taken away arid defaced by the proper officers 
that have the care of such churches. And it is further 
ordained, that the walls, windows, grounds, and other 
places that shall be broken, impaired, or altered by any 
the means aforesaid, shall be made up and repaired in 
good and sufficient manner, in all and every the said par- 
ish churches, chapels, or places of public prayer belong- 
ing to the parish, by the church-wardens for the time be- 
ing, and in auy cathedral or collegiate church or chapel 
by the deans or sub-deans, and in the inns of court, by 
the benchers and readers of the same, at the cost and 
charge of all and every such person or persons, bodies 
politic, or corporations, to whom the charge of repair does 
usually belong, upon penalty of forty shillings to the use 
of the poor, for the space of twenty days after such de- 
fault ; and if default be made after December 1, the jus- 
tice of peace of the county or city shall have power to 
perforin it. Provided that this ordinance shall not ex- 
tend to any image, picture, or coat of arms in glass, stone, 
or otherwise, in any church, chapel, or church-yard, set 
up by, or engraven for a monument of any king, prince, 
nobleman, or other dead person, which has not been com- 
monly reputed or taken for a saint."* 
This ordinance is of the same tenor with the bill against 
innovations, presented to the king at the treaty of Oxford, 
and does not much differ from queen Elizabet Ws injunctions 
at the reformation : there were some disorders and tumults 
in putting it in execution, and great neglect of repairs ; but 
if the reader will look back to the superstitious decorations 
and ornaments of the cathedrals, mentioned in the former 
volume of this work, he will see there was some need of a 
reformation. Dec. 14, the commissioners cleared the cath- 
edral of Canterbury of all the images, and paintings in the 
windows. Heylin says, the rabble violated the monuments 
of the dead, spoiled the organs, took down the rails, &c. 
and affronted the statue of our blessed Saviour.§> Dec. 30, 
they removed the pictures, images and crucifixes in Henry 
the 7th's chapel ; and about Lady-day the paintings about 

* Husband's Collections, fel. 387. § Hist. Presbytery, p. 450. 


the walls and windows were defaced, and the organs ta- 
ken down in the presence of the committee of the house. 
The cathedral of St. Paul's was stripped about the same 
time, the candlesticks, crucifixes, and plate, being sold for 
the service of the wir; and within a few months most of 
the cathedrals throughout England underwent the same 
late.* If tiie parliament, instead of leaving this work to 
the officers of every parish, had put it into the hands of 
some discreet persons, to give directions what might re- 
in liu, and what was fit to be removed, all the mischiefs 
that have been complained of might have been prevented; 
the monuments of the dead might have remained entire, 
and a great many fine paintings been preserved. Dr. Hey- 
lin charges the officers with sacrilege, and fixes the di- 
vine vengeance upon them as a terror to others, one of 
them being killed in pulling down the cross in Cheapside, 
and another hanged soon after he had pulled down the 
rich cross in Abingdon. But without remarking on the 
doctor's prognostications, it might be very proper to re- 
move these images and crosses, because of the supersti- 
tious resort of great numbers of people to them ; though it 
ought to have been done in a peaceable manner, without 
any damage to the truly venerable remains of antiquity. 

The paper combat between the two parties at Oxford 
and London, was carried on with no less fury than the 
war itself; numberless pamphlets were scattered up and 
down the kingdom, big with disaffection and scandal 
against the two houses ; to put a stop to which, the com- 
mons, by an order of March 6, 1642-3, had impowered 
the committee of examinations to search for printing 
presses, in such places where they had cause to suspect 
they were employed against the parliament, and to break 
them in pieces, and destroy the materials. They were 
also to seize the pamphlets, and to commit the printer and 
vender to prison. But this order not being effectual, anoth- 
er was published June 14, 1643, the preamble to which 
sets forth, u that the former orders of parliament to pre- 

* Dr. Grey gives various examples of the rude violenee and indis- 
criminate destruction with which this was done. His authorities are 
bishop Hall, Ileylin, Dugdale, and a w«rk entitled, Me-rcurius Rnsti- 
ctjs. Ed. 


f vent the printing and dispersing scandalous pamphlets 
f having been ineffectual, it is ordained, that no person or 
' persons shall print any book or pamphlet without licence 
< under the hands of such persons as shall be appointed 
• by parliament, nor shall any book be reprinted without 
i the licence and consent of the owner, and the printer to 
f put his name to it ; the company of stationers, and the 
f committee of examinations, are required to make strict 
' enquiry after private presses, and to search all suspected 
'shops and warehouses for unlicensed books and pam- 
i phlets, and to commit the offenders against this order to 
f prison, to be punished as the parliament shall direct." || 
The names of the licensers appointed by this ordinance 
were these : — 

For books of divinity. 
The R?v. Mr. Tho. Gataker The Rev. Mr. Carter, of Yorkshire 

The Rev. Mr. J. Downham The Rev. Mr. Ch. Herl'e 

The Rev. Mr. Callicut Downing The Rev. Mr. Ja. Cranford 
The Rev. Dr. Tho. Temple The Rev. Mr. Obad Sedgwick 

The Rev. Mr. Jos. Caryl The Rev. Mr. Batehelor 

The Rev. Mr. Edmund Calamy The Rev. Mr. John Ellis, jun. 

For law books. 
Sir John Brampston Mr. Serj. Phesant 

Mr. Serj. Rolls Mr. Serj. Jennyn. 

For physic and surgery. 
The president and four censors of the college of physicians, for the 
time being. 

For civil and canon law. 
SirNath. Brent or any three doctors of the civil law. 

For heraldry, titles of honor, and arms. 
One of the three kings>at arms. 

For philosophy, history, poetry, morality, and arts. 
Sir Na(h. Brent, Mr. Langly, and Mr. Farnaby, school-masters of 
St. Paul's. 

For small pamphlets, pictures, <$*c. 
The clerk of the company of stationers, for the time being ; and 

For mathematics, almanacs, and prognostications. 
The reader ofGresham college for the time being. 

But neither this, nor any other regulation of the press, 
could restrain the Oxonians from dispersing their mercu- 
ries and diurnals over the whole kingdom, as long as the 
university was in the king's hands. 

H Rushworth, vol. v. p. 335. 



From the Calling the Assembly of Divines at West- 
minster to the Oxford Parliament. 

IT has been observed, that at the setting down of this 
parliament, the resolution of the leading members was to 
remove the grievances of the church as well as state, and 
for this purpose to address the king to call an assembly of 
divines to reform the liturgy and discipline. To forward 
this design the London ministers, in their petitions in the 
year 1611, prayed the houses to be mediators to his ma- 
jesty for a free synod, and the commons accordingly men- 
tioned it in their grand remonstrance of December 1, 1641. 
u We desire (say they) that there may be a general synod 
' of the most grave, pious, learned, and judicious divines of 

* this island, assisted with some from foreign parts profes- 
1 sing the same religion with us, who may consider of all 

* things necessary for the peace and good government of the 

* church, and to represent the result of their consultations 
6 to he allowed and confirmed, and to receive the stamp of 
6 authority." In the treaty of Oxford a bill was present- 
ed to the same purpose and rejected : some time after Dr. 
Surges, at the head of the puritan clergy, applied again 
to parliament, but the houses were unwilling to take this 
step without the king's concurrence, till they were reduc- 
ed to the necessity of calling in the Scots, who insisted, 
that there should be an uniformity of doctrine and disci- 
pline between the two nations. To make way for which 
the houses turned their bill into an ordinance, and conven- 
ed the assembly by their own authority.* 

* It is a just remark of Mr. Palmpr, that the assembly of divines at 
Westminster, was not a convocation according to the diocesan way of 
government, nor was it called by the votes of the ministers according 
to the presbyterian way ; but the parliament chose all the members 
themselves, merely with a view to have their opinion and advice for 
settling the government, liturgy, and doctrine of the church of England. 
And they were confined in their debates to such things as the parlia- 
ment proposed. 

Nonconformists Memorial, vol. i. introduction, p. 7. Ed, 
Vol. III. JO 


The ordinance bears date June IS, 1643, and is the very 
same with the Oxford bill, except in the point of lay-as- 
sessors, and of restraining the assembly from exercising 
any jurisdiction or authority ecclesiastical whatsoever. It 
is entitled, 

An ordinance of the lords and commons in parliament, for 
the calling of an assembly of learned and godly divines, 
and others, to be consulted with by the parliament, for 
settling the government and liturgy of the church of Eng- 
land, and for vindicating and clearing of the doctrine of 
the said church, from false aspersions and interpreta- 

The preamble sets forth, 

"That whereas amongst the infinite blessings of Almigli- 
( ty God upon this nation, none -is, or can be more dear to 
i us, than the purity of our religion ; and forasmuch as ma- 
& ny things as yet remain in the discipline, liturgy, and gov-- 

* eminent of the church, which necessarily require a more 
' perfect reformation. And whereas it has been declared 
' and resolved, by the lords and commons assembled in 
' parliament, that the present church government by arch- 
6 bishops, bishops, their chancellors, commissaries, deans, 
i deans and chapters, archdeacons, and other ecclesiastical 

* officers depending on the hierarchy, is evil, and justly 
£ offensive and burdensome to the kingdom, and a great 
i impediment to reformation, and growth of religion, and 
6 very prejudicial to the state and government of this king- 
6 dom, that therefore they are resolved, the same shall be 
' taken away, and that such a government shall be settled 
6 in the church as may be agreeable to God's holy word> 
' and most apt to procure and preserve the peace of the 
6 church at home, and nearer agreement with the church 
6 of Scotland, and other reformed churches abroad. And 
i for the better effecting hereof, and for the vindicating and 
' clearing of the doctrine of the church of England from all 
e false calumnies and aspersions, it is thought fit to call an 
' assembly of learned, godly, and judicious divines, to con- 
' suit and advise of such matters and things touching the 

* Rishwortk, rob ii. part iii, or vol. v. p. 337. 


< premises, as shall be proposed to them by both, or either 
( houses of parliament ; and to give their advice and coun- 
1 sei therein to both, or either of the said houses, when and 

* as often as they shall be thereunto required.* 7 

t{ BE it therefore ordained by the lords and commons 
i in this present parliament assembled, that all and every 
4 the persons hereafter in this ordinance named [the ordin- 
ance here names the persons] and such other persons as 
i siiall be nominated by both houses of parliament, or so 
i many of them as shall not be letted by sickness, or other 
( necessary impediment, shall meet and assemble, and are 
' hereby required and enjoined upon summons signed by 

* the clerks of both houses of parliament left at their sev- 
1 eral respective dwellings, to meet and assemble at West- 
' minster, in the chapel called king Henry the seventh's 
6 chapel, on the first of July 1643, and after the first meet- 

* ing, being at least of the number of forty, shall from time 
4 to time sit, and be removed from place to place ; and al- 

* so, that the said assembly shall be dissolved in such min- 
'ner as by both houses of parliament shall be directed. 
4 And the said assembly shall have power and authority, 
i and are hereby enjoined from time to time, during this 
'present parliament, or till further order be taken by both 
( the said houses, to confer and treat among themselves of 
e such matters and things concerning the liturgy, disci- 
* pline, and government &f the church of England, or the 

< vindicating and clearing of the doctrine of the same from 
4 all false aspersions and misconstructions, as shall be pro- 
posed by either or both houses of parliament, and no other ; 
"' and to deliver their advices and opinions touching the 
' matters aforesaid, as shall be most agreeable to the word 
6 of Grod, to both or either houses from time to time, in such 
A manner as shall be required, and not to divulge the same 
1 by printing, writing, or otherwise, without consent of 
f parliament." 

If any difference of opinion arose, they were to repre- 
sent it to parliament with their reasons, that the houses 
might give further direction. Four shillings per day was 
allowed for each one during his attendance. Dr. William 
Twisse of Newbury was appointed prolocutor, and in case 

7'6 THE HISTftRY CHAP. 2, 

of his sickness or death the parliament reserved to them- 
selves the choice of another. The ordinance concludes 
with the following proviso : " Provided always, that this 
6 ordinance shall not give them, nor shall they in this as- 
6 sembly assume or exercise any jurisdiction, power, or au- 
6 thority ecclesiastical whatsoever, or any other power than 
•' is herein particularly expressed." 

Then follow the names of thirty lay-assessors, (viz.) ten 
lords, and twenty commoners, and one hundred twenty- 
one divines. 

N. B. The lay-assessors had an equal liberty of debat- 
ing and voting with the divines, and were these ; 

Peers. Humphry Sal way, Esq. 

x'Vlgernon E. of Northumberland Oliver St. John, Esq. 

William E. of Bedford Sir Benjamin Rudyard, knt. 

William E. of Pembroke and John Pym, Esq. 

Montgomery Sir John Clotworthy, knt. 

William E. of Salisbury Sir Thomas Barrington, knt, 

Henry E. of Holland William Wheeler, Esq. 

Edward E. of Manchester William Pierpoint, Esq. 

William Lord Vise. Say and Seal Sir John Evelyn, knt. 

Edward Lord Vise. Conway John Maynard, Esq. 

Philip Lord Wharton Mr. Serjeant Wild 

Edward Lord Howard of Escrick Mr. Young 

Sir Matth. Hale, afterwards Lord 

Commoners. chief justice of the King's-Beuch 

John Selden, Esq. [appeared, says Anthony Wood, 

Francis Rouse, Esq. among the lay-assessors.] 
Edmund Prideaux, Esq. 

Sir Henry Vane, knt. sen. Lay -assessors from Scotland. 

Sir Henry Vane, knt. jun. Lord Maitland, afterwards Duke 

John Glynne, Esq. Recorder of Lauderdale 

London E. Lothian 

John White, Esq. A. Johnston, called Lord Warris- 

Bulstrode Whitlocke, Esq. ton. 

The divines were chosen out of such lists as the knights 
and burgesses brought in, of persons best qualified in their 
several counties, out of which the parliament agreed upon 
two ; though according to Dr. Calamy some counties had 
only one. 



Those with >>■ gave constant attendance j those vith § sat in the as- 
sembly and took tlie Protestation, but withdrew, or seldom appeared ; 
those with no mark did not appear at all. 

To supply the vacancies that happened by death, secession, or otherwise, 
the parliament named others from time to time, who were called Su- 
peradded Divines. 

<* Tlie Rev. Dr. William Twisse 0/ Newbury, was appointed by par- 
liament, Prolocutor. 
r Dr. Cornelius Burges, of \ 

m » J Watford, f . 

^ The Rev. \ »* t w j? t* > Assessors. 

j Mr. John White, of Dor- ( 

( Chester. A. M. j 

c *%. » i £' ? ENRY RoB ° aouGH > I Scribes, but had no 
§ The Rev. < Mr. Adoniram Byfield, i- ,?•„,' 

I A. M. J Kotes ' 

*• T/tt; Rev. John Arrowsmith, 0/ Lynne, afterwards D. D. ami Jtfas- 

ter of Peter-House, Cambridge 
«^ Mr. Simeon Ash, of St. Brides, or Basingshaw 
vr Mr. Theodore Backhurst, of Overton Waterville 
^ Mr. Tho. Bayly, B. D. of Manningford-Bruce 
ss- Mr. John Bond, a superadded Divine 
§ Mr. Boulton, superadded 
^ Mr. Oliver Bowler, B. D. of Sutton 
^ Mr. William Bridge, A. M. of Yarmouth 

The Right Rev. Dr. Ralph Brownrigge, bishop of Exoh 

Mr. Richard Buckley 
vr Mr. Antony Burges, A. M. of Sulton-Coldfield 
^r Mr. Jer. Burroughs, A. M. of Stepney 
vr- Mr. Richard Byfield, A. M. superadded 
^r Edmund Calamy, B. D. Aldermanbury 
wr Mr. Tho. Case, Milk-street 

Mr. Richard Capel, of Pitchcombe, A.M. 
^ Mr. Joseph Caryl, A. M. Lincoln's-Inn 
wr Mr. William Carter, of London 
^ Mr. Thomas Carter, o/Oxon 
«*■ Mr. William Carter, of Dynton, Bucks 
v/~ Mr. John Cawdrey, A. M. St. Mart. Fields, superadded 
^ Humph. Chambers, D. D. of Claverron 
>j~ Francis Cheynel, D. D. of Petworth 
^ Mr. Peter Clarke, A. M. of Carnaby 
**. Mr. Richard Clayton, of Showel 


^ Mr. Franeis Coke, ofYoxhall 
•*> Mr. Thomas Coleman, A. M. of Bliton 

^ John Conant, of Lymington, D. D. afterwards Jirhcdeacon of Nor- 
wich, and Preb. of Worcester 
^ Mr. Edw. Corbet, A. M. Merton Coll. Oxon. 
§ Rob. Crosse, D. D. aft. Vicar of Chew, Somerset 
*r Mr. Philip Delme, superadded 

Mr. Tho. Dillingham, of Dean 
§ Calibute Downing, D. D. oj Hackney 

Mr. William Dunning, of Godalston 
J" The Rev. Mr. John Drury, superadded 

Mr. Edward Ellis, B. D.* Oilfield 

Mr. John Erie o/Bishop»tone 
§ Dan. Featly, D. D. of Lambeth 
»*" Mr. Tho. Ford, A. M. superadded 
^ Mr. John Foxcroft, 0/ Gotham 

Mr. Hannibal Gammon, A. M. of Cornwall 
■f 1 Tho. Gataker, B D. Rotherhithe 
^ Mr. Samuel Gibson, 0/ Burleigh 
«** Mr. John Gibbon, of Wall bam 
«*• Mr. George Gippes, of Yylston 

•*• Tho. Goodwin, D. D. 0/ London, o/f. Presi. Mag. C. Oxon. 
^ Mr. William Goad, superadded 
•^ Mr. Stanley Gower, of Brampton-Bryan 
<*■ William Gouge. D. D. of Black-Friars 
^ Mr William Greenhill. of Stepney 
^ Mr. Green, of Fentecomb 

John Hacket, D. D. of St. Andrew's, Holborn, afterwards bishop 
of Lichfield 

Henry Hammond. D. D. of Penshurst, Kent 
«** Mr. Henry Hall, B. D. Norwich 
•*• Mr. Humphrey Hardwicke, superadded 

§ John Harris, D. D. Preb. of Winchester, Warden o/Wickham 
^ Rob. Harris, D. D. of Hanwell, t J resi. of Trinity ColUge. Oxon 
-r Mr. Charles Hekle, A. M. Win wick, afterwaids Froioc. 
^ Mr. Richard Heyriek, A. M. of Manchester 
*■ Thomas Hill, D. D. of Tichmarsh, afterwards Master of Trinity 

College, Cambridge 
§ Samuel Hildersham, B. D. o/Felten 
^ Mr. Jasper Hickes, A. M. o/Lavvrick 
wr Mr. Tho. Hodges, B. D. of Kensington 

Richard Holdsworth, D.D. M. Eman. College, Cambridge 
<r Joshua Hoyle, D. D. 0/ Dublin, Ireland 

Mr. Henry Hutton 
•^ Mr. John Jackson, A. M. of Queen's College, Cambridge 
§ Mr. Johnson 

Mr. Lance, Harrow, Middlesex 
^ Mr. John Langley, of West Tuderley, Preb. Gloucester 
«* Mr. John Ley, A. M. Great Budworth 


^ The Rev. John Lightfoot, D. D. of Ashby, M. Cath. H. 

§ Rich. Love. D. D. of Ekiutnn 

§ ;»*r. Christopher Love, A. M. superadded 

Mr. William Lyford, A. M Sherboiirne. 
§ Mr. John de la March, Minister of the French Church 
*r Mr. Stephen Marshal, B. D. of Finchingfield 
§ Mr. William Mussiim, superadded 

Mr. John Maynard, A. M. superadded 
^ Mr. Wiiliam Mew, B D. of Effingtnn 
^ Mr. Tho. Micklethwait, Cheriburtou 

George Morley, D. D. afterwards Bishop of Winchester 
Mr. William Moreton, Newcastle 
§ Mr. Moore 

•*" Mr. Matth. Newcomen, Dedham 
$ Mr. William Newscore, superadded 

William Nicholson, D. D. afterwards Bp. of Gloucester 
Mr. Henry Nye, of Clapham 
v> Mr. Philip Nye, of Kimbolton 

Mr. Hekbet Palmer. B. D. Ashwel, aft. Assessor 
Mr. Henry Painter, of Exeter 
Mr. Christopher Parkly, of Hawarden 
« r Mr. Edw. Peal, of Compton 
^ Mr. Andrew Pern, of Wilby, Northampton 
■*• Mr. John Philips. Wrentham 
>+ Mr. Benj. Pickering, East-Hoatly 
§ Mr. Samuel de la Place. Min. of French Church 
•*• Mr. William Price, of St. Paul's, Covent-Garden 

John Prideaux. D. D. bishop of Worcester 
-r Mr. Nicholas Proffet, of Marlborough 

Mr. John Pyne, of Bereferrars 
«*■ Mr. William Rathhand, of Highgate 
-r Mr. William Reyuer. B. D. Egham 
-y Edw. Reynolds, of Brampton, D. D. aft Bp. Norwich 
</- Mr. Arthur Sdlway, Severn-Stoke 

Rob Saunderson. D. D. afterwards bishop of Lincoln 
<r Mr. Henry Seudder. of Colingbourne 
«** Lazarus Seaman, B. D. of Lond. M. Peter, h. Cambridge 
•*■ Mr. Obadiah Sedgwick, B. D. Coggeshall 

Mr. Josias Shnte, B. D. Lombard-street 
^ The Rev. Mr. Sydrach Sympson, London 
•f Peter Smith, D. D. o/Barkway 
^ William Spurstow, D. D. of Hampden 
■** Edmund Staunton, D. D o/Kingston 
«*■ Mr Peter Sterry, London 

**■ Mr. John Strickland, B. D. New Sarura, superadded 
■s- Math. Styles. D D. Eastcheap 
§ Mr. Strong, Westminister, superadded 
<* Mr. Francis Taylor, A. M. Yalding 
■y The. Temple. D. D, of Battersey 


<*• Mr. Tho. Thoroughgood, Massingham 
•y Mr. Christopher Tisdale, Uphurst-Bourne 
§ Mr. Henry Tozer, B. D. Oxon 
^ Anthony Tuckney, D. D- of Boston, afterwards Master of Saint 

John's Coll. Oxon, and Regius Professor 
^ Mr. Tho. Valentine, B. D. Chalfort Saint Giles's 
^ Mr. Rich. Vines, A. M. of Calcot, M. Pemh.-A. Camb, 

The most Rev. Dr. James Usher, Archbp. of Armagh 
^ Mr. George Walker, B. D. St. John E\ r an. 

Samuel Ward, D. D. Master 0/ Sidney Coll. Camh. 
^ Mr. John Wallis, afterwards D. D. and Scribe 
^r Mr. John Ward, superadded 

Mr. James Welby, Sylatten 
§ Thomas Westfield, D. D. bishop of Bristol 
<*■ Mr. Jeremiah Whitaker, A. M. Stretton 

Mr. Francis Whiddon, Moreton 
^ Henry Wilkinson, sen. D. D. Waddesdon, afterwards Margaret 

Professor. Oxon 
>r> Mr. Henry Wilkinson,Jww. B. D. St. Dnnstans 
«a Mr. Thomas Wilson, Otham 
§ Tho. Wincop, D. D. Elesworth 
wr John Wincop, D. D. St. Martin's in the Fields 
^ Mr. Francis Woodcock, Proctor of the University of Gambridge 
v Mr. Thomas Young, Stow-Market 

Ministers from Scotland. 
^ Mr. Alexander Henderson 
«f Mr. George Gillespie 
«r Mr. Samuel Rutherford 
^ Mr. Robert Bayly. 

Before the assembly sat, the king, by his royal procla- 
mation of June 22, forbad their meeting for the purposes 
therein mentioned ; and declared, that no acts done by 
them ought to be received by his subjects ; he also threat- 
ened to proceed against them with the utmost severity of 
the law jjf nevertheless, sixty-nine assembled in King 
Henry the seventh's chapel the first day, according to sum- 
mons, not in their canonical habits, but chiefly in black 
coats and bauds in imitation of the foreign protestants. 
Few of the episcopal divines appeared, and those who did, 
after some time, withdrew for the following reasons. 

* Dr. Grey refers to the S5th of Henry VIII, c. 19, or the act of sub- 
mission of the clergy, to prove this assembly illegal. Ed. 


Obj. i. "Because the assembly was prohibited by the 
' royal proclamation ; which Dr. Twisse, in his sermon 
' at the opening the assembly, lamented, but hoped in due 
' time his majesty's consent might be obtained. 

JLnsw. To which it was replied, " That the constitution 

* at present was dissolved ; that there were two sovereign 
' contending powers in the nation ; and if the war in which 
' the parliament was engaged was just aud necessary, they 
' might assume this branch of the prerogative, till the na- 

* tion was settled, as well as auy other. 

Obj. 2. " Beeause the members of the assembly were 
' not chosen by the clergy, and therefore could not appear 

* as their representatives. 

JLnsw. To which it was answered, '* That the. assem- 
' bly was not designed for a national synod, or represent- 
ative body of the clergy, but only as a committee, or coun- 
' cil to the parliament, to give their opinion touching such 
' church matters as the houses should lay before them; they 
' had no power of themselves to make laws or canons, or 
'determine controversies in matters of faith. They were 
' to enter upon no business but what the parliament ap- 
1 pointed, and when they had done they were to offer it to 

* the two houses only as their humble advice ; and surely 
i the parliament might choose their own council, without 

* being obliged to depend upon the nomination of the cler- 

Obj. 3. " But as great an exception as any, was their 
'dislike of the company, and of the business they were to 
' transact ; there was a mixture of laity with the clergy ; 
' the divines were for the most part of a puritanical stamp, 
1 and enemies to the hierarchy ; and their business (they 
'apprehended) was to pull down that which they would 
' uphold. 

JLnsw. " This being not designed for a legal convoca- 
' tion, but for a council to the parliament in the reforma- 
' tion of the church, they apprehended they had a power 
' to join some of their own members with such a committee 
' or council, without intrenching upon the rights of convo- 

' cation. The divines, except the Scots aud French, 

' were in episcopal orders, educated in our own universi- 

Vor, TH. 11 


6 ties, and most of them graduates ; their business was on- 
My to advise about such points of doctrine and church dis- 
i cipline as should be laid before them, in which the epis- 

* copal divines might have been of service, if they had con- 
i tinned with the assembly, to which they were most earn- 
' estly invited." 

I believe no set of clergy since the beginning of Chris- 
tianity have suffered so much in their characters and rep- 
utations,* as these, for their advices to the two houses of 
parliament. In his majesty's proclamation of June 83, the 
far greatest part of them are said to be men of no learning 
or reputation. Lord Clarendon admits,! u about twenty 
( of them were reverend and worthy persons, and episco- 
i pal in their judgments; but as to the remainder, they 
'were but pretenders to divinity; some were infamous in 
< their lives and conversations, and most of them of very 

* mean parts and learning, if not of scandalous ignorance, 
6 ?nd of no other reputation than of malice to the church of 
' England." His lordship would insinuate, that they un- 
derstood not the original text, because the learned Mr. Sel- 
den sometimes corrected the English translation of their 
little pocket bibles, and put them into confusion, by his 
uncommon acquaintance with Jewish antiquities ; as if 
that great man would have treated a convocation with more 
decency or respect. || But archbishop Laud's account is 

* " And no set of clergy, 1 ' says Dr. Grey, " ever deserved it more :" 
and to shew this, he quotes a virulent invective against them by Greg. 
Williams, bishop of Ossory. Ed. 

f Clarendon, vol. i. p. 530. 

J| Bishop Warburton has no doubt but Mr. Seldeu would have treated 
a convocation with more decency and respect. For Ins lordship adds, 
" he had infinitely more esteem for the learning of the episcopal cler- 
t gy though, perhaps, no more love for their persons." In what esti- 
mation Mr. Selden held the learning of the episcopal clergy, has been 
shewn vol. ii. p. 139, the note. With what respect he was likely to 
speak of a convocation, the reader will judge from the following pas- 
sage, in his Table-Talk, p. 37, in the edition of 1777, under the word 
clergy. " The clergy and laity together are," says he, < ; never like to 
' do well ; it is as if a man were to make an excellent feast, and should 
i have his apothecary and his physician came into the kitchen : (he 
' cooks, if they were let alone, would make excellent meat, but then 

* comes the apothecary, and he puts rhubarb into one sauce, and agar- 


still more extravagant ; for though it is notorious the as- 
sembly would not allow a toleration to those whom they 
called sectaries, yet his grace says, u the greatest part of 

* them were Brownists or independants, or New-England 

* ministers, if not worse, or at best enemies to the doctrine 

* and discipline of the church of England ;" whereas in 
truth there was not above six independants in the assem- 
bly, and not one New-England minister that I know of. 
If the reader will carefully peruse the list, he will find in 
it some of the most considerable lawyers and. ablest divines 
of the last age ; and though they might have mistaken no- 
tions of church discipline, and were no better acquainted 
with the rights of conscience and private judgment, than 
their predecessors the bishops, yet with all their faults, 
impartial posterity must acknowledge the far greater num- 
ber were men of exemplary piety and devotion, who had 
a real zeal for the glory of God, and the purity of the 
christian faith and practice. Mr. Eachard confesses, that 
lord Clarendon had perhaps witli two much severity said, 
that some of these divines were infamous in their lives aud 
characters ; but Mr. Baxter, who was better acquainted 
with them than his lordship,or any of his followers, affirms, 

* that they were men of eminent learning, godliness, miu- 
4 isterial abilities, and fidelity/' 

The assembly was opened on Saturday July 1, 1643, 
with a sermon preached by Dr. Tivisse in king Henry the 
seventh's chapel, both houses of parliament being present. 
The ordinauce for their convention was then read, and the 
names of the members called over, after which they ad- 
journed to Monday, and agreed on the following rules : 

(1.) ' , That every session begiu and end with a prayer. 
(2.) " That after the first prayer, the names of the as- 

' ic into another sauce. Chain up the clergy on both sides.'' That he 
had no high opinion of I he power and authority of a convocation, may 
he concluded from his comparing it to ' ; a courl-leet, where they have 
' a power to make bye-laws as they call them ; as that a man shall 

* put so many cows or sheep in the common ; but they can make noth- 

* ing that is contrary to the laws of the kingdom." Under the word 

CONVOCATION', p. 43. E», 

84 'MiE HISTORY CHAP. £ t 

i sembly be called over, and those that are absent marked ; 

* but if any member comes in afterwards, he shall have li- 

* berty to give in his name to the scribes. 

(3.) "That every member before his admission to sit 
*' and vote, do take the following vow or protestation : 

"I Jl. B. do seriously and solemnly, in the presence 
i of Almighty God, declare that in this assembly whereof 
f I am a member, I will not maintain any thing in matter 
1 of doctrine but what I believe in my conscience to be most 
c agreeable to the w ord of God ; or in point of discipline, 

< but what I shall conceive to conduce most to the glory of 
( God, and the good and peace of his church." 

And to refresh their memories this protestation was read 
in the assembly every Monday morning. 

(4.) " That the appointed hour of meeting be ten in the 
f morning ; the afternoon to be reserved for committees. 

(5.) " That three of the members of the assembly be 
( appointed weekly as chaplains, one to the house of lords, 
( another to the house of commons, and a third to the com- 
6 mittee of both kingdoms." The usual method was to 
take it by turns, and every Friday the chaplains were ap- 
pointed for the following week. 

(6.) " That all the members of the assembly have liberty 

< to be covered, except the scribes f 9 who sometime after 
had also this liberty indulged them. 

Besides these, the parliament on Thursday following 
sent them some further regulations. As, 

(1.) " That two assessoi's be joined with the prolocutor, 
{ to supply his place in case of absence or sickness, viz. 
6 Dr. Cornelius Surges, and the reverend Mr. John White 
6 of Dorchester. 

(2.) " That scribes be appointed, who are not to vote 
f in the assembly, viz. the reverend Mr. Roborough and 
<Mr. Byfield. 

(3.) "That every member at his first entrance into the 
( assembly take the forementioned protestation. 


(4.) "That no resolution be given upon any question 

* the same day wherein it was first proposed. 

(3.) " What any man undertakes to prove as a necessa- 
' ry truth in religion he shall make good from the holy 
( scriptures. 

(6.) "No man shall proceed in any dispute, after the 
' prolocutor has enjoined him silence, unless the assembly 

* desire he may go on. 

(7.) " No man shall be denied the liberty of entering his 
< dissent from the assembly, with his reasons for it, after 
' the point has been debated ; from whence it shall be 
f transmitted to parliament, when either house shall re- 
i quire it. 

(8.) " All things agreed upon, and prepared for the par- 
' liament, shall be openly read, and allowed in the assem- 
' bly, and then offered as their judgment, if the majority 
'asseut; provided, that the opinions of the persons dis- 
'sentiog, with their reasons, be annexed, if they desire it, 
e and the solution of those reasons by the assembly." 

'The proceedings being thus settled, the parliament sent 
the ass mbly an order to review the XXXIX articles of the 
church ; but before they entered upon business, viz. July 
7ih, they petitioned the two houses for a fast, on a day 
when the reverend Mr. Bowles and Matth. JVewcomen 
preached before them. Upon which petition bishop Ken- 
nel passes the following severe censure, Impartially speak- 
ing, it is stuft with schism, sedition, and cruelty : I will 
therefore set the substance of the petition before the reader 
in their own language, that he may form his own judg- 
ment upon it, and upon the state of the nation. 

To the Right Honorable the Lords and Commons assem- 
bled in parliament. 
The humble petition of divers ministers of Christ, in the 
name of themselves, and sundry others, 
Humbly sheweth, 

" THAT your petitioners upon serious consideration, 
' and deep sense of God's heavy wrath lying upon us, and 
( banging over our heads, and the whole nation, manifest- 
' ed particularly by the two late sad and unexpected de- 
f feats of our forces in the north and in the west, do appre- 


' hend it to be our duty, as watchmen for the good of the 
' church and kingdom, to present to your religious and pru- 
' dent consideration these ensuing requests, in the name of 
{ Jesus Christ, your Lord and ours. 

First, " That you will be pleased to command a public 
< and extraordinary day of humiliation this week, through- 

* out the cities of London, Westminster, the suburbs of 
'both, and places adjacent within the weekly bills of mor- 
tality, that every one may bitterly bewail his own sins, 
( and cry mightily to God, for Christ's sake, to remove his 
' wrath, and to heal the land ; with professedly new reso- 
' lution of more full performance of the late covenant, for 
4 the amendment of our ways. 

Secondly, "That you would vouchsafe instantly to take 

* into your most serious consideration, how you may more 
' speedily set up Christ more gloriously in all his ordinan- 
' ces within this kingdom, and reform all things amiss 
4 throughout the land, wherein God is more specially, and 
'more immediately dishonored, among which we humbly 
'lay before you these particulars : 

1. '* That the brutish ignorance, and palpable darkness 
6 possessing the greatest part of the people, in all places 
'of the kingdom, may be remedied, by a speedy and strict 
' charge to all ministers, constantly to catechise all the 
' youth and ignorant people within their parishes. 

%. " That the grievous and heinous pollution of the 
' Lord's supper, by those who are grossly ignorant, and no- 
•' toriously profane, may be henceforth, with all christian 
' care and due circumspection, prevented. 

3. " That the bold venting of corrupt doctrines, direct- 
'ly contrary to the sacred law of God, may be speedily 
y suppressed. 

4. " That the profanation of any part of the Lord's 

* day, and the days of solemn fasting, by buying, selling, 
' working, sporting, travelling, or neglecting of God's or- 

* dinanccs, may be remedied, by appointing special officers 
'in every place for the due execution of all good laws and 
' ordinances against the same. 

5. « That there may be a thorough and speedy proceed- 

* ing against blind guides, and scandalous ministers ; and 

* that your wisdom would find out some way to admit in- 


* to the ministry such godly and hopeful men as have pre- 
4 pared themselves, and are willing thereunto, without 
i which there will suddenly be such a scarcity of able and 
4 faithful ministers, that it will be to little purpose to cast 
4 out such as are unable, idle, or scandalous. 

6. " That the laws may be quickened against swearing 
4 and drunkenness, with which the land is filled and deftl- 
<ed, and under which it mourns. 

7. " That some severe course be taken against fornica- 
1 tion, adultery, and incest, which do greatly abound. 

8. " That all monuments of idolatry and superstition. 

* but more especially the whole body and practice of po- 
4 pery may be totally abolished. 

9. M That justice may be executed on all delinquents, 
4 according to your religious vow and protestation to that 
4 purpose. 

10. " That all possible means may be used for the speedy 
** relief and release of our miserable, and extremely dis- 

* tressed brethren, who are prisoners in Oxford, York, and 
4 elsewhere, whose heavy sufferings cry aloud in the ears 
4 of our God ; aud it would lie very heavy on t>ie king- 
i dom should they miscarry suffering as they do for the 
' cause of God. 

" That so God, who is now by the sword avenging the 
4 quarrel of his covenant, beholding you? integrity and 
' zeal, may turn from the fierceness of his wrath, hear our 
4 prayers, go forth with our armies, perfect the work of 
4 reformation, forgive our sins, and settle truth and peace 
4 throughout the kingdom. 

M And your petitioners shall ever pray, 8£c\ 

Pursuant to this petition, Friday July 21,* was appoint- 
ed for a fast, when the reverend Mr. Hill, Mr. Spur stow, 
and Mr. Vines, preached before both houses of parliament 
and the assembly together ; and the fast was observed with 
great solemnity in all the churches within the limits above 

t Rushworth, vol. v. p. 344. 

*" July 7th," Dr. Grey says, "was the day on whicc Mr. Bowfa* 
i and Newcomen preached. Ed. 


Next day a committee of divines was appointed to con- 
sider what amendments were proper to be made in the 
doctrinal articles of the church of England, ami report 
them to the assembly, who were ten weeks in debating; up- 
on the first fifteen, before the arrival of the Scots commis- 
sioners ; the design was to render their sense more ex- 
press and determinate in favor of Calvinism. It is not nec- 
essary to trouble the reader with the theological debates ; 
but the articles, as they were new modelled, being rarely 
to be met with, I have placed them in the appendix, with 
the original articles of the church, in opposite columns, 
that the reader, by comparing them, may judge whether 
the alterations are real improvements.* 

As the assembly were for strengthening the doctrines of. 
the church against arminianism, they were equally soli- 
citous to guard against the opposite extreme of antinom- 
ianism, for which purpose they appointed a committee to 
peruse the writings of Dr. Crisp, Eaton, Saltmarsh, and 
others ; who having drawn out some of their most danger- 
ous positions, reported them to the assembly, where they 
were not only condemned, but confuted in their public ser- 
mons and writings. 

At this time the interest of the parliament was so reduc- 
ed, they were obliged to call in the assistance of the Scots. 
The conservators of the peace of that kingdom had appoint- 
ed a convention of the states, June 22, under pretence of 
securing their country against the power of the royal army 
in the north ;§> and a general assembly, Aug. 2, to consid- 
er the state of religion. His majesty would have prevent- 
ed their meeting, but that being impracticable, he gave or- 
ders to limit their consultations to the concerns of their 
own country ; but the parliament of England sent the earl 
of Rutland, sir William Armyn, sir H. Vane, Mr. Hatch- 
er, Mr. Darleij, and two divines from Westminster, viz. 
Mr. Marshal and Mr. JVey, with letters to each of these 

* Appendix, No. VII. 

§Yet these conservators issued out, in the king's name, a proclama- 
tion for all persons, from 16 to 60 years old, to appear in arms. " At 
' which," says Rushworth, " the king was much incensed," Dr. Grey 
Who will not own, that he had great reason to resent his name being 
used against himself? Ed. 


assemblies, desiring their assistance in the war, and the 
assistance cf some of their divines with those at Westmin- 
ster, to settle an uniformity of religion and church govern- 
ment between the two nations. To enforce these requests 
they delivered a letter from the assembly, " setting forth 
' the deplorable condition of the kingdom of England, which 
' was upon the e'A^e of a most desperate precipice, ready 
'to be swallowed up by Satan and his instruments; they 
•represent the cruelty of their euemies against such as fall 

* into their hands, being armed against them, not only as 

* men, but as christians, as protestants, and as reformers, 
' and that if they should be given up to their rage, they 

* fear it will endanger the safety of all the protestant church- 
'es. In a deeper sense of this danger (say they) than we 
'can express, we address you in the bowels of Christ, for 
'your most fervent prayers and advice, what further to do 
'for the making our own and the kiugdom's peace with 

* God, and for the uniting the protestant party more firmly, 
4 that we may all serve God with one consent, aud stand 
' up against antichrist as one man.''* 

The commissioners arrived at Edinburgh August 9, and 
were favorably received by the assembly, who proposed 
as a preliminary, that the two nations should enter into a 
perpetual covenant for themselves and their posterity, that 
all things might be done in God's house according to his 
will ; and having appointed some of their number to con- 
sult with the English commissioners about a proper form, 
they chose delegates for the Westminster assembly, and 
unanimously advised the convention of states to assist the 
parliament in the war, for the following reasons : 

1. "Because they apprehend the war was for religion. 
1 2. Because the protestant faith was in danger. 3. Grati- 
' tude for former assistances at the time of the Scots' refor- 
'mation, required a suitable return. 4. Because the 
' churches of Scotland and England being embarked in one 
i bottom, if one be ruined the other cannot subsist. 5. The 
•prospect of uuiformity between the two kingdoms in dis- 
' cipline aud worship, will strengthen the protectant inter- 
i est at home and abroad. 0. The present parliament had 

* Rushworlh, vol. v. p. 463, -166, 489. 

Vol. III. 13 


"been friendly to the Scots, and might be so again. 7- 
'Though the king had so lately established their religion 
' according to their desires, yet they could not confide in 
' his royal declarations, having so often found facta verbis 
e contraria."* 

The instructions of the commissioners sent to the assem- 
bly at Westminster, were to promote the extirpation of po- 
pery, prelacy, heresy, schism, scepticism and idolatry, aud 
to endeavor an union betweeu the two kingdoms in one 
confession of faith, one form of church government, and 
one directory of worship. 

The committee for drawing up the solemn league and 
covenant delivered it into the assembly, Aug. 17? where it 
was read- and highly applauded, by the ministers and lay- 
elders, none opposing it except the king's commissioners,* 
so that it passed both the assembly and convention in one 
day,§> aud was dispatched next morning to Westminster, 
with a letter to the two houses, wishiug that it might be 
confirm) 1 1, and solemnly sworn and subscribed in both 
kingdoms, as the surest and strictest obligation to make 
them stand and fall together in the cause of religion and 

Mr. Marshal and J\Tye in the letter to the assembly of 
Aug. 18, assure their brethren, the Scots clergy were en- 
tirely on the side of the parliament in this quarrel, against 
the popish and episcopal faction ; that there were between 
twenty and thirty of the prime nobility present, when the 
covenant passed the convention ; and that even the king's 
commissioners confessed, that in their private capacity they 
were for it, though as his majesty's commissioners they 
were bound to Oppose it. So that if the English parlia- 
ment (say they) comply with the form of this covenant, we 

* Rushwprth, vol. v. p. 472, See. 
§ 4 < Wise observers." bishop Burnet adds, " wondered to see a matter 
' of that importance, carried through upon so lit! le deliberation, or de- 

• bate. Jt was thought strange to see all their consciences of such a 
•size, so exactly lo agree as the several wheels of a dock; which 
f made all apprehend, there was some first mover that directed all those 

• other motions: this by (he one party was imputed to God's extraor- 
dinary providence, but by others to the power and policy of the lead- 
' ers, and the simplicity and fear of the rest." Memoirs of the Duke 
ef Hamilton, p. 239. Ed. 


are persuaded the whole body of the Scots kingdom will 
live and die with them, and speedily come to their assist- 

When their commissioners arrived at London, they pre- 
sented the covenant to the two houses, who referred it to 
the assembly of divines, where it met with some little op- 
position ; Dr. Featly declared, he durst not abjure prelacy 
absolutely, because he had sworn to obey his bishop in all 
things lawful and honest, and therefore proposed to qual- 
ify the second article thus, 1 toill endeavor the extirpation 
of popery, and all antichristian, tyrannical, or independ- 
ent prelacy ; but it was carried against him. Dr. Burges 
objected to several articles, and was not without some dif- 
ficulty persuaded to subscribe, after he had been suspend- 
ed. The prolocutor Mr. Gataker, and many others, de- 
clared for primitive episcopacy, or for one stated president 
with his presbyters to govern every church; and refused 
to subscribe till a parenthesis was inserted, declaring what 
sort of prelacy was to be abjured, viz. \_church govern- 
ment by archbishops, bishops, deans and chapters, arch- 
deacons, and all other ecclesiastical ojjicers depending upon 
them.~\\ The Scots, who had been introduced into the as- 
sembly Sept. 15, were for abjuring episcopacy as simply 
unlawful, but the English divines were generally against it. 

Bishop Burnet says, our commissioners pressed chiefly 
for a civil league, but the Scots would have a religious 
one, to which the English were obliged to yield, taking 
care, at the same time, to leave a door open for a latitude 
of interpretation.* Sir Henry Vane put the word league 
into the title, as thinking that might be broken sooner than 
a covenant ; and in the first article he inserted that general 
phrase, of reforming according to the word of God; by 
which the English thought themselves secure from the in- 
roads of presbytery ; but the Scots relied upon the next 
words, and according to the practice of the best reformed 
churches ; in which they were confident their discipline 
must be included. When Mr. Colman read the cove nant be- 
fore the house of lords, in order to their subscribing it, he de- 
clared, that by prelacy all sorts of episcopacy were not in* 

t Calamy ? s Abridg. p. 81. 
* Duke of Hamilton's Memoirs, p. 237, 240. 

92 the history chap. §. 

tended, but only the form therein described. Thus the 
wise men on both sides endeavored to outwit each other 
in wording the articles ; and with these slight amendments 
the covenant passed the assembly and both houses of par- 
liament ; and by an order dated September 21, was prints 
ed and published as follows : 

A solemn League and Covenant for reformation, and, de- 
fence of religion,, the honor and happiness of the king, 
and the peace and safety of the three kingdoms of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland, 
a WE noblemen,, barons, knights, gentlemen, citizens, 
' burgesses, ministers of the gospel, and commons of all 
' sorts, in the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
' by the providence of God, living under one king, and be- 
' ing of one reformed religion, having before our eyes the 
' glory of God, and the advancement of the kingdom of our 
'Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, the honor and happiness 
'of the king's majesty, and his posterity, and the true pub- 
'lie liberty, safety and peace of the kingdoms, wherein 
'every one's private condition is included ; and calling to 
' mind the treacherous and bloody plots, conspiracies, at- 
' tempts, and practices of the enemies of God, against the 
' true religion, and professors thereof in all places, especial- 
'ly in these three kingdoms, ever since the reformation of 
'religion ; and how much their rage, power, and presump- 
'tion, are of late and at this time increased and exercised, 
' whereof the deplorable estate of the church and kingdom 
' of Ireland, the distressed estate of the church and kingdom 
'of England, and the dangerous estate of the church and 
' kingdom of Scotland, are present and public testimonies ; 
c we have (now at last) after other means of supplication, re- 
' monstrance, protestations, and sufferings, for the preser- 
' vation of our lives, and our religion, from utter ruin and 
' destruction, according to the commendable practice of 
' these kingdoms in former times, and the example of God's 
'people in other nations, after mature deliberation, resol- 
'ved and determined to enter into a mutual and sol- 
' emn league and covenant, wherein we all subscribe and 
' each one of us for himself, with our hands lifted up to 
c the most high God, do swear, 



" That we shall sincerely, really, and constantly, through 

< the grace of God, endeavor in our several places and cal- 
' lings, the preservation of the reformed religion in the 

* church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, discipline and 
' government, against our common enemies ; the reforma- 
6 tion of religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, 
' in doctrine, worship, discipline and government, accord- 
' ing to the word of God, and the example of the best re- 

* formed churches ; and we shall endeavor to bring the 

< church of God in the three kingdoms to the nearest con- 

< junction, and uniformity iu religion, confessing of faith, 
6 form of church government, directory for worship, and cat- 
' echising, that we, and our posterity after us, may, as 
e brethren, live in faith and love, and the Lord may delight 
' to dwell in the midst of us. 


" That we shall in like manner, without respect of per- 
6 sons, endeavor the extirpation of popery, prelacy, (that 
i is, church government by archbishops, bishops, their chan- 
( cellors and commissaries, deans, deans and chapters, arch- 
( deacons, and all other ecclesiastical officers depending on 
6 that hierarchy) superstition, heresy, schism, profaneness, 
' and whatsoever shall be found to be coutrary to sound 
' doctrine, and the power of godliness, lest we partake in 
6 other men's sins, and thereby be in danger to receive of 
' their plagues ; and that the Lord may be one, and his 
c name one, in the three kingdoms. 


(i We shall, with the same reality, sincerity and constan- 
6 cy, iu our several vocations, endeavor with our estates 

< and lives, mutually to preserve the rights and privileges 
6 of the parliaments, and the liberties of the kingdoms, and 
' to preserve and defend the king's majesty's person and 

* authority, in the preservation and defence of the true re- 

* ligion and liberties of the kingdoms, that the. world may < 
1 bear witness with our consciences, of our loyalty, and 

( that we have no thoughts or intentions to diminish his 
( majesty's just power and greatness. 



" We shall also, with all faithfulness, endeavor the dis- 
i covery of all such as have been or shall be incendiaries, 
( malignants, or evil instruments, by hindering the re form - 
'ation of religion, dividing the king from his people, or 
' one of the kingdoms from another, or making any factions 
' or parties among the people, contrary to the league and 
' covenant, that they may be brought to public trial, and 
' receive condign punishment, as the degree of their offences 
' shall require or deserve, or the supreme judicatories of 
' both kingdoms respectively, or others having power from 
f them for that effect, shall judge convenient. 


"And whereas the happiness of a blessed peace between 
' these kingdoms, denied in former times to our progeni- 
c tors, is by the good providence of God granted unto us, 
'and has been lately concluded and settled by both parlia- 
ments, we shall, each one of us according to our places 
' and interests, endeavor that we may remain conjoined in 
' a firm peace and union to all posterity, and that justice 
' may be done on all the wilful opposers thereof, in man- 
1 ner expressed in the precedent articles. 


"We shall also, according to our places and callings, in 
* this common cause of religion, liberty, and peace of the 
'kingdom, assist and defend all those that enter into this 
'league and covenant, in the maintaining and pursuing 
'thereof; and shall not suffer ourselves, directly or indi- 
' rectly, by whatsoever combination, persuasion, or terror, 
' to be divided and withdrawn from this blessed union and 
' conjunction, whether to make defection to the contrary 
' part, or give ourselves to a detestable indifferency or neu- 
' trality in this cause, which so much concerneth the glory 
' of God, .the good of the kingdoms, and honor of the king; 
' but shall, all the days of our lives, zealously, and con- 
'stantly continue therein against all opposition, and pro- 
' mote the same according to our power, against all lets 
' and impediments whatsoever ; and what we are not able 


'ourselves to suppress or overcome, we shall reveal and 
4 make known, that it may be timely prevented or removed. 
M And because these kingdoms are guilty of many sins 
4 and provocations against God, and his sou Jesus Christ, 
{ as is too manifest by our present distresses and dangers, 
4 the fruits thereof, we profess and declare, before (rod 
1 and the world, our unfeigned desire to be humbled for 

* our own sius, and for the sins of these kingdoms ; espe- 

* cially that we have not, as we ought, valued the inesti- 
4 mable benefit of the gospel ; that we have not labored for 
*< the purity and power thereof: and that we have not en- 
' deavored to receive Christ in our hearts, nor to walk wor- 
4 thy of him* in our lives, which are the cause of other sins- 
4 and transgressions so much abounding amongst us ; and 
4 our true and unfeigned purpose, desire, and endeavor, 
' for ourselves and all others under our charge, both in 
f public and private, in all duties we owe to God and man, 
' to amend our lives, and each one to go before another in 

* the example of a real reformation, that the Lord may 

* turn away his wrath and heavy indignation, and estab- 
4 lish these churches and kingdoms in truth and peace. 
4 And this covenant we make in the presence of Almighty 
i God, the searcher of all hearts, with a true intention to 
' perform the same, as we shall answer at that great day 
i when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed ; most 
' humbly beseeching the Lord to strengthen us by his ho- 

* ly spirit for this end, and to bless our desires and pro- 
4 ceedings with such success as may be a deliverance and 
4 safety to his people, and encouragement to the christian 
A churches, groaning under, or in danger of the yoke of 

* antichristian tyranuy, to join with the same, or like attes- 
' tation and covenant, to the glory of God, the enlargement 
•of the kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the peace and tran- 
4 quillity of christian kingdoms and commonwealths."* 

Monday Sept. 25, 1813, was appointed for subscribing 
this covenant, when both houses, with the Scots commis- 
sioners, and assembly of divines, being met in the church 
•f St. Margaret's Westminster, the reverend Mr. White, 

* Rushworth, vol. v. p. 47s. 


of Dorchester, opened the solemnity with prayer ; after 
him Mr. Henderson and Mr. Nye spoke in justification of 
taking the covenant from scripture precedents, and dis- 
played the advantage the church had received from such 
sacred combinations. Mr. Henderson spoke next, and de- 
clared that the states of Scotland had resolved to assist 
the parliament of England, in carrying on the ends and 
designs of this covenant ; then Mr. Nye read it from the 
pulpit with an audible voice, article by article, each per- 
son standing uncovered, with his right hand lifted up bare 
to heaven, worshipping the great name of God, and swear- 
ing to the performance of it.* Dr. Gauge concluded the 
solemnity with prayer, after which the house of commons 
went up into the chancel, and subscribed their names in one 
roll of parchment, and the assembly in another, in both 
which the covenant was fairly transcribed. Lord's day 
following it was tendered to all persons within the bills of 
mortality, heing read in the several churches to their con- 
gregations as above. October 15, it was taken by the 
house of lords, after a sermon preached by Dr. Temple, 
from Nehemiah x. 2-9, and an exhortation by Mr. Coleman, 
Oct. 29, it was ordered by the committee of states in Scot- 
land to be sworn to, and subscribed all over that kingdom, 
on penalty of the confiscation of goods and rents, and such 
other puninshment as his majesty and the parliament 
should inflict on the refusers. § All the lords of the coun- 
cil were summoned to sign the covenant Nov. 2, and those 
who did not, to appear again the 14th of the same month, 
under the severest penalties, when some of the king's party 
not attending were declared enemies to religion, and to 
their king and country ; Nov. 17, their goods were order- 
ed to be seized, and their persons apprehended; upon 
which they lied into England. Such was the unbounded 
zeal of that nation ! February 2, following, the covenant 
was ordered to be taken throughout the kingdom of Eng- 
land, by all persons above the age of eighteen years : and 
the assembly were commanded to draw up an exhortation 
to dispose people to it, which heing approved by both 
houses, was published under the title of 

* 'Rush, worth, vol. v. p. 475. § Duke of Hamilton's Memoirs, p. 240. 


An Exhortation to the taking of the solemn League and 
Covenant, for reformation and defence of religion, the 
honor and happiness of the king, and the peace and 
safety of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, and for satisfying such scruples as may arise 
in the taking of it ; assented to by the house, and or- 
dered to be printed. 

Die Veneris, Feb. 9, 1643. 

" IF the power of religion, or solid reason ; if loyal - 
& ty to the king, and piety to their native country, or love 
e to themselves, and natural affection to their posterity ; if 
i the example of men touched with a deep sense of all 
1 these ; or extraordinary success from God thereupou, can 
( awaken an embroiled bleeding remnant to embrace the 
£ sovereign and ouly means of their recovery, there can be 
< no doubt but this solemn league and covenant will find, 
i wheresoever it shall be tendered, a people ready to euter- 

* tain it with all cheerfulness and duty. 

" And were it not commended to the kingdom by the 
\ concurrent encouragement of the honorable houses of 

* parliament, the assembly of divines, the renowned city 
i of London, multitudes of other persons of eminent rank 

* and quality of this nation, and the whole body of Scot- 
' land, who have all willingly sworn and subscribed it with 
*' rejoicing at the oath, so graciously seconded from heav- 
' en ajready, by blasting the counsels, and breaking the 
( power of tiitf enemy more than ever, yet it goeth forth in 
i its own strength with such convincing evidence of equi- 
' ty, truth, and righteousness, as may raise in all (not wil- 
lfully ignorant, or miserably seduced) inflamed affections 
i to join with their brethren in this happy bond, for put- 

* tiug an end to the present miseries, and for saving both 
{ king and kingdom from utter ruin, now so strongly and 
6 openly labored by the popisli faction, and such as have 

* been bewitched and besotted by that viperous and bloody 
? generation.^ 

It then proceeds to answer objections against taking the 
covenant ; as, 

§ Ruslworth, vol. v. p. 475. Husband's Collections, p. 42i. 
Vol. III. 13 


Obj. 4. That it obliges to the extirpation of prelacy, 
which stands as yet by the known laws of the land. 

Answ. The life and soul of the hierarchy is already ta- 
ken away; nothing of jurisdiction remaining; and since 
it is -hut a human constitution, if it be found a grievance, 
we may certainly endeavor its extirpation in a lawful way. 

Obj. 2. It is said to be inconsistent with the oath of ca- 
nonical obedience. 

Jlnsw. If men have sworn obedience to the laws of the 
land, may they not endeavor by lawful means the repeal- 
ing those laws, if they are found inconvenient? or if any 
ministers have taken oaths not warranted by the laws of 
God and the land, ought they not to repent of them ? 

Obj. 8. But"/7*e covenant crosses the oaths of supremacy 
and allegiance. 

Jlnsu*. This is false, for it binds to the preservation of 
the king's person and authority, in the defence of the re- 
ligion and liberties of tiie kingdom. 

Obj. 4. But it is done without the king's consent. 

Jlnsw. So was the protestation of May 5, which went 
through the whole kingdom, his majesty not excepting 
against it, though he was then at Whitehall. The same 
has been done by the united Netherlands under King Phil- 
ip ; and more lately in Scotland, his majesty himself de- 
claring by act of parliament, that they had done nothing 
but what became loyal and obedient subjects. 

Dr. Barwick says ? f that some persons in the university 
of Cambridge published an answer to this exhortation, 
which 1 have not seen ; but if the reader will look forward 
to the year 1647!> he will find the reasons of the university 
of Oxford against it, confirmed in convocation, the validity 
of which he will judge of for himself. It is certain most 
of the religious^ part of the nation, who apprehended the 

f Life of Barwick, p. 35. 

§ '"• That is," sa\s bishop Warburton, :< the puritan : for puritanism 
' and religion are convertible terms with this historian." This evi- 
dently appears to be remarked with a sneer, and to impeach the impar- 
tially of Mr. Neal. But .in answer to the remark it may he observ- 
ed, that it is not candid to interpret Mr. Neal's words, as if he limit- 
ed all seriousness of character to the puritans: — and then the question 
is, whether the fact was not as Mr. Neal states it? if it were, his lan- 
guage is irreprehensible. Ed. 


protestaut religion io danger, and were desirous of reduc- 
ing the hirearchy of the church, were zealous for the cov- 
enant. Others took it only in obedience to the parliament; 
being sensible of the distressed circumstances of their af- 
fairs, and that the assistance of the Scots was to be obtain- 
ed on no other terms. y But as it was a test of a mixed 
nature, and contained some obligations upon conscience, 
which wise and honest men might reasonably scruple, who 
were otherwise well affected to the protestant religion, and 
the liberties of their country, the imposing it as a test can 
never be justified, though it appears, most of the episcopal 
divines who made the greatest figure in the church after 
the restoration, did not refuse it. 

Together with the exortaiion of the assembly, the follow- 
ing orders* and instructions were dispersed over the king- 
dom. ^ 

Ordered, " That copies of the covenant be sent to all 
( commanders in chief, aud governors of towns, forts, gar- 
4 risous, and soldiers, that it may be taken by all soldiers 
' under their command. 

" That copies be sent to the committees of parliament, iu 

* the several counties that are under the power of the par- 
liament, and that the committees within six days disperse 
' the said copies, and cause them to be delivered to the 
' ministers, church-wardens, or constables of the several 
6 parishes. 

" That the several ministers be required to read the co- 
' venant to the people, the next Lord's day after they have 
' prepared the people to take it. 

"That the committees of paliaraent take it themselves 
' within seven days after they have received the copies ; 
' and then disperse themselves throughout their counties, 
6 so as three or four of them may be together at the several 
' places appointed for the people to take it. That they 
' summon all the ministers, churchwardens, constables, and 
' other officers, to that place, and after a sermon preached 
'by a minister whom they shall appoint, they shall cause 
( the said minister to tender the covenant to all such min- 
6 isters, and other officers, to be taken and subscribed in 

• presence of the committee. 

f Rapin, vol. xii. p. 433. * Husband's Collection, p. *3Q, 


i< The said ministers are then to be required to tender 
' the covenant to all the rest of their parishioners next 
* Lord's day, and if any minister refuse, or neglect to ap- 
i pear at the £$aA summons, or refuse to take the srid co- 
' venant, the committee shall appoint another minister to 
6 do it in his place. 

" If any minister refuse to take, or tender the covenant ; 
i or if any other person refuse to take it after a second ten, 
4 der, upou two Lord's days, their names shall be return- 
i ed to the committee, and by them to the house of com- 
*mous; and all persons that absent themselves after no- 
<tice given, shall be returned as refusers." 

The English in foreign parts were not exempted from 
this test; directions were sent to Mr. Strickland, the par- 
liament's agent at the Hague, to tender it to all the English 
in those countries, and to certify the names of such as re- 
fused.* Here the elector Palatine took it. and after some 
time came into England, and condescended to sit in the 
assembly of divines. December 20, 1643, it was ordered 
by the lords and commons, that uo person should be capa- 
ble of being elected a common-council-man of the city of 
London, or so much as have a voice in such elections, who 
bas not taken the covenant. J On the 29th of Jan. 1644, it 
was ordered by the commons, that the solemn league and 
covenant be. upon every day of fasting and public humilia- 
tion, publicly read in every church and congregation with- 
in the kingdom ; and every congregation is enjoined to 
have one fairly printed in a large letter, in a table fitted 
to be hung up in a public place of the church or congrega- 
tion, to be read by the people. All young ministers were 
required to take the covenant at their ordination ; none of 
the laity were continued in any office of trust, either civil 
or military, who refused it. When the war was ended, all 
the noblemen, knights, gentlemen, and officers who had 
opposed the parliament, were obliged to submit to it, before 
they were admitted to composition. Notwithstanding all 
this severity, Dr. Calamy says, Mr. Baxter kept his people 
from taking the covenant, as fearing it might be a snare to 
their consciences ; nay, he prevented it being much taken 

* Whitlocke, p. 79. Parliamentary Chronicle, p. 172. 
| Husband's Collections, p. 40}. 

CHAP. 2. OF THE PUH1TAN£:< 101 

in the county be lived in, by keeping the ministers from 
offering it their people, except the city of Worcester, where 
be had no great interest. f 

The king could not be unacquainted with these proceed- 
ings, for the covenant lay before the parliament and assem- 
bly almost a month, during which time his majesty took 
no public notice of it; but a fortnight after it had been 
subscribed by both houses, and by all the clergy and laity 
within the bills of mortality, he issued out the following 
proclamation, dated from Oxford, October 9, in the nine- 
teenth year of his reign. 

By the King. 

u WHEREAS there is a printed paper, entitled a 
'solemn league and covenant, for reformation and defence 

* of religion, &c. pretended to be printed by order of the 
' house of commons, September 21, which covenant, tho ? 

* it seems to make specious expressions of piety and relig- 
' ion, is in truth nothing else but but a traitorous and sedi- 
' tious combination against us and the established religion 
' and laws of this kingdom, in pursuance of a traitorous de- 
' sign and endeavor to bring in foreign force to invade this 
'kingdom : We do therefore straitly charge and command 
' all our loving subjects, of what degree or quality soever, 
' upon their allegiance, that they presume not to take the 
' said seditious and traitorous covenant. And we do like- 
' wise hereby further inhibit and forbid all our subjects to 
'impose, administer, or tender the said covenant, as they, 
' and every one of them, will answer the contrary at their 
' utmost and extremest perils."* 

His majesty sent the like declaration into Scotland, to 
which the states of that kingdom paid no further regard, 
than to send him the reasons of their conduct, with their 
advice to his majesty to take the covenant himself. 

Great complaints have been made, and not without rea- 
son, of the execution this test did upon the king's clergy 
throughout the kingdom. It was a new weapon put into 
the hands of the committees, which enabled them with 
more ease and certainty to detect malignant or disaffected 

t Abridg. p. 10 i. * Rushworth, vol. v. p. 482. 


ministers ; for instead of producing a number of witness- 
es, as had been the method hitherto, they now tendered the 
covenat, which the others refusing, gave occasion to the 
general report, that the clergy were turned out of their liv- 
ings only for refusing the covenant, whereas their seques- 
tration was grounded upon other causes: or at least the 
articles of immorality or disaffection to the parliament 
were almost always joined with it. When the covenant 
passed through the parliament quarters, in some towns it 
was neglected, in others the incumbent avoided it, by with- 
drawing for a few weeks, and getting another to officiate. 
Some who refused were displaced, and the names of those 
who absented were returned to the parliament, but little 
or nothing came of it. The writer of the life of bishop 
Saunderson says, that in the associated counties of Cam- 
bridgeshire, &c. all were ejected who refused the covenant, 
that is, all to whom it was tendered ; for though it was 
pressed pretty closely in some places notorious for disaf- 
fection, in others, that had been quiet, it was little regard- 
ed. The earl of Manchester had particular instructions 
to tender the covenant to the Cambridge scholars, and yet 
the commissioners imposed it only upon such who had ad- 
hered to the king, or of whose disaffection they had suffi- 
cient evidence, several who behaved peaceably being per- 
mitted to keep their places, who would certainly have re- 
fused it. It has been observed already, that Mr. Baxter 
prevented its being much taken in Worcestershire; and 
no doubt, there were men of moderation and influence who 
did the same in other counties. Those clergymen who 
had declared for the king were usually put to the trial; but 
reputed calvinists, of sober lives, who had stood neuter, 
were frequently overlooked ; so that the beneficed clergy 
suffered by the covenant, rather as parties in the war, than 
as friends of the hierarchy. However, it being a religious 
test, the imposing it was, in my opinion, unwarrantable, 
and a very great hardship, especially as it was for some 
time a door of entrance into ecclesiastical preferments, for 
such young divines as had no concern in the war. A test 
of a civil nature would have answered all the ends of civil 
government, without shackling the consciences of men, 
which ought always to be left free, and open to conviction. 


Bat if the puritan powers bore hard upon the loyalists, in 
imposing the covenant, the king's clergy were even with 
tlirm at the restoration, when they obliged them publickly 
to abjure it, or quit their preferments. 

The necessity of the king's affairs having obliged him 
to arm the papists, and commission the duke of Ormond 
to agree to a cessation of arms with the Irish catholics, ill 
order to draw off his forces from thence, his majesty fell 
under the suspicion of favoring that religion, especially 
when it appeared that not only the protestant soldiers, but 
the Irish rebels, were transported with them. Mr. Whit- 
lock'e* says, several of their officers and soldiers came 
over with the king's army; that a month or two after, 
eight hundred native Irish rebels landed at Weymouth, 
under the lord Inchequin, and another party at Beaumaris, 
which committed great spoils, destroying with fire what 
they could not carry off. Another party landed near Ches- 
ter, under the earl of Cork, and fifteen hundred were cast 
away at sea : these wretches brought hither the same sav- 
age disposition, which they had discovered in their own 
country ; they plundered and killed people in cold blood, 
observing neither the rules of honor, nor the. law of arms. <§> 
Tile Scotch forces, in the north of Ireland, entered into a 
confederacy to stand by each other against the cessation ; 
the parliament of England protested against it, and pub- 
lished a declaration informing the world, that his majesty 
had broke through his royal promise, of leaving the Irish 
war to them ; they forbad all masters of ships to bring over 

* P. 75, 76, 78, 79. Rap fa, vol. ii. p. 486, folio. Clarendon, vol. 
ii. part i. p. 439. 

§ Dr. Grey contrasts this charge against the Irish rebels with instan- 
ces of the ondnct of the English, adherents to the parliament. Ho 
brings forward with this view the murder of Dr. Walter Raleigh, dean 
of Windsor, by the man to whose custody he was committed; and of 
Col. Bulkley, by Major Cheadle : the perpetrators, in each case, were 
acquitted. The doctor also refers to the petition of the Irish cathd- 
lies to the king in 1642, complaining of the violences and cruelties oi' 
which thej were the objects. It is sufficient to observe, that the ciii- 
eliy of one party does not exculpate the other. On which ever side 
acts of injustice and cruelly- are committed, humanity will lament it, 
and equity will reprobate it. Such is th<; nature of war, such is the 
envenomed spirit that irr'tates civil contests, each party is, generally, 
very guilty: and it may not be efiea easy to ascertain the propor- 
tion of guilt. Ed. 

1 Ot THE tllSTOftY CHAP. 2. 

any officers or soldiers, on penalty of the forfeiture of their 
vessels, and gave letters of marque to merchants and oth- 
ers, who would fit out ships at their own expense, impow- 
ering them to take to their own profit all such ships and 
goods as they should meet coming over with soldiers or 
warlike stores for the king. Next year an ordinance was 
published, that no quarter should be given to any Irish 
papist taken in arms against the parliament ; all officers 
were to except them out of their capitulations, and upon 
making them prisoners, were immediately to put them to 

This unhappy management of the king alienated the af- 
fections of great numbers of his friends who had the prot- 
estint religion at heart : many who wished well to his per- 
son deserted him upon this occasion, and made their peace 
with the parliament, as the earls of Holland, Bedford, 
Clare, Carlisle, sir Edward Deering, and others ; this 
last gentleman published the reasons of his conduct to the 
world, the principal of which were, the Irish cessation ; 
his majesty preferring popish officers to chief places of 
trust and honor ; and the language of the Oxford clergy 
and others, that the king should come no other way to his 
■palace but by conquest.* There was certainly a very ma- 
lignant spirit among those gentlemen at this time, as ap- 
pears by their form of thanksgiving, or rather imprecation, 
for the taking of Bristol, and the success of the earl of 
Newcastle's army in the north : " O Lord (say they) 
£ though our sins cry aloud, hear them not, but look to the 

* righteousness of our cause ; see the seamless coat of thy 

* son torn ; the throne of thine anointed trampled upon ; 

* thy church invaded by sacrilege, and thy people misera- 
' My deceived by lies ; see it, O God, as see it thou dost, 
'and vindicate what thou seest on the heads of those who 
•lead these wretches." Many of the earl of JVeic castle's 
soldiers in the north, upon news of the Irish cessation 
threw down their arms, and offered a composition ; and if 
we may believe the Parliamentary Chronicle,! this single 
action lost the king all the northern counties. To put a 
stop to the clamors of the people, and prevent any farther 
desertions, his majesty resolved to support his own char- 

* Rushworth, vol. y. p. 3S3. t Part iii. p. 88. 


acter as a protestant, and accordingly made the following 
protestation in presence of the congregation at Christ- 
church, Oxford, immediately before his receiving the sa- 
crament from the hands of archbishop Usher. 

« My Lord, 

"I espy here many resolved protestants, who may 
' declare to the world the declaration I do now make. I 

* have, to the utmost of aiy power, prepared my soul to be 
' a worthy receiver, and may I so receive comfort from 

* the blessed sacrament, as I do intend the establishment 

* of the true reformed protestant religion, as it stood in its 
i beauty iu the happy days of queen Elizabeth, without 
' any connivance at popery. I bless God that, in the midst 
i of these public distractions, I have still liberty to cora- 
6 municate. And may this sacrament be my damnation, if 
' my heart do not join with my lips in this protestation."* 

How consonant was this with his majesty's actions, when, 
within a few days he agreed to a cessation with the Irish 
papists for a year, and a toleration of their religion ? All 
men knew, that his majesty not only connived at popery, 
but indulged it as far as was in his power ; historians there- 
fore are at a loss to reconcile this solemn appeal to heaven, 
with the king's piety aud sincerity. The parliament was 
so apprehensive of the consequences of bringing over the 
Irish papists, that, by an order of November 22, they de- 
sired the assembly of divines to write letters to the for- 
eign churches of Holland, France, and Switzerland, and 
other places, to inform them of the artifices of his majesty's 
agents ; of the constant employment of Irish rebels, and 
other papists, to be governors, commanders, and soldiers 
in his armies ; of the many evidences of their intentions to 
introduce popery ; to hinder the intended reformation, and 
to condemn other protestant churches as unsound because 
not prelatical ; and that the Scots commissioners be de- 
sired to join with them. In pursuance of this order, the 
assembly wrote the following letter, dated November 30, 
1613 :— 

* Rushworth, p. 310. Rapin. vol. ii. p. 490, folio. 
Vol. III. 14 


<♦' To the Belgick, French. Helvetian, and other reform- 
ed Churches. 

" Right reverend and dearly beloved in our Lord Jesus 

"WE the assembly of divines, and others, convened 
1 by the authority of both houses of parliament, with the 
'commissioners from the general assembly of the church 
« of Scotland, do heartily salute you in the Lord. We. 
' doubt not, but the sad reports of the miseries under 

* which the church and kingdom of England do bleed, 
( and wherewith we are ready to be swallowed up, is long 
' since come to your ears ; and it is probable, the same 

* instruments of satan and antichrist have, by their erais- 
1 saries, endeavored to represent us as black as may be a- 
1 mong yourselves.* — And we sometimes doubt whether 
4 we have not been wanting to our own innocence, and 
1 your satisfaction, in being thus long silent ; but pardon 
' us, dear brethren, if this cup of trembling wherewith our 

< spirits have been filled to amazement, and our wrestling 

* with extreme difficulties ever since our meeting, has hin- 
' desed from that which was our duty ; and give us leave 
« now a little to ease our grief, while we relate the desola- 

* tion made by the antichristian faction, who are for hinder- 
' ing the work of reformation, and for introducing and cher- 
' ishing popery ; and are now arrived to that strength, that 
' if the Lord do not speedily help us, we shall be altogeth- 

* er laid waste by them. 

'« How great a hand they [the prelates] have had, in 
6 the miseries of other reformed churches, in the destruc- 
i tion of the Palatinate, in the loss of Rochel, are so fully 

< known and felt by you all, that we need not speak any 
i thing of them. And we suppose their inveterate hatred 
' against you all is sufficiently manifest, in that multitudes 

< of them have refused to acknowledge any of you for 
« churches of Christ because you are not prelatical, and 
'thereby (as they conceive) want a lawful vocation of min- 

< isters. Sure we are, that among ourselves, scarce one 
' thing can be thought of which may be supposed an argu- 
' ment of their design to advance popery, that has not bees 

* Rushworlb, p. 371. 


attempted. The laws against popery have been suspend- 
ed ; judges forbid to proceed against condemned priests; 
Jesuits set free ; bouses of, superstition in Ireland and 
.England have been set up and not discountenanced ; no- 
torious papists harbored about the court and preferred ; 
many released from legal penalties, and their prosecutors 
discountenanced ; agents have been sent into Italy, and 
nuncios from Home received, while the most zealous 
protcstants have been persecuted ; many prelates and 
clergymen have publicly preached, and endeavored to 
leaven the people with all points of popery, except the 
supremacy, and introduced abundance of corrupt innova- 
tions into the worship of God ; for non-compliance with 
which many have been forced to fly for refuge to the re- 
mote parts of the world. 

v They imposed upon the kingdom of Scotland a new 
popish service book and canons, to which, when that na- 
tion would not submit, they prevailed with his majesty to 
proclaim them rebels, and raise an army against them, to 
which all the papists, and those who were popishly af- 
fected, contributed ; and had not the Lord, by his bless- 
ing on the Scots arms, and by the calling of this parlia- 
ment, prevented it, the two uations had been embruing 
their hands in each others blood. 

" But though we hoped through the goodness of God, 
and his blessing upon this parliament, whose hearts were 
inclined to a more perfect reformation, that our winter 
had been past, yet, alas ! we find it to be quite otherwise. 
We know our sins have deserved all, and if we die and 
perish, the Lord is righteous ; to his hand we submit, and 
to him alone we look for healing. The same antichris- 
tian faction not being discouraged, by their want of suc- 
cess in Scotland, have stirred up a bloody rebellion m 
Ireland, wherein above one hundred thousand protestants 
have been destroyed in one province, within a few 
mouths. They have alienated the heart of his majestj^ 
from his parliament, and prevailed with him to withdraw 
and raise an army, which at first pretended only to be 
made up of protestants — but soon after papists were arm- 
ed by commission 'from the king ; many great papists 
were put into places of public command, and the body of 


4 all the papists have joined his majesty with all their 
4 might ; they profess and exercise their religion publicly 

* in several parts of the kingdom, and go up and down 

* plundering, murdering and spoiling of their goods, all 

* such as adhere to the parliament, and to the cause of re- 
'ligion. Nor has the parliament been able, by their peti- 
4 tions and remonstrances, to recover his majesty out of their 
4 hands, or bring these men to deserved punishment, but the 
4 sword rages almost in every corner of this woful land. 

ii And to complete our miseries, they have prevailed 
4 with his majesty so far to own the rebels in Ireland, as 
4 not only to call them his Iloman catholie subjects now in 
4 arms, but to grant them a cessation of arms for a year, 
' and to hold what they have gotten, with liberty to strength- 
4 en themselves with men, money, arms, ammunition, &c. 
4 whereby they are enabled not only to destroy the remnant 

* of protestants in Ireland, but to come over hither, (as ma- 

* ny of them are already) to act the same butchery upon us. 

u In the midst of these troublesome times the two hous- 
i es of parliament have called this assembly, to give them 
4 our best council for the reformation of the church, re- 
4 quiring us to make God's word only our rule, and to 
4 endeavor the nearest conformity to the best reformed 
4 churches, and uniformity to all the churches of the three 
4 kingdoms. 

" The church and kingdom of Scotland have made of- 
4 fer of their humble mediation to the king for a yacijica- 
4 tion, which being rejected, both nations have entered in- 

* to a mutual league and covenant ; and the Scots have re- 
f solved to join in arms with their brethren in England, 
4 for their mutual preservation from the common enemy, 

* and so far as in them lieth for the safety of their native 
4 king. They have also sent their commissioners hither, for 
4 uniformity of religion in the churches of both kingdoms. 

" And we their commissioners do exceedingly rejoice, 
( to behold the foundation of the house of God, not only in 
4 doctrine, but in church government, laid before our eyes 

* in a reverend assembly of so wise, learned, and godly di- 
4 vines. And we find ourselves bound in all christian duty, 
4 as well as by our late covenant, to join in representing 


to the reformed churches abroad, the true condition of af- 
fairs here, against all mistakes and misinformations. 

" And now, dear brethren, we beg of you, first, to 
judge aright of our innocence and integrity in this our 
just defence ; if our enemies say, that we are risen up in 
rebellion to deprive the king of his just power and great- 
ness, and to bring anarchy and confusion into the church 
of Christ, we doubt not but our solemn covenant (a copy 
of which we humbly present you herewith) will sufficiently 
clear us. Let the righteous Lord judge between us, whom 
we implore to help us no further than we can plead these 
things in sincerity. 

Secondly, "That you would sympathize with us as 
brethren, who suffer in and for the same cause wherein 
yourselves have been oppressed. 

Thirdly, " That you would conceive of our condition as 
your own common cause, which, if it be lost with us, 
yourselves are not like long to escape, the quart el being 
uol so much against men's persons, as against the power of 
godliuess-and the purity of God's word. The way and 
manner of your owning us we leave to yourselves, only 
we importunately crave your fervent prayers, both public 
and priyate, that God would bring salvation to us; that 
the blessings of truth and peace may rest upon us ; that 
these three nations may be joined as one stick in the hands 
of the Lord ; and that we ourselves, contemptible build- 
ers, called to repair the house of God, in a troublesome 
time, may see the pattern of this house, and commend such 
a platform to our Zerubbabels as may be most agreeable 
to his sacred word, nearest in conformity to the best re- 
formed churches, and to establish uniformity among our- 
selves ; that all mountains may become plains before 
them, and us ; that then all who now see the plummet in 
our hands, may also behold the top stone set upon the 
head of the Lord's house among us, and may help us with 
shouting to cry, Grace, grace, to it. 

" Thus much we have been commanded to inform you 
of, reverend brethren, (and by you all faithful christians 
under your charge) by the honorable house of commons, 
in whose name, and in our own, we bid you heartily fare- 
well in the Lord. 


u Your most affectionately devoted brethren in Christ, 

William Twisse, prolocutor, 

Cornelius Burses, 7 

John White, I assessors, 

Henry Roborough, 7 .* 

Adoniram By field, & ? 

John Maitland, "j 

A. Johnston, \ n • • * 

A1 lf ,' Commissioners of 

Alex. Henderson, 1 

cs " » XL _i? i'\>the church of Scot 
bam. Kutherlord, j 7rj n// „ 

Hob. Bailje, 

Geo. Gillespie, 

The inscription was, " To the reverend and leamed<vastors 
and elders of the classes and churches of the province of 
Zealand, our much honored brethren." 

Letters of the same import were sent to the several 
churches of the seven provinces ; to the churches of Gene- 
va ; the protcstant cantons of Switzerland ; the churches 
of Hesse, Hanau, and Hainault ; and to the protestant con- 
gregation at Paris ; all which were received with respect, 
and answered by the several classes.* But the churches 
of Bohemia, Transilvania, Poland, Silesia, and Austria, 
and other cities and principalites of Germany, were not 
written to. The answer from the French church at Paris 
was read in the assembly the beginning of March ; from 
Switzerland June 12, 1644 ; and from Geneva^, at the 
same time ; from the classes of Amsterdam and Gilelder- 
land June 29; and Mr. Whitlocke observes, that the 
Netherland divines expressed not only their approbation 
of the proceedings of the parliament and assembly touch- 
ing the covenant, but desired to join with the two king- 
doms therein. 
The king,apprehending himself misrepresented to the for- 
eign churches, in that part of the assembly's letter which 

* History of the Stuarts, p. 232. 

§"Diodati, the prince of divinity there," bishop Warburton says, 
c returned a very temperate answer, no way inconsistent with the re- 
c establishment of episcopacy." Ed. 


insinuates a design to introduce popery, and being advised 
to vindicate his character from that imputation, caused a 
manifesto to be drawn up in Latin and English, to all for 
eign protestants* which, though not published till the begin- 
ning of next year, may be properly inserted in this place. 

Charles by the especial providence of Almighty God, Icing 
of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender of 
the faith, Sfc. to all those who profess the true reformed 
protestant religion, of what nation, degree, or condi- 
tion soever they be, to whom this present declaration shall 
eome, greeting. 

u Whereas we are given to understand, that many false 
i rumors and scandalous letters, arc spread up and down 
' among the reformed churches in foreign parts, by the pol- 

* itic, or rather the pernicious industry of some ill-affected 
i persons, that we have an inclination to recede from that 
*" orthodox religion which we were bom, baptized, and bred 

* in, and which we have firmly professed and practised 
' throughout the whole course of our life to this moment ; 
'and that we intend to give way to the introduction, and 
' public exercise of popery again, in our dominions ; which 

* most detestable calumny being grounded upon no imag- 
inable foundation, hath raised these horrid tumults, and 
'more than barbarous wars, throughout this flourishing is- 
6 land, under pretence of a kind of reformation which is in- 
( compatible, with the fundamental laws and government of 
'this kingdom; we desire that the whole christian world 
' should rest assured, that we never entertained the least 
' thought to attempt such a thing, or to depart a jot from 
" that holy religion, which when we received the crown and 
' sceptre of this kingdom, we took a most solemn sacramen- 

* tal oath to profess and protect. Nor does our constant 
»' practice, and daily presence in the exercise of this relig- 
' iou, with so many asseverations at the head of our armies. 
' and the public attestation of our barons, with the circum- 

* spection used in the education of our royal offspring, be- 
i sides divers other undeniable arguments, only demonstrate 
' this, but also that happy alliance of marriage we contract 
tf ed between our eldest daughter and the illustrious prince 


* of Orange, most closely confirms the reality of our inten- 
tions herein : by which it appears, that our endeavors are 
not only to make a profession thereof in our own domin- 
ions, but to strengthen it abroad as much as lieth in our 

"This most holy religion of the Anglicane church, or- 
dained by so many convocations of learned divines, con- 
firmed by so many acts of parliament, and strengthened 
by so many royal proclamations, together with the eccle- 
siastical discipline and liturgy, which the most eminent 
protestaut authors, as well as Germans, French, Danes, 
and Swedes, Dutch and Bohemians, do with many elo- 
gies, and not without a kind of envy, approve and applaud 
in their public writings, particularly in the transactions 
of the synod of Dort, wherein, (besides others of our di- 
vines who were afterwards prelates) one of our bishops 
assisted, to whose dignity all due respect and precedency 
were given ; this religion, we say, which our royal fath- 
er of blessed memory, doth publicly assert in his famous 
confession addressed to all christian princes, with the hi- 
erarchy and liturgy thereof, we solemnly protest, that by 
the help. of God, we will endeavor to our utmost power, 
and last period of our life, to keep entire and inviolable ; 
and will be careful, according to our duty to heaven, and 
the tenor of our oath at our coronation, that all our eccle- 
siastics, in their several degrees and incumbencies, shall 
preach and practise. Wherefore we command all our 
ministers of state beyond the seas, as well ambassadors 
as residents, agents and messengers ; and we desire all 
the rest of our loving subjects that sojourn in foreign parts, 
to communicate and assert this our solemn and sincere 
protestation, when opportunity of time and place shall be 

ii Given in our university and city of Oxford, 
' May 14, 1614." 

This declaration did the king little service among foreign 
protestants, for though it assured them his majesty would 
not turn papist, it convinced them that no alteration in the 

* Rushworth, vol. v. p. 752. * 


English hierarchy was to be expected. His marrying his 
daughter to the prince of Orange was perhaps the only ev- 
idence of his charity for the Duch reformation ; but his ap- 
peal to the education, of his children was trifling, wheu all 
the world knew they were under popish instructors, in 
pursuance of a marriage contract, till twelve or fourteen 
years of age, and had received impressions not to be easi- 
ly defaced. His insinuating to the foreign churches, that 
their most learned divines preferred the English hierar- 
chy to the government of their own countries, convinced 
them they ought to be more sparing of their compliments 
for the future, to persons who would draw such conclu- 
sions from them. As to the synod of Dort, no precedency 
was given to the bishop on account of his episcopal char- 
acter, but as a baron of the English parliament.* Nor is 
there any thing in the declaration that might eucourage the 
foreign clergy to hope his majesty would own their church- 
es, ministers, or sacraments, or unite with them against 
the common enemy of the reformation, any more than be- 
fore these unhappy troubles began. 

All the episcopal divines left the assembly before the 
bringing in of the covenant, except Dr. Feathj, who was 
expelled for holding correspondence with archbishop Ush- 
er at Oxford, and for revealing their proceedings, contra- 
ry to the express words of the ordinance, which obliges 
them not to divulge by printing or writing, or otherwise,, 
their opinions or advices, touching the matters proposed to 

*Dr. Grey will have it, (hat the contrary was the fuct ; and quotes 
bishop Carleton. But the quotation goes to prove no more, than that 
the foreign divines, at the synod, in their conversations with him, ex- 
pressed their approbation of the episcopal government of the English 
church, and their wishes to have the same order established among 
themselves. But Mr. Neal's representation does not seem to he accu- 
rate. The case of precedency, according to Brandt, appears to have 
stood thus : When the synod met, the two commissioners of the states 
took place near the chimney on the right hand. The English divines 
sat on the left. An empty seat, was kept for the French. The third 
place was appointed for the deputies of the Palatinate ; and so on. 
Next to the commissioners on (he right the professors of divinity took 
place, and then the ministers and eiders of the country, according to 
the rank of each province. So that the precedency, which the En- 
glish bishop had, naturally arose from his rank amongst the English 
divines ; to whom, in general, was assigned the first seat on the left 
hand. History of the Reformation Abridged, vol. ii. p. 397. Ed. 

Vol. III. 15 


them by parliament, ivithout the consent of both or either 
houses. The doctor was a learned man, and a calvinist, 
upon which account the assembly paid him a high regard, 
and indulged him in all his speeches in favor of episcopa- 
cy, and against the covenant, some of which were after- 
wards published to the' world. They appointed him to an- 
swer a popisii pamphlet called the Safeguard; and he 
bore a part in the annotations' on- the Bible, which go un- 
der the name of the Assembly. Lord Clarendon says, the 
king sent him a letter forbidding him to sit any longer, but 
that the doctor excused it in a letter to archbishop Usher, 
which being intercepted, he was committed prisoner|| to 
lord Peter's house in Aldersgate-street as a spy ; the arch- 
bishop-at the same time being declared incapable of sitting 
in the assembly for the like reason. And here was an end 
of all the public concern the episcopal party had in the 
government of the church till the restoration. 

From the time of taking the covenant, we may date the 
entire dissolution of the hierarchy, though it was not as 
yet abolished by an ordinance of parliament. There were 
no ecclesiastical courts, no visitations, no wearing the hab- 
its, no regard paid to the canons or ceremonies, nor even 
to the common- prayer itself. The archbishop of Canter- 
bury, by an ordiance of May 16, had been forbid to collate 
any benefices in his gift, but to persons nominated by par- 
liament ; for disobedience to which he was by another or- 
dinance of June 10, " suspended ab officio £(* benejicio, and 
i from all archiepiscopal jurisdiction, till he should be ac- 
( quitted, or convicted of the high treason of which he was 

* impeached ; and as to such livings, dignities, promotions, 
i &c. in the said archbishop's gift or collation, as are, or 

* shall hereafter become void, institution or induction shall 

* henceforward be given by the archbishop's vicar-general, 
' or any other having authority on his behalf, upon the 
6 nomination and recommendation of both houses of parlia- 
' nient." By this extraordinary method the reverend Mr. 
Corbet was inducted into the living of Chatham^ ratione 

HThe imprisonment of Dr. Featly, Mr. Baxter observes, <^much re- 
f fleeted on the parliament: because vvbatever tbe facts were, he was 

* so learned a man. as was sufficient to dishonor those he suffered by." 
Baxter's Life and Times, p. 75. Ed. 

CHAP. £. 



suspensionis dam. Gilil. archiepiscopi Cant. §" seques- 
trationis temporallum archiepiscopatus in manibus supre- 
mo. '■ cur ice parliament!, jam existentis. By reason of the 
suspension of the archbishop ^Canterbury, and the seques- 
tration of the temporalities of his archbishopric into the 
hands of the present high court of parliament, the same be- 
longing to their gift. But this ordinance was of no long 
continuance, for upon the sitting ef the assembly of divines, 
all church business went through their hands ; the parishes 
elected their ministers, the assembly examined and ap- 
proved of them, and the parliament confirmed them in 
their benefices witiiout any regard to the archbishop or his 
vicar. Thus the earl of Manchester filled the vacant pul- 
pits in the associated counties ; and when lord Fairfax 
was authorized ts supply those in the north, by an ordi- 
nance of Feb. 27? the preamble says, " the houses being 
'credibly informed that many ministers in the county of 
'York were not only of a scandalous life, but having left 
'their churches and cures, had withdrawn themselves wil- 
'fully from the same, and joined such forces as had been 
'raised against the parliament, and assisted them with 
' men, money, horses, and arms ; therefore it is ordained, 
' that lord Fairfax be authorized to fill up their places, 
' with such learned and godly divines as he shall think fit, 
' with advice of the assembly. "|| 

This created a great deal of bnsiness ; for though the as- 
sembly had not a parliamentary authority to ordain, yet 
the examination and approbation of such clergymen alrea- 
dy in orders, as petitioned for sequestered livings, being 
by express order of the two houses referred to them, they 
were obliged to chuse a select committee for this work ; 
their names were, 

The Rev. Dr. Gouge 
Dr. Stanton 
Dr. Lightfoot 
Dr. Smith 
Dr. Temple 
Dr. Tuckney 
Dr. Hoyle 
Dr. Burges 

Tlte Rev. Dr. Spurstow 
Mr Ley 
Mr. Reynolds 
Mr. Conant 
Mr. Gower 
Mr. Colinan 
Mr. Hill 

The Rev. Mr. Corbet 
Mr. Gataker 
Mr. Herle 
Mr. Hall 
Mr. W hi take i- 
Mr. Bathurst 
Mr. Cheynel 

|| Parliamentary Chronicle, part iv. p. 128, 


The method of examination was this ; the names of the 
ministers who petitioned for livings, or were recommended 
by either house of parliament, being published in the as- 
sembly two or three days before the examination, liberty 
was given in that time to make exceptions to their charac- 
ters ; if nothing was objected they were examiued by the 
committee, or any five of them, who reported their qualifi- 
cations to the house, upon which each candidate received 
a certificate from the assembly to the following effect : 

" According to an order bearing date — —from the 
committee of the house of commons for plunderered mi- 
nisters, to the committee of divines for the examination 
of A. B. concerning his fitness to be admitted to the ben- 
efit of the sequestration of the church of -, in the coun- 
ty of , and so to officiate in the cure, thereof, these are 

to certify the said committee of plundered ministers, that 
upon examination of the said Jl. B. and some trial of his 
gifts and abilities, we conceive him fit to officiate in the 
cure of , in the county aforesaid. In witness where- 
of we have hereunto subscribed our names. 7 ' 
The scribes of the assembly were ordered to keep a re- 
cord of all orders and certificates concerning ministers re- 
commended to sequestrators, and to enter them in a regis- 
ter book. This continued for about a year, till the new 
directory and form of church government took place. 

Towards the latter end of this year died William Chil- 
lingworth, A. M. whom I mention not as a puritan, but 
as a witness against some ©f those hardships the present 
dissenters complain of; he was born at Oxford, 1602, and 
educated in Magdalen- College, of which he became fellow 
in June l628. He afterwards turned Roman catholic, and 
went to the Jesuits college at St. Omer's, where not being 
thoroughly satisfied in some of their principles he returned 
to England, 1631, and having embraced the religion of the 
church of England, published an excellent treatise, entitled 
The Religion of Protestants a safe Way to Salvation, for 
which he was preferred to the chancellorship of the church 
of Sarum, and made master of Wygston hospital in Leic- 
ester. He was inserted in the list with other loyalists to 
be created I). 1). in the year 1642, but came not thither to 
receive that honour. It was the general opinion of the 


tiines that he was a socinian, but in his last letter at the 
end of his works, he appears an avian. It is very certain 
he refused to subscribe the thirty-nine articles for some 
years after his conversion, (1.) Besause he did not believe 
the morality of the fourth.commandment. (2.) Because he 
did not agree to the damnatory clauses in the Athanasian 
creed, and therefore could not read the common- prayer. 
He objected also to the twentieth article, of the church's 
power to decree rites and ceremonies ; to the nineteenth 
article, that works done before the grace of Christ. §c. are 
not pleasing to God; and indeed, says the writer of his 
life, to the articles in general, as an imposition on men's 
consciences, much like the authority which the church of 
Rome assumes. 

Mr. Chillingworth blesses God, that when he had enter- 
tained some thoughts of subscription, two unexpected im- 
pediments diverted him from it; "for (says he) I profess 
' since I entertained it I never enjoyed quiet day nor night, 
' till now that I have rid myself of it again ; and I plain- 
My perceive, that if I had swallowed this pill, howsoever 
£ g-lded over with glosses and reservations, and wrapt up 
' in conserves of good intentions and purposes, yet it 

* would never have agreed nor stayed with me, but I 
6 should have cast it up again, and with it whatsoever pre- 
4 ferment I should have gained as the wages of unrighte- 

* ousness ; but now, I thank God, I am resolved, that I 

* will never do that while I am living and in health, which 
' I would not do if I was dying ; and this' I am sure I 
< would not do, and therefore whenever I make such a 
6 preposterous choice, I will give you leave to believe that, 
' 1 am out of my wits, or do not believe in God ." Not- 
withstanding these resolutions, he was prevailed with to 
subscribe, by his godfather archbishopZ,aurf, to qualify him 
for the above-mentioned preferments. How the pill was 
gilded over is not certain ; the writer of his life says he sub- 
scribed as articles of peace, not of belief. Mr. Chilling- 
worth was a qnick disputant, and of very high principles, 
for in one of his sermons before the king, he says, that the 
most unjust and tyrannical violence of princes may not h? 

» Chill, Life. p. 273. t Ibid; p. 79. 


rejected ; this being unlawful, even though princes be most 
impious, tyrannical, and idolatrous. But though his po- 
litical principles were high, he was low enough with regard 
to the authority of councils, fathers, and convocations in 
matters of faith ; adhering stedfastly to that celebrated de- 
claration, that the bible alone is the religion of a protes- 
tant. He was an excellent mathematician, and served as 
engineer in Arundel Castle in Sussex, in which he was 
taken prisoner, and when indisposed had the favor of be- 
ing lodged in the bishop's house at Chichester, where he 
died Jan. 20, 1643-4'. It is surprising, that lord Claren- 
don should say, the parliament clergy prosecuted him with 
all the inhumanity imaginable, so that by their barbarous 
usage he died within a few days;* when, as ha himself 
acknowledged, he wanted for nothing ; and by the inter- 
est of Dr. Cheynel, who attended him in his sickness, was 
courteously used.§> The doctor would have reasoned him 
* Chilling worth'* Life, p. 314, 325. 
§ Dr. CheyneVs kindness extended to the procuring a commodious 
lodging for Mr. Chiliingworth ; to engaging the physician, as his 
symptoms grew worse, to renew his visits ; and to seeuring for him the 
rites of burial, which some would have denied hirn. let he held the 
opinions of Mr. Chiliingworth in the greatest detestation, and treated 
liis name and memory with virulence and asperity, as appears from the 
above speech at the interment of this great man, and by a pamphlet lie 
published, entitled Chillingworthi Novissima ; or the Sickness, Here~ 
sy, Death and Burial of William Chiliingworth, &c. which bishop 
iVarburton ealls " a villainous book;" and tells us, that "Mr. Locke, 
" speaks of it in the harshest terms, but not more severely than it de- 
" serves." The fact is, as bishop Hoadley states it, " Dr. Cheynel 
' ; was a rigid zealous presbyterian ; exactly orthodox : very unwilling 
" that any should be supposed to go to heaven, but in the right way. 
" And this was that one way, in which he himself was settled ; and iu 
" which he seems to be as sincere, and honest, and charitable, as his 
" bigotry and his cramped notions of God's peculium could permit him 
" to be." Years after this Dr. Snape, a clergyman, of name, in the 
church of England, displayed the like temper and spirit to Dr. Chey- 
nel, in the Bangorian controversy ; which 1 mention to introduce bish- 
op Hoadley' 's excellent conclusion from both these instances of bigotry ; 
namely, "That an intemperate heat scorches up charity in one church, 
" as well as in another : and every where equally lays waste the most 
" amiable duties of Christianity : and that men of the most opposite 
" persuasions, agreeing in the same narrowness of principles and no- 
" tions of zeal, though differing from one another in many particulars, 
» even to a degree of mutual destruction, can kindly and lovingly unite 
Si in condemning the best principles of all religion as subtile atheism* 

tfHAP. £. OF THE PURITANS. liil 

out of some of his principles, but could not prevail, and 
therefore at his interment, after a reflecting speech upon 
his character, threw his book, emitted The Religion of 
Protestants a safe Way to Salvation, into the grave, say- 
ing, " Get thee gone thou cursed book, which has seduced 
' so many precious souls ; earth to earth, dust to dust ; get 
'thee into the place of rottenness, that thou mayst rot with 
* thy author, and see corruption.' 7 A most unchristian and 
uncharitable imprecation ! 

Among the considerable statesmen who died this year, 
may be justly reckoned John Hampden, Esq. of Bucking- 
hamshire, a gentleman of good extraction, and one of the 
greatest patriots of his age, as appears by his standing tri- 
al with the king in the case of ship-money, which raised 
his reputation to a very great height throughout the king- 
dom. He was not a man of many words, but a very 
weighty speaker; his reputation for integrity universal, 
and his affections so publicly guided, that no corrupt or 
private ends could bias them. He was indeed a very wis& 
fnan, of great parts and modesty, and possessed of the, 
most absolute spirit of popularity (says lord Clarendon) 
I ever knew. He was one of the impeached members of 
the house of commons, and in the beginning of the war 
took the command of a regiment, and performed the duty 
of a colonel on all occasions punctually, being a man of 
great personal courage, not to be tired out by the most la- 
borious, and of parts not to be imposed upon by the most 
subtle, but because he fought against the court, lord Clar- 
endon says (if this be not an interpolation of the editors) 
that he had a head to contrive, a tongue to persuade, and a 
hand to execute any mischiefs Which is very unaccount- 

" or indifference, or infidelity ; and in declaring them to be the prin- 
« ciples of ail irreligion, when their several schemes and systems are 
" likely to suffer from them." So the sentiments on toleration, char 
ity and free enquiry, as they were defended by ChiUingworth and by 
Hoodley's friend, were condemned by Cheynel and Snape. Hoadley's 
works, v. ii. p. 622, folio, and Palmer's Non-Conformists' Memorial, 
ii. p. 466. Ed. 

§ Oldmixon's History of the Stuarts, p. 227. 

Dr. Grey endeavors to establish the authenticity of this passage by 

a large quotation from the " Weekly Miscellany," by Richard Hooker* 

of the Temple, esq. — To Mr. A"eal"s account of Hampden it may be 

added, that he was bom in the year 1594, and died the 24th of .tun« 


able in oue whom his lordship had commended as a person 
not only of cheerfulness and affability, but of extraordina- 
ry sobriety and strictness of life. Mr. Hampden was cer- 
tainly in all respects one of the grertest and best men of 
his age, and the parliament sustained an irreparable loss 
in his death, which happened June 84, about a week after 
his shoulder-bone had been broken by a musket ball, in a 
skirmish with prince Rupert's forces in Calgrave-field. 

John Pym, Esq. member for Tavistock in all the parlia- 
ments of King Charles I. was a man of the greatest expe- 
rience in parliamentary affairs of any man of his time. He 
was an admirable speaker, and by the gravity of his coun- 
tenance and graceful behavior, could turn the house which 
way he pleased ; he was a man of business and for mode- 
rate measures, according to lord Clarendon, till the king 
impeached him of high treason. In his private life he was 
eminent for true piety and exactness of manners ; and 
though inclined to the puritan party, not averse to the hie- 
rarchy with some emendations. He was one of the lay- 
members of the assembly of divines, and at the head of all 
public business, the fatigue of which wore out his consti- 
tution, and put an end to his life, December 8, 1643, in the 
sixtieth year of his age. The news of no man's death was 
more welcome to the royalists than his, who spread a re- 
port, that he died of the morbus pediculosus ;f to confute 

1613, leaving ten children behind him. The parliament, as a testi- 
mony of his service to the public, ordered the sum of 50001. to he paid 
to his assignees out of the excise. Mr. Baxter has placed him with 
the saints in heaven, (Everlasting Rest. p. 82-3. ;) and lord Cobham 
with the worthies in his Elysium at Stow. Under his bust is this 
inscription : " JOHN HAMPDEN, 

" Who with great spirit, and consummate abilities, began an opposi- 
" tion to an arbitrary court, in defence of the liberties of his country; 
" supported them iu parliament, and died for them in the field." 

He argued the case of ship-money with the judges for twelve days 
together, in the exchequer chamber ; and " had more reason to tri- 
" umph," says Mr. Granger, " from his superiority in the argument, 
" than the crown had for its victory in the cause." Biographical His- 
tory of England, vol. ii. p. 212, Svo. and Mrs. Macaulay's History, 8vo. 
vol iii. p. 432-3, note, in which work the character of this great man 
is fully delineated. Ed. 

t Dr. Grey has the candor to discredit this report ; and says, from 
the funeral sermon for Mr. Pym by Mr. Marshall, that it was confu- 
ted by the testimony of near a thousand people who saw the corpse, 


which aspersion, his body was exposed to public view for 
many days, and at last interred in the most honorable man- 
ner in Westminster- Abbey. A little before his death, he 
published his own vindication to the world, against the 
many slanders that went abroad concerning him, wherein 
" he declares himself a faithful son of the protestant relig- 
' ion, and of the orthodox doctrine of the church of Eng- 
' land. He confesses he had been for reforming abuses in. 
1 the government of the church, when the bishops, instead 

• of taking care of men's souls, were banishing their bodies 
' into the most desolate places ; bringing in new canons, 
' arminian and pelagian errors, and such a number of rites 

' and ceremonies, as the people were not able to bear. * 

' When since that time they had, as much as in them lay, 
' fomented the civil differences between the king and his 
' parliament, abetting and encouraging malignants with 
' large supplies of men and money, and stirring up the peo- 
' pie to tumults by their seditious sermons. For these rea- 
' sons (says he) I gave my opinion for abolishing their 
1 functions, which, I conceive, may as well be doue as the 

• dissolution of monasteries, monks and friars, was, in King 
' Henry the eighth's time. He concludes with declaring, that 
' he was not the author of the present distractions ; with 
' acknowledging the king for his lawful sovereign, but 

• thinks, wheu he was proscribed for a traitor, merely for 
' the service of his country, no man can blame him for tak- 

• ing care of his own safety, by flying for refuge to the 
' protection of parliament, who were pleased to make hi& 

• case their own." 

and of eight physicians who were present at the opening of the body. 
Yet the doctor repeats, from Clarendon, the calumnies of those who ac- 
cused him of raising considerable sums by dishonest practices, of cor- 
rupting witnesses, and selling his protection for bribes. Though he 
was exculpated before the tribunal of parliament, vindicated his con- 
duct by his own pen, and left his private fortune at so low an ebb, that 
the parliament expended a considerable sum in the payment of his 
debts ; an evidence sufficient of itself to confute his enemies. Mr. Pyu 
was called, in early life, Phaebi delicice, le.pos puelli. He was com- 
monly called ; - Kiug Pym ;" and from his experience in ihe forms of 
parliament, his knowledge of the law and constitution, his powers of 
argument and elocution, and his known honesty and integrity, he enjoy- 
ed an unrivalled authority in the lower house. Mrs. Slacaulay, vol. 
iv. p. 92, 93, and Granger's Biographical Historw vol. ii. p. 111. Ed. 
Vol. III. 16 


chap. in. 

The Oxford parliament. Progress of the War. Visita- 
tion of the University of Cambridge by the earl of Man- 
chester. Committees for plundered, sequestered, and 
scandalous Ministers. 

THE campaign being ended without any prospect of 
peace, both parties endeavored to strengthen themselves by 
new and sovereign acts of power. The parliament expe- 
riencing the want of a great seal, for many purposes, gave 
orders that one should be made. They continued to list 
soldiers, to levy taxes, and to use every method to support 
their cause,* which their policy suggested, and their ne- 
cessity urged. On the other hand, the king raised contri- 
butions without form of law ;|| ordered the removal of the 
courts of justice from Westminster ; and that he might 
seem to act in a parliamentary way, summoned the mem- 
bers who had been expelled the houses, and all others 
willing to withdraw from the rebellious city of London, 
to meet him at Oxford, § January 22, 1643 % which was^ 

t Rushworth, vol. v. p. 5R0. 
* " What was all this," says Dr. Grey, "but high treason?" To 
confirm his opinion he refers to Dr. Wood's " Institute of the laws of 
* England," and to the 25th of Edw. III. c. 2. as authorities to shew, 
that the acts of the parliament were acts of treason. As if laws for- 
med to preserve the allegiance of the subject to a king acting constitu- 
tionally and fulfilling faithfully his part of the political contract, ap- 
plied to extraordinary emergencies and to a sovereign who had viola- 
ted the constitution. As if laws made to restrain individuals bound the 
majority of the representative body of the nation. See also Rapin, 
vol. ii. p. 494, folio. Ed. 

|| " And pray," asks Dr. Grey, " what form of law had the rebels for 
4 raising contributions?" That form of law, our readers will probably 
reply, and that spirit of the constitution, which invest the representa- 
tives of the people with the power and right of appointing the taxes. Ed. 

§ The impolicy of this step is forcibly, though somewhat jocularly, 
represented by Mr. Selden : " The king calling his friends from the 
4 parliament," said this great man, « because he bad use of them at 


ia effect, disannulling the act for continuing of the present 
parliament. In obedience to the proclamation, there ap- 
peared forty-nine peers, and one hundred forty-one of the 
house of commons, not reckoning those employed in his 
majesty's service, or absent with leave. Loi'd Clarendon 
says, J the appearance of both houses with the king was 
superior in number, as well as quality, to those at West- 
minster; which must be a mistake ; for though the major- 
ity of peers were on that side, Mr. Whitlocke* assures us, 
that upon a call of the house of commons, the very day 
the others were to meet at Oxford, there were present two 
hundred and eighty members, not reckoning one hundred 
more, who were engaged in their service in the several 
counties. This is a very considerable majority ; though 
if there had been only forty, the king could not have pro- 
rogued or dissolved them, without their own consent. 
However, the Oxford members stiled themselves the par- 
liament, lord Littleton being speaker for the peers, and 
serjeaut Evcrs for the commons. f Their first step was to 
satisfy the world they desired peace, such a peace, to use 
the king's own words, §> " wherein God's true religion may 

* be secured from the danger of popery, sectaries, and in- 
' novations ; the crown may possess those just prerogatives, 
1 which may enable me to govern my people according to 
' law, and the subjects be confirmed in those rights which 
' I have granted them in parliament, to which I shall be 

* ready to add such new graces as I shall find may most 

* conduce to their happiness." They laid au excise upon 
tobacco, wine, strong-waters, ale, cider, grocery aud mer- 
cery wares, soap, salt, &f butcher's meat, and subscribed con- 
siderable sums of money for support of the war ; they de- 
clared the Scots then eutering England with an army. 

< Oxford is as if a man should have use of a little piece of wood and 

* he ruus down into the cellar, and takes the spiggot : in the mean time 

* all the beer runs about the house : when his friends are absent the 

* king will be lost." Table-talk, on the word king Ed. 

\ Clarendon's Remain*, p. 16.3. * Memoirs, p, 76. 

f Rushwortli, p. 567, 688. Rapin, p. 496, 502, fol. Oldmixou'* HisU 
of the Stuarts, p. 246. 

§ On another occasion, in bis speech to the inhabitants of Somerset- 
shire, 13th July 1641. Ed. 


traitors, and the lords and commons at Westminster, 
guilty of high treason, for inviting them, as well as for 
counterfeiting tbe gr eat seal. On the other hand, the par- 
liament at Westminster would not acknowledge the Oxford 
members, or receive a message from them under the char- 
acter of a parliament, but expelled them their house, ex- 
cept they returned to their seats within a limited time.* 
April 16, 1644, the king prorogued his Oxford members, 
to November following, when they fell under his displeas- 
ure, for advising to pacific measures at the treaty of Ux- 
bridge, which was then upon the carpet, and in a fair way 
of producing an accommodation. This was so disagree- 
able to the queen, and her Roman catholic counsellors, 
that they never left off teazing the unhappy king, till he 
had dismissed them, and broke off the treaty ; an account 
of which he sent her in the following letter, which seems 
to breathe an air of too great satisfaction. 
"Dear heart, 

" WHAT I told thee last week, concerning a good 

* parting with our lords and commons here, was on Mon- 
1 day last handsomely performed ; now if I do any thing 

* unhandsome, or disadvantageous to myself or friends, in 

* order to a treaty, it will be merely my own fault. — INow 

* I promise thee, if the treaty be renewed (which I believe 
' it will not) without some eminent good success on my 
« side, it shall be to my honor and advantage, I being now 
c as well free from the place of base^ and mutinous rao- 

* tionl; (that is to say, our mungrel parliament here) as 

* of the chief causers, for whom I may justly expect to be 
' chidden by thee, for having suffered thee to be vexed 
< by them— ?? || 

Mr. Whitlocke says, this assembly sat again at Oxford 
in the year 1645, and voted against the directory, and 
for the common prayer ; but the king's cause being 

* Rushworth, vol. v. p. 383. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 497, 506, folio. 
| " There is no circumstance," observes bishop Warhurton, " that 
c bears harder on the king's conduct than this. It is not to be conceiv- 
4 ed that these men, who hazarded all to support the king's right, could 
1 advise hine to any thing base in a mutinous manner. I doubt that this 
t is too strong a proof that nothing less than arbitrary government 

* would heartily satisfy him." Bel- 

li Rapin, p. 512, folio. 


grown desperate, they soon after shifted for themselves, 
and made their peace at Westminster, upon the best 
terms they could obtain. 

On the 19tli of January 1613-4, the Scots army, con- 
sisting of twenty-one thousand men, under the command 
of general Lev en, crossed the Tweed at Berwick, and en- 
tered England. The two houses sent a committee to meet 
them, which being joined by another of that nation, was 
called the committee of both kingdoms,* and were a sort 
of camp parliament, to direct the motions of the army, 
which after some time united with the lord Fairfax's 
forces, and with those under the command of the earl of 
Manchester, and lieutenant general Cromwell, from the 
associated counties. The united armies laid siege to the 
city of York, which prince Rupert having relieved, oc- 
casioned the battle of Mars ton- Moor, wherein the prince 
was routed, with the loss of three thousand men and his 
whole train of artillery ; and thereupon the marquis of 
Newcastle, leaving the royal army, embarked with di- 
vers lords and gentlemen for Hamburgh, prince Rupert re- 
tiring towards Chester, and deserting all the northern gar- 
risons to the mercy of the enemy, which falling into their 
hands next summer, concluded the war in those parts. 

His majesty however had better success in the West, 
where being strengthened by prince Maurice, he follow- 
ed the earl of Essex, and shut up his army within the 
norrow parts of Cornwall, so that he could neither en- 
gage or retreat.^ Here the king invited the carl to make 
his peace, but he choosing rather to retire in a boat to 
Plymouth, left his men to the fortune of war. As soon 
as the general was gone, the horse under the command 
of sir William Balfour bravely forced their way through 
•the royal quarters by night ; but the foot under the com- 
mand of major-general Skippon, were obliged to surren- 
der their arms, artillery, ammunition, and baggage, con- 
sisting of forty brass cannon, two hundred barrels of pow- 
der, match and ball proportionable, seven hundred car- 
riages, and between eight and nine hundred arms, and to 
swear not to bear arms against the king, till they came 
into Hampshire. This was the greatest disgrace the par- 

* Rushworth, vol. vi, p. 603. f lb. vol. v. p. 691, 701, 705, 710. 



liament ? s forces underwent in the course of the war, the 
foot being forced to travel in a naked and starving con- 
dition to Portsmouth, where they were supplied with new 
cloaths and arms. And now again, the king made offers of 
such a peace as, he says, he had been laboring for, that 
is, to be restored to his prerogatives as before the war ; 
but the houses would not submit. 

Upon the defeat of the earl of Kssex, his majesty resolv- 
ed to march directly for Loudon, and upon the road is- 
sued a proclamation, Sept. 30, 16W, requiring all his 
loving subjects to appear in arms, and accompany him 
in his present expedition.! This gave rise to a combin- 
ation of men, distinguished by the name of Club-men, 
who associated in Worcestershire and Dorsetshire, 
agreeing to defend themselves against the orders both of 
king and parliament. Their increase was owing to the 
prodigious ravages of the king's forces in their march. 
Prince Rupert was a fiery youth, and with his flying 
squadrons of horse, burnt towns and villages, destroy- 
ing the countries where he came, and indulging his sol- 
diers in plunder and blood. In Wales he drove away 
the people's cattle, rifled their houses, and spoiled their 
standing corn. Aged and unarmed people were stript 
naked, some murdered in cool blood, and others half 
hanged, and burnt, and yet suffered to live.J " Lord 

t Rapiu, vol. ii. p. 501, folio. J Whitlocke, p. 62, 87", 103. 

:$: The reference here, in (he former editions of Mr. Neal, is to p. 87 
of Whillocke's Memoirs ; where all that is said concerning prinee 
Rupert is, " that he took in Liverpool a garrison of the parliament's in 

< Lancashire, but they first shipped all their arms, ammunition and por- 

* table goods, and most of the officers and soldiers went on ship-board, 
<• whilst a few made good the fort, which they rendered to the prince 

* upon quarter, yet were all put to the sword." " This indeed" says 

< Dr. Grey, " was bad enough, but not quite so bad as Mr. Neal has 
« represented it. Not one word of stripping aged mid unarmed people 

* naked, or murdering people in cold blood, or of half hanging or burn- 
4 ing others. A dismal character of prince Rupert this indeed, had we 
6 not reason to call the truth of it in question." The references, which 
•we have now supplied, will shew that the truth of this character ought 
not to have been questioned, and that it was drawn from facts stated 
by Mr. Whitlocke. From whom we will give another instance of the 
severity with which prince Rupert, at the commencement of his mil- 
itary career, pursued his conquests and of the cruelty of the royal par- 
ly from the beginning, before mutual provacations had inflamed their 


* Goring, the king's general of the horse, was one of 

< the most finished debauchees of the age, and wanted 
'nothing but industry to make him as eminent and suc- 
cessful in the highest attempts of wickedness as ever 
' any man was. Wilmot, the lieutenant-general, was as 

< great a debauchee as the other, and had no more re- 
*gard to his promises, or any rules of honor and integ- 
rity. "|| Sir Richard Greenville, who commanded the 
army before Plymouth, is represented by the noble his- 
torian, as having been exceeding barbarous and cruel in 
Ireland, banging up old men and women of quality, even 
though they were bed-rid, if he did not find the plunder 
he expected ; when he came into the west, he exercised 
all kinds of cruelty, and would sometimes make one of the 
company hang all the rest, contrary to the law of arnis.§> 

The licentiousness of the king's soldiers, was not inferi- 
or to that of their officers ; for having no regular pay, they 
committed rapines and plunders, without distinction of 
friends or foes ; and were infamous for the most execrable 
oaths, and all kinds of impiety. " Lord Goring's horse 
4 (says the noble historian) committed horrid outrages and 

passions; or (hey had been familiarised to scenes of blood. When the 
prince had taken the magazine of the county at Cirencester, and 1100 
prisoners, he sent these captives, tied together with cords, almost na- 
ked, beaten and driven along like dogs, in triumph to Oxford ; where 
the king and the lords looked on them, and too many smiled at their 
misery. Memoirs, p. 64. Ed. 

|| Our reader will be surprised, when he is told, that Dr. Grey dis- 
credits this character of the lieutenant-general Wilmnt, though it is 
given from lord Clarendon, and opposes to it a narrative of his lord- 
ship, in which he relates, that Wilmot. when he was before Marlbo- 
rough, gave not only his life, but his liberty, to a spy whom lie had 
apprehended. This Dr. Grey extols as a generous act, when, accord- 
ing to the statement he himself gives of it from Clarendon, it was to 
be ascribed to Wilraot's policy and generalship. For, before he dis- 
missed the spy, he ordered his forces to be drawn up before him in the 
most convenient place, and bid the fellow to look well upon them, and 
observe, and return to the town and report what he had seen, with a 
threat to the magistrates if the garrison did not surrender, and a prom- 
ise of security if it submitted. The representations which the man 
made were of some advantage to the views of the royal party. Yet 
this conduct of Wilmot, which seems to have been a manoeuvre only., 
in order to disparage Mr. Neal's delineation of his general character, 
is pompously represented by Dr. Grey as a singular instance of honcr 
aad generosity. Ed. 

!! Clarendon, vel. it. p. B37.555. § Ibid. p. 634. 


' barbarities in Hampshire, and infested the borders of 
1 Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, and Devon, with unheard-of 
' rapines, so that the people who were well devoted to the 
' king, wished for the accession of any force to redeem 
* them." 7 * They raised vast contributions in several comi- 
ties, without any other pretence but the king's sovereign 
pleasure. In Cornwall they levied seven hundred pounds 
a week ; in Devonshire two thousand two hundred pounds 
a week, and proportionable in other parts. £ As the army 
inarched aloug the country, they seized the farmers' hors- 
es, and carried them away without any consideration. At 
Barnstable they plundered the town, and hanged the may- 
or, though it was surrendered upon articles. At Evesham 
the king sent the mayor and aldermen prisoners to Oxford. 
At Wood house iu Devonshire, they seized fourteen sub- 
stantial west-country clothiers, who were not in arms, and 
hanged them, by way of reprisals for some Irish rebels, 
that had been executed according to the ordiance of parlia- 
ment. In short, wherever they came they lived at free- 
quarter, and took but every thing they could, and there- 
fore no wonder the Club-Men united in their own defence. 
The king thought to have reached London before the 
parliament could recruit their army, but the two houses sent 
immediately six thousand arms, and a train of artillery to 
Portsmouth, with new clothing for the Cornish soldiers. 
They ordered sir William Waller and the earl of Man- 
chester to join them, and dispatched thither five thousand 
of the city train-bauds, under the command of sir James 
Harington. by which accession they were enabled to face 
his majesty's army at Newbury, October 27, and having 
forced the town, which the king had fortified, after a smart 
engagement they took nine of his cannon and several col- 
ours, but under covert of the night, his majesty secured 
the rest of his artillery in Denniugton-Castle, and retreat- 
ed with his broken army to Oxford ; the parliament gen- 
erals left a body of troops to block up the castle, being as- 
sured it must surrender in the winter for want of provisiou; 
when on a sudden a party of the king's horse raised tjie 
blockade, and carried off the artillery to Oxford. This oc- 
casioned great murmuring at London, and quarrels among 

* Clarendon, p. 631. t Ibid. p. 643. 

Chap. 3. of the puritans. 1S9 

the generals, Essex, Manchester, and Cromwell, which 
ended in the new modelling of the array, as will be seen 
under the next year. 

AVhile the royal army was little better than a company 
of banditti, or public robbers ; the parliament's were kept 
under the strictest discipline, and grew up, for the most 
part, into great diligence and sobriety, which [says lord 
Clarendon) begot courage and resolution in them, and no- 
table dexterity in achievements and exercises.* Most of 
tiieir officers were men of religion ;§, their soldiers possess- 
ed with a belief, that their cause was the cause of God,\\ 
and that they fought for the protestant religion, and magna 

* Vol. ii. p. 3S4. 
* This, Dr. Grey, argues does not agree with what lord Clarendon 
says in other places :* and he insinuates that it is not true. As if 
wliat Mr. Neal advances must be false, even when he quote's lord 
Clarendon for his assertions, because it is apparently repugnant to the 
representations elsewhere given by his lordship's pen : as if it were 
incumbent ou Mr. Neal to reconcile this noble writer to himself. But 
the veracity of Mr. Neal, and the consistency of lord Clarendon with 
himself, would not have been impeached by Dr. Grey, had he exam- 
ined the passage to which Mr. Neal refers : by which it appears, that 
both the king's and the parliament's army, at different periods, were 
of different characters ; and the description which they deserved at 
one time did not apply to another. The passage which Mr. Neal now 
quotes, referred to a latter, and the passages below, to which Dr. Grey 
directs his reader, refer to a former period. His lordship says, ' ; those 
1 under the king's commanders "grew insensibly into all the licence, dis- 
•'pjrder and impiety, with which they had reproached the rebels: and 
l tkey into great discipline, diligence and sobriety." Ed. 

* History, vol. ii. p. '16. 55. 

§ (i Of pretended sanctity," says Dr. Grey, " in which none could 
' exceed them. They were praying and preaching when the enemy 
' was at a distance, and literally made long prayers to devour widows' 
' houses." He refers, then, to his own appendix for an instance of 
their fanatical honor $ but the authorities, which he here produces, 
relate to the Scottish, not the English army. Ed. 

|| This representation, Dr. Grey thinks, is contrary to Mr. Neal's 
character of them, in ch. 7, from Mr. Baxter; who says, " that the 

* greatest part of the common soldiers were ignorant men, of little re- 

* ligion." But the doctor neither adverts to the time when this was 
said, namely in 1646, after the army had been new modelled ; nor ob- 
serves what follows in Mr. Baxter, which shews that these ignorant 
irreligious were many of them such as had belonged to the royal corps: 
" abundance of them, such" says he, " as had been taken prisoners, or 

* turned out of garrisons under the king, and had been soldiers in his 
; army." Baxter's Fiife p. 53. Ed. 

Vol. ITT. 17 


charta ; liowever ; there were among them men of dissolute 
lives, who fought only for pay and plunder ; strange com- 
plaints being sent up from Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, 
and Sussex, of the disorders of the common soldiers, the 
parliament appointed a committee to enquire into the facts, 
and make examples of the offenders, which put an effectual 
stop to the growing mischief. And as the parliament were 
enabled, by the inexhaustible treasure of the city of Lon- 
don, to give their soldiers regular pay, they had them un- 
der stvch strict government, that they were little or no bur- 
then to the towns and villages where they were quartered. \ 
Upon the whole, the parliament affairs were low at the 
end of this year, and their counsels divided, by reason of 
the length of the war, and the king's were much worse ; 
for though he had triumphed over the earl of Essex hi 
Cornwall, and was master of the open country in the west, 
he had no accession of real strength, nor had taken any 
considerable garrisons : the entrance of the Scots broke 
his army in the north, and lost him that part of the king- 
dom, whereby the parliament were enabled to draw off 
their forces to the icest ; and the worst circumstance of all 
was, that his majesty, having exhausted his treasure, had 
no way of raising a supply, which obliged him to connive 
at his soldiers living at free quarter ; his officers being poor, 
quarrelled in the royal presence, and carried their resent- 
ments to such an height, that the king himself could not re- 
concile them, which had a very ill aspect on the succeeding 
campaign.* The parliament generals also were censuring 
each other's conduct in the house, on occasion of the escape 
of the king's artillery from Dennington-Castle. The earl 
of Esspx's party were charged with a design of protracting 
the war, in order to an accommodation, while others being 
weary", were for putting it to a decisive issue. In short, 
both parties were in confusion and distress ; they were di- 
vided among themselves, some being for peaee, and others 
for carrying on the war to the last extremity. All property 

t Dr. Grey, to confute these assertions of Mr. Neal, refers to pa- 
pers, which he has given in the Appendix to his second volume ; but 
the complaints, brought forward in these papers, are made of the .Scot- 
tish army, andr ® transactions of the following year, viz. 164-3. Ed. 

* Clarendon s vol. ii. p. 389, 391. 


was ina manner lost, the farmers paying no rent to theip 
landlords ; nor could auy man be secure of what he possess- 
ed, except he buried it under ground. The spirits of the 
contending parties were as much exasperated as ever, and 
there was no seeing to the end of their troubles. 

To return to the church. The state of the controversy 
about ecclesiastical discipline was uow changed ; for where- 
as before the entrance of the Scots, the parliament insisted 
only upon a reformation of the hierarchy, now they were 
engaged to attempt the total extirpation of it, and to es- 
tablish another scheme for both kingdoms in its room ; 
though it was a considerable time before this could be 
perfected. In the mean while, they resolved to purge the 
university of Cambridge, which was the head quarters of 
their forces, that they might have a succession of clergy- 
men training up in the principles they had espoused. 

The town of Cambridge was in the interest of the par- 
liaaient, but the colleges were so many little garrisons for 
the king, and sanctuaries of disaffection ; the university 
press was at his majesty's disposal, and their sermons fill- 
ed with evectives against the two houses. Frequent quar- 
rels happened between the towusmenand scholars, which 
would have ended in the ruin of the university, had not 
the parliament forbid the offering any violence to the col- 
leges, chapels, libraries, and schools, under severe penal- 
ties, -j- Iudeed the committee enjoined the proper officers of 
the parish, to put in execution the ordinance for destroy- 
ing the relics of superstitiou, whereby the paintings in 
windows, images of the deity, and a great deal of carved 
work, was demolished, at which the masters and fellows 
were so incensed, that when they were ordered to repair 
the damages, they peremptorily refused, and were fined 
forty shillings a college, as the ordinance directed.* 

The beads of the university raised a great clamor, at 
this pretended invasion of their rights, as if the parliament 
intended to seize all their revenues, and'destroy the very 
f un tains of learning ; whereupon the houses published 
tne following ordinance, Jan. 6, 164-3-4, declaring " that 

t Sufl'erings of Clergy, p, 168. 
* Sufferings of Clergy, p. Ill, ami Dr. Grey, voj. ii. p. i-il. 


& none of the estates, rents, and revenues of the university, 
6 or of the colleges and halls respectively, shall be seques- 
' tered or seized upon, or in any wise disposed of, by viiv 

* tue of the ordiuance for sequesteriug the estates, rents, 
' and revenues of delinquents, but shall remain to the uni- 
6 versity, and the respective halls and colleges, to all in- 

* tents and purposes as if the said ordinance had not been 

* made : and the rents and revenues, &c. are ordered to 
6 be approved of by the earl of Manchester, and to be ap- 
6 plied to their proper uses as heretofore. But if any of 
f the heads, fellows, scholars, or other officers, were con- 
6 victed of delinquency, the receiver was to pay their divi- 
<dend into the hands of the committee of sequestrations. ?? * 

This committee was founded upon an ordinance of Jan. 
%%, for regulating the university of Cambridge, and for re^ 
moving scandalous ministers in the seven associated coun- 
ties ; the preamble sets forth, " that the service of the par- 
c liament was retarded, the people's souls starved, by the 

* idle, ill-affected, and scandalous clergy of the university 
6 of Cambridge, and the associated counties ; and that many 
< who were willing to give evidence against them, not be- 
c ing able to bear the charges of a journey to London, the 
c earl of Manchester was therefore empowered to appoint 
6 committees in all the associated counties, to consist of ten 
' persons, being deputy-lieutenants, or such as had been 
6 nominated to committees, by some former ordiuance of 
6 parliament ; five of these were a quorum, and they were 
e empowered to call before them all provosts, masters, and 
( fellows of colleges, all students and members of the uni- 
e versity, all ministers in any of the counties of the associ- 
ation, all school-masters, that were scandalous in their 
6 lives, or ill-affected to the parliament, or fomenters of this 
6 unnatural war, or that shall wilfully refuse obedience to 
i the orders of parliament, or that have deserted their or- 
' dinary places of residence, not being employed in the ser- 
6 vice of the king and parliament. The said committee 
c were also empowered to send for witnesses, and to exam- 
f ine any complaints against the forementioned delinquents 
c upon oath, and to certify the names of the persons accus- 

* Husband's Collections, p. 409. 


6 ed to the earl of Manchester, with the charge and proof, 
f who shall have power to eject such as he shall judge un- 
<fit for their places ; to sequester their estates, means and 
\ revenues, and to dispose of them as he shall think fit, and 
* place others in their room, being first approved by the 
6 assembly of divines sitting at Westminster. He had al- 
<so power to order the covenant to be administered where 
'he thought fit, and to assign the fifths of sequestered es- 
tates for the benefit of their wives and children.'** The 
ordinance makes no mention of the doctrine or discipline 
of the church, seeming to be levelled only against those 
who took part with the king in the war. 

The earl of Manchester, who was at the head of these 
sequestrations, was stiled in the life-time of his father, 
lord Klmbolton, and was one of the impeached members 
of the house of commons : Lord Clarendon observes, § that 
£ he was of a genteel and generous nature ; that his natur- 
( al civility and good manners flowed to all men, and that 
4 he was never guilty of any rudeness, even to those whom 
' he was obliged to oppress ; that he long and heartily 
4 wished for the restoration, and never forfeited that grace 
i and favor, to which his majesty received him after his 
' return.*" The earl repaired in person to Cambridge, 
about the middle of February, with his two chaplains Mr. 
Ashe and Mr. Good, and by his warrant of the 24th in- 
stant, required the heads of the several colleges and halls 
to send him their statutes, with the names of all their mem- 
bers, and to certify who were present, and who absent, 
with the express time of their discontinuance. f Two days 
after, the officers of each college and hall were ordered to 
give speedy advertisement to the masters, fellows, schol- 
ars, &c. to repair to Cambridge by the 10th of March, in 
order to answer such enquiries as should be made by him- 
self or his commissioners. But the earl being informed, 
that this notice was too short, the time was prolonged to 
the 3d of April, when the earl summoned Mr. Tunstal 
and Mr. Palgraue, fellows of Corpus Christi college, to 

* Husband's Collections, p. 415. 
§ Clarendon, vol. i. p. 183. Vol. ii. p. 211, 213. 

t Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 112. 

284) THE HISTORY «HAP. 3, 

appear before the commissioners at the Bear inn, in Cam- 
bridge, on penalty of ejectment. Warrants of the same 
nature were sent to several of the fellows of Cains, 8t. 
John's, Queen's, Peter-House, Sidney, Trinity, Christ's, 
Magdalen, and Jesus colleges; and to Peaibroke and 
Clare-hall ; who, not appearing according to the summons, 
were by a warrant of April 8, ejected, to the Dumber of 
sixty-five. The reasons assigned for their expulsion were, 
lion-residence, and not returning upon due summons, and 
several other political misdemeanoi's.\\ If the parties eject- 
ed returned after this, they were required not to continue 
in the university above three days, on pain of imprison- 
ment, and confiscation of their goods ; their names were 
put out of the butteries, and the profits of their places re- 
served for their successors. Not one fellow or student in 
Trinity-hall, or Katherine-hall, was turned out, but all 
Queen's-coilege was evacuated. 

The covenant which was read March 18, 16-11, in the 
churches and chapels of the town and university, and ten- 
dered to the inhabitants and soldiers, was not offered to the 
whole university, but only to such of whose disaffection 
they had sufficient evidence. Archbishop Villotson says, 
the greatest part of the fellows of King's-college were ex- 
empted, by the interest of Dr. Whitchcoti ; and no doubt 
others who bad behaved peaceably, obtained the same fa- 
vor.* Dr. Barwick, author of the Querela Cantabrigien- 
sis f a famous loyalist, mentions an oath of discovery for the 
university, like that of the oath ex officio ; but Mr. Fuller 
the historian, about the year 1653, having requested an ac- 
count of this oath from Mr. Jlshe the earl's chaplain, he 
returned for answer, that he remembered no such thing. 
Mr. Fuller adds, that he is upon just grounds daily con- 
firmed in his confidence, that neither the earl of Manches- 
ter, nor any other under him by his command or consent, 
enforced such an oath. J 

The whole number of graduates expelled the university 
in this and the following years, by the earl of Manchester 
and his commissioners, including masters and fellows of 

|| Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 151, 160. * Introduction to Ibt 

Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 113. \ Appeal, p. 72, 

«HAP. 3. 



Colleges, were according to Dr. Walker, near two hundred., 
besides inferior scholars, which were something more than 
one half ;|| for the same author tells us in another place,* 
there were about three hundred and fifty-five fellowships 
in the several houses of the university; above one hundred 
and fifty kept their places, and far the greatest part of the 
rest had deserted their stations, and fled to the king. There 
were six heads of colleges out of sixteen that complied, viz. 
Dr. Bainbrigge, of Christ's-eollege, Dr. Eden, of Trinity - 
hall, Dr. Richard Love, of Bennet college, Dr. Brown - 
rigge, of Katherine-hall, ejected in the year 1645, Dr. 
Bachcroft, of Caius-college, and Dr. Rainbow, of Mag- 
dalen-college. The ten who were ejected by the earl of 
Manchester, March 13, or some little time after, with the 
names of their successors, are contained in the following 
table : 

Masters turned out. Colleges. Succeeded by 

Dr. John Cos'xns, from 
Dr. The. Pask, 
Dr. Benj. I.aney, 
Dr Samuel Collins, 
Dr. Edw. Martin, 
Dr. Skich. Stern. 
Dr. William Beale, 
Dr. Tho. Comber, 
Dr R. Holdsworth, 
Dr. Samuel Ward, 

Jinno 1643. 
Dr. Ralph Brown 


Pembroke- flail 
King's- College 
Queen' s-College 
Je^us- College 
St. John's College 
■ Eman. College. 
Sidney -College 

Kath. Ball 

Dr. F«az. Seaman, 
Dr. R. Cud worth, 

Mr Rich. Vines, 
Dr. Ben. Whitrhcott, 
Mr. Herb. Palmer, 
T. Young, 
J. Arrowsmith, 
Tho. Hill, 
Ant. Tneknev. 


Dr. Rich. Minshtill, 
f Dr. W. Spurstow, 
-< and aftericards 
I Dr. Lightfoot. 

It has been objected to the proceedings of the commis- 
sioners, that they were not according to the statutes of the 
university ; to which it was replied, that the nation was in 
a state of war; that these gentlemen were declared enemies 
to the proceedings of parliament ; that they instilled into 
their pupils, the unlawfulness of resisting the king upon 
any pretence whatsoever, and preached upon these subjects 
to the people. It was therefore necessary to take the ed- 
ucation of the youth out of their hands, which could not be 

!| Introduction to Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 114. 
* Stifferings of tbe Clergy, p. 163. 


clone any other way at present; but in all future elections 

they returned to the statutes. It has been said further, 

that it was a great loss to learning, because those who suc- 
ceeded were not equal to those who were ejected.* Had 
this been true, it is no sufficient reason for keeping them 
in their places, in a time of war, if they were enemies to 
the constitution and liberties of their country. But the best 
way of determining the question as to their learning, is by 
comparing their respective characters. 

Dr. Cusins had been sequestered by the parliament in 
the year 1640, for his high principles, and was retired to 
France, where he continued till the restoration, and was 
then preferred to the rich bishopric of Durham : He was 
a learned man, of an open, frank, and generous temper, 
and well-versed in the canons, councils, and fathers. § 

Dr. Paske lived peaceably and eheerfully under the par- 
liament, and was reinstated in all his livings at the restora- 
tion, except the mastership of this college, which be quit- 
ted to his son. The Querela Cantab, says, he was emi- 
nent for learning ; but I do not remember that he has giv- 
en any specimens of it to the world 4 

Dr. Laney was first chaplain to Dr. JSFeil, and afterwards 
prebendary of Westminster ; he was one of the king's di- 
vines at the treaty of "Oxbridge, and attended upon King 
Charles II. in his exile ; after the restoration he was suc- 
cessively bishop of Peterborough, Lincoln, and Ely, and 
was more favor ible to the non-conformists than some of 
bis brethren. He has some sermons extant, and a small 
treatise against Hobbes. 

Dr. Collins was regius jwofessor, provost of King's col- 
lege, and rector of Fenny-Ditton; of which last he was de- 
prived by the earl of Manchester, for his steady adherence 
to the royal cause. He kept his provostship till the year 
1645, and his professorship much longer. He died in the 
year 1651, and had the reputation of a great scholar (says 
Dr. Harwich J and his name was famous in foreign univer- 
sities, though he has transmitted very little down to pos- 
terity. j| 

* Walker's Attempt, p. 114. § Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 68 
f Ibid. p. 141. t Ibid. p. 153. Cal amy's Abridg. p. 173. 
|| Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 156. 


Dr. Martin was one of archbishop Laud's chaplains, 
and one of Mr. White's scandalous ministers ; he was ac- 
cused not only of practising the late innovations, and of 
being in the scheme of reconciling the church of England 
with Rome ; but of stealing wheat-sheaves out of the field 
in harvest on the sabbath day, and laying them to his tithe 
stock. He was very high in his principles, and was im- 
prisoned for sending the university plate to the king. Af- 
ter his enlargement, he retired to France, and at the re- 
storation was preferred to the deanry of Ely. Lloyd says 
he was a godly man, and excellently well skilled in the 
canon, civil, and common law ; but Mr. Prijnne gives him 
a very indifferent character ; and bisliop Rennet acknowl- 
edges his principles were rigid, and his temper sour.* 

Dr. Stern was another of archbishop Laud's chaplains, 
and imprisoned for the same reason as the former. He af- 
terwards assisted the archbishop on the scaffold and lived 
retired till the restoration, when he was made bishop of 
Carlisle, and in 1664, archbishop of York. || He had a so- 
ber, honest, mortified aspect, but was of very arbitrary 
principles, and a very uncharitable temper ; for when Mr. 
Baxter, at the Savoy conference, was intreating the bish- 
ops not to cast out so many ministers in the nation, he made 
this mean remark to his brethren, that Mr. Baxter would 
not use the word kingdom lest he should own a king.|| 

Dr. Beala was also imprisoned for sending the univer- 
sity plate to the king ; after his enlargement he retired to 
Oxford, and was one of the preachers before the court, but 
upon the declining of the king's cause, he retired to Mad- 
rid, where he died about the year 1651. He was a man 
of very high principles ; though if we may believe the Que- 
rela, a person of such worth, as rendered him above the 
reach of commendation. | 

Dr. Comber was another of the king's chaplains, though 
imprisoned and deprived, for sending the university plate 
to the king ; after his enlargement he lived privately till 
the year 1651, when he died ; he was a learned man, and 
of great piety and charity. 

* Kennel's Chronicle, p. 670. || Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 146. 
t Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 148. 
Vol. III. 18 


Dr. Iloldsivorth had been a celebrated preacher in the 
city of London, and divinity professor in Crresham-col- 
lege ; he. was afterwards chosen master of Emanuel-eol- 
lege, Cambridge, and was a zealous advocate for the king, 
for which he was sometime under confinement. He attend- 
ed his majesty at Hampton -Court and the Isle of Wight, 
and soon after died with grief. He was a pious and char- 
itable man, but high in his principles, and of an hasty 
passionate temper. He published one sermon in his life- 
time, and after his death his friends published his Prelee- 
tionos, am) a volume of sermons. 

Dr. Ward was one of the English divines at the synod 
of Bort, and nominated of the committee of divines that 
sat in the Jerusalem-Chamber, and of the assembly at 
Westminster, though he never sat; he was a very learned' 
man, and died soon after his ejectment. 

Dr. Brownrigge was installed bishop of Exeter 1-64&J 
and deprived of his mastership in the year 1643, for some 
expressions in his sermon upon the king's inauguration;, 
He was an excellent man, and of a peaceable and quiet 
disposition ; after the war he was allowed the liberty of 
the pulpit, and was chosen master of the Temple, where 
he died about the year 1659. 

Far be it from me to detract from the personal merit of 
any of these sufferers, or from their rank in the common- 
wealth of learning ; but their political principles, like those 
of archbishop Laud, were certainly inconsistent with the 
constitution and liberties of England, and exposed them 
very naturally to the resentments of the parliament in these 
boisterous times. 

Those who succeeded the ejected masters, having been 
first examined and approved by the assembly of divines at 
Westminster, were these : 

Dr. Lazarus Seaman, a very considerable divine, ac- 
cording to Mr. Wood, a complete master of the oriental 
languages, an excellent casuist, and a judicious moving 
preacher. He was well versed in the controversy of 
church government, which made the parliament send him 
with their commissioners to the Isle of Wight, where his. 


majesty was pleased to take particular notice of his abili- 
ties.§ He was ejected out of his mastership of Peter- 
House in 1662, and died in 1675.* He printed several 
sermons, and a Vindication of the Judgment of the reform- 
ed Churches concerning ordination. 

Dr. Ralph Cud worth is so universally known in the 
learned world, for his great learning, which he discovered 
in his Intellectual System,-\ that I shall only observe, lie 
conformed at the restoration, and a little before resigned 
Lis mastership of Ciai-e^Hall into the hands of Dr. Dil- 
lingham, who continued in it to his death. 

Mr. Richard Vines was a very learned and excellent 
divine, a popular and laborious preacher, one of the par- 
liament divines at the treaty of the Isle of Wight, and a 
most industrious and useful man in his college. He was 
turned out of his mastership for refusing the engagement, 
aud died before the restoration. 

Dr. Benjamin Whitchcot was fellow of Emanuel col- 
lege, aud upon the ejectment of Dr. Collins preferred to the 
mastership of King's college, in which he continued till 
the restoration, and then conformed. The account arch- 
bishop Tdlotson gives of him is this ; " that he was an ex- 
i cellent tutor and instructor of youth, and bred up many 
( persons of quality and others, who afterwards proved 

§ Calamy's Abridg. vol. ii. p. 10. 
* He always carried about with hi in a small Plantin Hebrew Bible 
■without points. He had a deep and piercing judgment in all points of 
controversial divinity : nor was he less able to defend than find out the 
truth. Upon the invitation of an honorable lady, who was the head 
of a noble family, and was often solicited by Romish priests to change 
her religion, he engaged two of the most able priests they could pick 
out in a dispute, in the presence of the lord and lady for their satisfac- 
tion ; and, by silencing tliem upon the head of transubstantiation, was 
instrumental to preserve that whole family sledfast in the protestant 
religion. Dr. Grey acknowledges, on Mr. Wood's authority, that he 
was a learned man, and died much lamented by the brethren. Palm- 
er's Nonconformist's Memorial, vol. i. p. 77. Ed. 

t This work, distinguished by the excellence of its reasoning and 
the variety of its learning, was published to stem the torrent of irrelig- 
ion and atheism that prevailed in the reign of Charles II. The author, 
who was superior to all his contemporaries in metaphysics, was father 
to the learned and accomplished lady Masham, of Oates in Essex, in 
whose house Mr. Locke speut the last fourteen years of bis life. GratU 
gers History of England, vol. iii. p. 283. 8vo.* Ed. 


6 useful and eminent ; that he contributed more to the form- 
* ing the students to a sober sense of religion than any man 
6 of that age. He never took the covenant, and by his 
' particular friendship and interest with some of the chief 
' visitors, prevailed to have the greatest part of the fel- 
6 lows of his college exempted from that imposition ."§ 

Mr. Herbert Palmer, B. I), was one of the university 
preachers in 1633, and clerk in convocation for the diocese 
of Lincoln, at the beginning of this parliament ; he was 
one of the assessors of the assembly of divines at West- 
minster, and on April 11, 10M, constituted master of 
Queen's college by the earl of Manchester.^ He was ve- 
ry careful to appoint such persons for tutors of youth as 
were eminent for learning and piety ; and being possess- 
ed of a good paternal estate was unbounded in his liberal- 
ity. He was a polite gentleman, a complete master of the 
French language, in which he could preach as well as in 
English ; but his constitution being infirm he died in the 
year 1647, when he was only forty- seven years of age.* 

Dr. T. Young was an eminent member of the assembly 
of divines (says Mr. Clarke^) a man of great learning, of 
much prudence and piety, and of great ability and fidelity 
in the work of the ministry. He was a preacher at Duke's- 
Place in London, from whence he was preferred to the. 
mastership of Jesus college, where he behaved with great 
prudence and piety, till he was turned out for refusing the 
engagement. He was one of the authors of the pamphlet 
called Smectymnuus. 

§ " His notions of religion were like his charity," says Mr. Gran- 
< a-er, exalted and diffusive, and never limited by the narrow prejudices 
* of sects and parties. He was disgusted with the dryness and foolish- 
' ness of preaching that prevailed in his time ; and encouraged the 
6 young students of his college to form themselves after the best models 
6 of Greece and Rome." History of England, vol. iii. p. 283-4. Svo. Ed. 

$ Clarke's Lives, p. 183, annexed to his General MartyRology. 

* What archbishop Laud urged in his defence at his trial, as an in- 
stance of his impartiality, ought to be mentioned here to his credit : 
namely, that he presented Mr. Palmer, though professedly of puritan 
principles, on account of his excellent character, to the vicarage of 
Ashwell in Hertfordshire, in 1632. Granger's History of England, 
vol. ii. p. 183. Svo. Ed. 

f Clarke's Lives, p. 194. 


Dr. John Arrowsmith was fellow of Catherine-hall, and 
of an unexceptionable character for learning and piety. 
He was an acute disputant, and a judicious divine, as ap- 
pears by bis Taciica Sacra, a book of great reputation in 
those times. He died before the restoration. 

Dr. Thomas Hill was fellow of Emanuel college, and 
one of the assembly of divines at Westminster. He was 
first constituted master of Emanuel, and afterwards remov- 
ed to Trinity college, where he employed all his zeal in 
the advancement of knowledge and virtue, and in keeping 
up the college exercises. He was twice vice-chancellor, 
and as solicitous to preserve the houor and privilege of 
the university as any of his predecessors. He was a zeal- 
ous calvinist, and after about ten year's government of his 
college died in the year 1653. § 

Dr. Anthony Tuckney had been vicar of Boston in Lin- 
colnshire, from whence he was called up to sit in the as- 
sembly of divines at Westminster. In the year 1645, he 
was constituted master of Emanuel college. f In 1653, he 
was chosen master of St. John's, and upon the death of 
Dr. JLrrowsmith, regius professor of Oxford, which place 
he enjoyed till the restoration, when king Charles II. by 
letter under the hand of secretary Nicholas, ordered him 
to resign, promising him, in consideration of his great pains 
and diligence in discharge of his duty, one hundred pounds 
ver aim. which was paid by his successor till his death, in 
the year 1671. He left behind him the character of a pi- 
ous and learned man, an indefatigable student, a candid 
disputant, and a zealous promoter ef truth and piety. He 
published some practical treatises iu his life ; and his Vroz- 
lectiones Theological, with a volume of sermons, were 
printed after his death.* 

§ Clarke's Lives, p. 230, ut ante. f Calamy's Abridg. p. 77. 

* Dr. Tuckney was also vice-chancellor of the university of Cam- 
bridge, and after the restoration was appointed one of the commission- 
ers at the conference held at the Savoy. His modesty was as distin- 
guishing as his learning. He presided over his college, which never 
flourished mere than under his government, with great prudence and 
ability. And is said to have shewn more courage in maintaining the 
rights and privileges of the university in the lawless time in which he 
lived, than any of the heads of houses at Cambridge. Granger's His- 
tory of England, vol. iii. p. 303-6, Svo. Ed. 


Dr, Richard Minshull was fellow of Sidney college, 
and upon the death of Dr. Ward chosen regularly, accord- 
ing to the statutes, into the vacant mastership, and contin- 
ued therein till the restoration, when he conformed, and 
was confirmed in his place, which he filled with reputation 
till his death. 

Dr. William Spurstow, one of the assembly of divines, 
and one of the commissioners at the Savoy in the year 
1632,* was a person of good learning, of a peaceable and 
quiet disposition, and of great humility and charity. He 
was turned out of his mastership of Catherine-hall for re- 
fusing the engagement, and was succeeded by the famous 

Dr. Lightfoot, the most complete master of oriental learn- 
ing of his age ; the doctor enjoyed this mastership, with 
the sequestered livings of Much-Munden, given him by 
the assembly of divines, till the restoration, when he would 
have resigned it back into the hands of Dr. Spurstow, but 
he declining it, Lightfoot conformed, and upon his appli- 
cation to the king was confirmed in both his preferments 
till his death. His works were published by Mr. Strype 
in two volumes folio. 

If it should be granted, that the new professors were 
not at first so expert in the learning of the schools as their 
predecessors, that defect was abundantly supplied by their 
application and diligence in their places, and by their 
observing a very strict and severe discipline ; the tutors 
were constant in reading lectures not only in term-tiine, 
but out of it ; the proctors and other officers had a strict 
eye over the students to keep them within bounds, and 
oblige them to be present at morning and evening prayer. 
The Lord's- day was observed with uncommon rigor ; 
there were sermons and prayers in all the churches and 
chapels both morning and afternoon. Vice and profane- 
ness were banished, insomuch that an oath was not to be 
Iieard within the walls of the university ; and if it may be 
said without offence, the colleges never appeared more 
like nurseries of religion and virtue that at this period. |j 
The noble historian confesses, the university of Oxford 
flourished as much in learning and learned men at the res- 

* Calamy's Abridg. vol. ii. p. 471. fjlbsd. vol. iii. p. 74. 

CHAP. 3 1 . OF THE PURITANS. 148' 

toration, as before the civil wars, which is equally true of 
Cambridge. And it ought to be remembered, that most of 
the considerable divines and philosophers who flourished 
in the reigns of king Charles the second and king William 
the third, owed their education to the tutors of those times, 
for whom they always retained a great veneration. 

Though the form of inducting the new masters was not 
according to the statutes, (as has been observed) because 
of the distraction of the times, it is evident this was not de- 
signed to be a precedent for their successors, as appears 
by the manner of their investiture, which was this ; Mr. 
Lazarus Seaman having been examined and approved by 
the assembly of divines at Westminster, the earl of Man- 
chester came in person into the chapel of Peter-house, A- 
pril 11, and did there declare and publish Mr. Lazarus 
Seaman to be constituted master of the said Peter house, in. 
the room of Dr. Cosins, late master, who had been justly 
and lawfully ejected ; requiring Mr. Seaman to take upon 
him that office, putting him into the master's seat and de- 
livering to him the statutes of the college in token of his 
investiture, straitly charging the fellows, &c. to acknowl- 
edge and yield obedience to him, notwithstanding he was 
not elected, nor admitted according to the ordinary course 
prescribed by the said statutes in this time of distract ion 
and war, there being a necessity of reforming, as well the 
statutes themselves, as the members of the said house.% 
The earl tSien gave him an instrument under his hand and 
seal to the same effect, and administered him an oath or 
protestation, which he took in the following words : 

" I do solemnly and seriously promise, in the presetted 
' of Almighty God the searcher of all hearts, that during 

* the time of my continuance in this charge, I shall faith- 
' fully labor to promote learning and piety in myself, the 

* fellows, scholars, and students, that do or shall belong to 
e the said college, agreeably to the late solemn national 
• league and covenant, by me sworn and subscribed, with 
4 respect to all the good and wholesome statutes of the said 

t Sufferings of the Clergy, p. tl4, 115. 


i college and of the university, correspondent to the said 
' covenant ; and by all means to procure the good, welfare, 
( and perfect reformation both of the college and universi- 
1 ty, so far as to me appertaincth." 

The other masters were introduced into their several 
chairs after the same solemn manner, their warrants bear- 
ing date the 11th, 13th, or 13th of April, 1644 ; but the 
clause of the covenant was omitted by those who did not 
take it, as in tiie case of Dr. Whitchcot, and others. 

The vacant fellowships being more numerous were net 
so quickly filled, though the earl took the most prudent 
method in that affair ; April 10, he directed a paper to the 
several colleges, declaring that S( his purpose was forth- 
with to supply the vacant fellowships, and desiring that 
' if there were any in the respective colleges, who in re- 
6 gard of degree, learning, and piety, should be found fit 
6 for such preferment, they would upon receipt of ihat pa- 
' per, return him their names, in order to their being ex- 
' amined by the assembly, and invested in them. 7 ' The 
persons thus examined and presented, were constituted 
fellows by warrant under the hand antl seal of the earl of 
Manchester, to the heads of the several colleges, in the fol- 
lowing form : 

" WHEREAS JL. B. has been ejected out of his fel- 
4 lowship in this college ; and whereas C. J), has been ex- 
i amined and approved by the assembly of divines, these 

< are therefore to require you to receive the said C. D. as 
£ fellow in the room of JL. B. and to give him place accord - 
£ ing to his seniority in the university, in preference to all 

< those that are, or shall hereafter be put in by mc. w | 

I have before me the names of fifty-five persons,:}: who 
after they had been examined by the assembly, were pre- 
sented to the vacant fellowships, in the compass of the 
year 1644 ; and within six months more all the vacancies 
were in a manner supplied, with men of approved learn- 
ing and piety. 

§ Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 114-, 115. \ MS. penes me. 


From this time the university of Cambridge enjoyed a 
happy tranquillity ; learning nourished, religion and good 
manners were promoted, at a time when the rest of the na- 
tion was in blood and confusion. And though this altera- 
tion was effected by a mixture of the civil and military pow- 
er, vet in a little time things reverted to their former chan- 
nel, and the statutes of the university were as regularly ob- 
served as ever. Let the reader now judge the candor and 
impartiality of the famous Dr. Bar wick, author of the Quer- 
ela Cantabrigiensis, whose words are these : "Thus the 
i knipperdollings of the age reduced a glorious and re- 
{ nowned university almost to a mere Minister, and did 
6 more in less than three years, than the apostate Julian 
( . could effect in his reign, viz. broke the heartstrings of 
6 learning, aud all learned men, and thereby luxated all 
i the joints of Christianity in this kingdom. We are not 
' afraid to appeal to any impartial judge, whether if the 
i Goths and Vandals, or even the Turks themselves, had 
t over-run this nation, they would have more inhumanly 
f abused a flourishing university, than these pretended ad- 
6 vaucers of religion have done? Having thrust out one of 
e the eyes of this kingdom, made eloquence dumb, philos- 
' ophy sottish ; widowed the arts, drove the muses from 
f their antient habitation, plucked the reverend and ortho- 
\ dox professors out of the chairs, aud silenced them in 
f prison or their graves ; turned religion into rebellion ; 
6 changed the apostolical chair into a desk for blasphemy ; 
c tore the garland from off the head of learning to place it 
* on the dull brows of disloyal ignorance, and unhived those 
' numerous swarms of laboring bees, which used to drop 
' honey-dews over all this kingdom, to place in their room 
' swarms of senseless drones. "f Such was the rant of this 
reverend clergyman ; and such the language and the spir- 
it of the ejected loyalists ! 

While the earl was securing the university to the par- 
liament, he appointed commissioners for removing scanda- 
lous ministers in the seven associated counties, empower- 
ing them to act by the following warrant : 

t Querela, Pref. p. 2, 26, 27. Walker's Attempt, p. 115, 
Vol.IIT. 49 

146 THE lllSTORl?. CHAP. 3. 

"March 15, 1644. 
44 BY virtue of an ordinance of both houses of parlia- 
i ment, bearing date January 22, 1613-4, I do authorize 

4 and appoint you , or any five of you, to call before 

*you all ministers or school-masters within the counties of 

i , that are scandalous in their lives, or ill-affected 

'to the parliament, or fomenters of this unnatural war; 
4 or that shall wilfully refuse obedience to the ordinances of 
'parliament; or that have deserted their ordinary places 
4 of residence, not being employed in the service of the king 
4 and parliament, with full power and liberty to send for 
4 an\ witnesses, and to examine complaints upon oath. — 
( And you are to certify the names of such ministers, with 
' the charge and proof against them to me."-f 

It is to be observed, that the warrant is pointed only a- 
gainst those who are immoral, or disaffected to the parlia- 
ment, or had deserted their cures ; and was accompanied 
with instructions, and & letter, exhorting them to the faith- 
ful and effectual discharge of their trust. The instructions 
were to this effect. 

First, " That they should be speedy and effectual in ex* 
4 ecuting the ordinances, and sit in such places within the 
( county that all parties, by the easiness of access, may be 

* encouraged to address themselves to them with their com- 

* plaints. 

Secondly, u That they should issue their warrants, to 
6 summon before them such ministers and witnesses, as the 
4 articles preferred against them should require. 

Thirdly, "That the party accused should not be pres- 
4 ent at the taking the depositions, because of discounte- 
nancing the witnesses, and disturbing the service ;* but 
6 when the depositions were taken upon oath the party ac- 
4 cused should have a copy, and have a day given him to 
4 return his answer in writing, and to make his defence 

* within fourteen days, or thereabouts. 

t Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 117. 

* This was owins; to the insolent and unmannerly behavior of some 
of the clergv before the commissioners; for the ordinance of Sept. 6, 
1643, appoints, that the witnesses shall be examined in their presence; 
and that sufficient warning shall be given of the time and place where 
the charge against them should be proved. 


Fourthly, u They were to return both the accusation and 
4 defeuce to Mr. Good and Mr. Ashe, the earl's chaplains, 
' and upon such receipts they should have further direc- 
1 tions. 

Fifthly, 4i If the party accused would uot appear to make 
4 his defence, they were to certify the cause of his absence, 
4 because if they were von -residents, or in arms against 
4 the 'parliament, the earl would proceed against them.* 

Sixthly, " It being found by experience, that parishion- 

* ers were not forward to complain of their ministers, 
4 though very scaudalous ; some being enemies to the in- 

* teuded reformation, and others sparing their ministers, 

* because they favored them in their tithes, and were there- 
4 fore esteemed quiet men ; therefore they were required 
4 to call unto them some well- affected men within every 
' hundred, who, having no private engagements, were to 

* be encouraged by the committees to enquire after the doc- 
4 trines, lives, and conversations of all ministers and scbool- 
4 masters, and to give information what could be deposed, 
( and who could depose the same. 

Seventhly, " Each commissioner shall have five shil- 
' lings for every day he sits ; and the clerk to receive some 
4 pay, that he might not have occasion to demand fees for 
4 every warrant or copy, unless the writings were very 
4 large. 

Kighthly, (i Upon the ejecting of any scandalous or ma- 
' lignant ministers, they were to require the parishioners to 
4 make choice of some fit and able person to succeed, who 
4 was to have a testimonial from the well-affected gentry 

* and ministry ; and to take particular care that no anabap- 
4 tist, or antinomian, be recommended. 

Ninthly, <4 They were to certify the true value of each 
4 living; as also the estate, livelihood, and charge of chil- 
4 dren, which the accused person had, for his lordship's 
4 direction in the assignment of the fifths. And, 

Lastly, (i They were to use all other proper ways and 
' methods for speeding the service." 

With these instructions the earl sent an exhortation by 
tetter, in the following words : 

* Hosband's Collections, p. 31i. 


u Gentlemen, 

"I send you by tnis bearer a commission, with in- 
structions for executing the ordinance, &c. within your 
county. I neither doubt of your abilities nor affections 
to further this service, yet according to the great trust 
reposed in me herein by the parliament, I must be earnest 
with you to be diligent therein. You know how much 
the people of this kingdom have formerly suffered in their 
persons, souls, and estates, under an idle, ill-affected., 
scandalous, and insolent clergy, upheld by the bishops ; 
and you cannot but foresee, that their pressures and bur- 
thens will still continue, though the form of government 
be altered, unless great care be taken to displace such 
ministers, and to place orthodox and holy men in every 
parish ; for let the government be what it will for the 
form thereof, yet it will never be good, unless the parties 
employed therein be good themselves. By the provi- 
dence of God it now lies in your power to reform the 
former abuses, and to remove these offenders. Your pow- 
er is great, and so is your trust. If a general reforma- 
tion follows not within your county, assuredly the blame 
will be laid upon you, and you must expect to be called 
to an account for it both here and hereafter. For my 
part, I am resolved to employ the utmost of my power 
given to me by the ordinance, for procuring a general re- 
formation in all the associated counties, expecting your 
forwardness, and heartily joining with me herein.* 

" I rest, &c." 
When a clergyman was convicted according to the in- 
structions above mentioned, report was made to the earl, 
who directed a warrant to the church-wardens of the par- 
ish, to eject him out of his parsonage, and all the profits 
thereof ; and another to receive the tithes, and all the ben- 
efits into their own hands, and to keep them in safe custo- 
dy till they should receive further order from himself. f 
At the same time he directed the parishioners to choose a 
proper minister for the vacant place, and upon their pre- 
sentation his lordship sent him to the assembly of divines 
at Westminster, with an account of his character, for their 

^ Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 118. | Ibid. p. 119. 


trial and examination. And upon a certificate from the as- 
sembly, that they approved of him as an orthodox divine, 
and qualified to officiate in the pastoral function, his lord- 
ship issued out his last warrant, setting forth that ki such 
' an one having been approved by the assembly, &c. he 

f did therefore authorize and appoint him the said , 

' to officiate as minister, to preach, teach, and catechise in 
' such a parish during his (the earl's) pleasure, and then 
' empower him to take possession of the church, parsonage- 
' houses, glebe-lands, and to receive the tithes and profits, 
* and enjoy the same, until his lordship should take fur- 
6 ther order concerning the same, requiring all officers to 
i aid and assist him for that purpose." 

If the committees observed these articles there could be 
no reasonable ground of complaint, except of the sixth, 
which may be construed as giving too much encouragement 
to informers ; but the methods of conviction were unex- 
ceptionable. The persons to be called before the commis- 
sioners were scandalous, or enemies to the parliament ; 
the depositions were upon oath ; a copy of them was al- 
lowed the defendant, with time to give in his answer in 
writing ; then a day appointed to make his defence in pres- 
ence of the witnesses, to whom he might take exceptions : 
and after all_, the final judgment not left with the commis- 
sioners, but with the earl. The filling the vacant benefice 
was no less prudent ; the parishioners were to choose their 
own minister, who was to produce testimonials of his so- 
briety and virtue ; the assembly were then to examine in- 
to his learning and ministerial qualifications; and after 
all, the new incumbent to hold his living only during plea- 
sure ; the parliament being willing to leave open a door, 
at the conclusion of a peace, for restoring such royalists 
as were displaced merely for adhering to the king, without 
prejudice to the present possessor. One cannot answer 
for particulars under such uncommon distractions and vi- 
olence of parties ; but the orders were, in my opinion, not 
only reasonable but expedient, for the support of the cause 
in which the parliament was engaged. 

The committees for the associated counties acted, I ap- 
prehend, no longer than the. year 1644. The last warrant 
of ejectment mentioned by Dr. Nalson, bearing date March 


17, 1644-5, in which time affairs were brought to such a 
settlement in those parts, that the royalists could give them 
110 disturbance. f The associated counties, says Mr. Full" 
er, escaped the best of all parts in this civil war, the smoke 
thereof only offending them, while the fire was felt in oth- 
er places. The chief ejectments by the commissioners in 
other parts of England, were in the years 1644, 1645, and 
till the change of government in the year 1649, when the 
covenant itself was set aside, and changed into an engage- 
ment to the new commonwealth. 

It is hard to compute the number of clergymen that might 
lose their livings by the several committees curing the war, 
nor is it of any great importance, for the law is the same 
whether more or fewer suffer by it ; and the not putting it 
in execution might be owing to want of power or opportu- 
nity. Dr. Nalsrm says, that in live of the associated coun- 
ties one hundred and fifty-six clergymen were ejected in 
little more than a year ; namely, in Norfolk fifty-one, Suf- 
folk thirty-seven, Cambridgeshire thirty-one, Essex twen^ 
ty-one, Lincolnshire sixteen ; and if we allow a propor- 
tionable number for the other two, the whole will amount 
to two hundred and eighteen ; and if in seven counties 
there were two hundred and eighteen sufferers, the fifty- 
two counties of England, by a like proportion, will pro- 
duce upwards of sixteen hundred. Dr. Walker has fal- 
laciously increased the number of suffering clergymen to 
eight thousand, even though the list at the end of his book 
makes out little more than a fifth part. Among his cathe- 
dral clergy he reckons up several prebends and canonries, 
in which he supposes sufferers withftut any evidence. Of 
this sort Dr. Calamy has reckoned above two hundred.* 
If one clergyman was possessed of three or four dignities, 
there appear to be as many sufferers. The like is observ- 
able in the case of pluralists ; for example, Richard Stu- 
art, L. L. D. is set down as a sufferer in the deanry of St. 
Paul's, as prebendary of St. Pancras, and residentiary; 
in the deanry and prebend of the third stall in Westmin- 
ster ; in the deanry of the royal chapel ; in the provost- 
ship of Eaton-college, and prebend of Northalton in the 

t Sufferings of the Clergy, p 119. 
* Church and Dissenters compared, p. 52. 


church of Salisbury ; all which preferments he enjoyed, 
(says JDr. Walker) or was entitled to, together, and his 
name is repeated in the several places. By such a calcu- 
lation it is easy to deceive the reader, and swell the account 
beyond measure. The reverend Mr. Withers,* a late 
non-conformist minister at Exeter, has taken care to make 
an exact computation in the associated counties of Suffolk, 
Norfolk, and Cambridgeshire, in which are one thousand 
three hundred and ninety-eight parishes, and two hundred 
and fifty- three sequestrations ; so that if these may be reck- 
oned as a standard for the whole kingdom, the whole num- 
ber will be reduced considerably under two thousand. He" 
lias also made another computation from the county of De- 
von, in which are three hundred ninety-four parishes, and 
©ne hundred and thirty-nine sequestrations, out of whicht 
thirty- nine are deducted for pluralities, &c. and then by 
comparing this county (in which both Dr. Walker and 
Mr. Withers lived) with the rest of the kingdom, the 
amount of sufferers according to him, is one thousand sev- 
en hundred and twenty-six ; but admitting they should 
arise to the number of the doctor's names in his index,, 
which are about two thousand four hundred, yet when 
such were deducted as were fairly convicted upon oath, of 
immoralities of life, &e. (which were a fourth in the asso- 
ciated counties) and all such as took part with the king in 
the war, or disowned the authority of the parliament ; 
preaching up doctrines inconsistent with the cause Tor 
which they had taken arms, and exciting the people to an 
absolute submission to the authority of the crown, the re- 
mainder that were displaced only for refusing the covenant? 
must be very inconsiderable. Mr. Baxter says, they cast 
out the grosser sort of insufficient and scandalous clergy, 
'"and some few civil men that had acted in the wars for the 
king, and set up the late innovations, but left in near on© 
half of those that were but barely tolerable. He adds fur- 
ther, " that in all the counties in which he was acquainted 
• six to one at least, if not more, that were sequestered by 
( the committees, were by the oaths of witnesses proved in 
' sufficient, or scandalous, or both. v § 

* Appendix to his Reply to Mr. Agate, p. 27, 28. 
§ History of Life and Times, p. 74. 


But admitting their numbers to be equal to those puritan 
ministers ejected at the restoration, yet the cause of their 
ejectment, and the circumstances of the times, being very 
different, the sufferings of the former ought not to be com- 
pared to tiie latter ; though Dr. Walker is pleased to say 
in his preface, that if the sufferings of the dissenters bear 
any tolerable proportion to those of the ejected loyalists, in 
number, degrees* or circumstances* he will be gladly deem- 
ed not only to have lost all his labor, but to have revived a 
great and unanswerable scandal on the cause he has un- 
dertaken to defend. I shall leave the reader to pass his 
own judgment upon this declaration, after I have produc- 
ed the testimony of one or two divines of the church of 
England. " Who can answer (says one) for the violence 
'and injustice of actions in a civil war? Those sufferings 
' were in a time of general calamity, but these [in 1662] 
' were ejected not only in a time of peace, but a time of joy 
\ to all the land, and after an act of oblivion, to which com- 
' mon rejoicing these suffering ministers had contributed 
rf their earnest prayers, and great endeavors.*- — ' ? " I must 
i own (says another of the doctor's correspondents) that 
f though both sides have been excessively to blame, yet 
i that the severities used by the church to the dissenters 
'. are less excusable than those used by the dissenters to 
' the church ; my reason is, that the former were used in 
? times of peace, and a settled government, whereas the 
' latter were inflicted in a time of tumult and confusion, so 
* that the plundering and ravaging endured by the church 
' ministers were owing (many of them at least) to the rude- 
f ness of the soldiers, and the chances of war ; they were 
£ plundered not because they were conformists, but cava- 
f Hers, and of the king's party. '% The case of those who 
were sober and virtuous, seems to be much the same with 
the nonjurors at the late revolution of King William III. 
and I readily agree with Mr. Fuller, that " moderate men 
< bemoaned these severities, for as much corruption was 
e let out by these ejectments (many scandalous ministers 
i being deservedly punished) so at the same time the veins 

* Conform, first Plea, p. 12, 13. 
§ Calamy's Church and Dissenters compared, p. 23, 24. 

CHAP. 8. OF THE VUR1TAN9. 153 

i of the English church were also emptied of much good 

< Mc*>d."§ 

We have already observed, that a fifth part of the rev- 
enues of these ejected clergymen was reserved for the 
maintenance of their poor families, " which was a chris- 
tian act, and which I should have been glad (says the 
' divine abovementioned) to have seen imitated at the res- 
' toration."* Upon this the cavaliers sent their wives and 
children to be maintained by the parliament ministers, 
while themselves were fighting for the king. The houses 
therefore ordained, Sept. 8, 164-5, that the fifths should 
not be paid to the wives aud children of those who came 
into the parliament quarters without their husbands or 
fathers, or who were not bred in the protestant religion. f 
Yet when the war was over, all were allowed their fifths, 
though in some places they were ill paid, the incumbent 
being hardly able to allow them, by reason of the small- 
ness of his living, and the devastation of the war. When 
some pretended to excuse themselves on the foremention- 
ed exceptions, the two houses published the following ex- 
planation, Nov. 11, 16^7? viz. Si That the wives and chil- 

< dren of all such persons whose estates and livings are, 
' have been, or shall be sequestered by order of either house 
' of parliament, shall be comprehended within the ordin- 
' ance which allows a fifth part for wives and children, and 
' shall have their fifth part allowed them ; and the commit- 
' tee of lords and commons for sequestrations, aud the cora- 
' mittees for plundered ministers, and all other ministers, 
1 are required to take notice hereof, and yield obedience 
' hereunto/' J Afterwards, when it was questioned wheth- 
er the fifths should pay their proportion of the public tax- 
es, it was ordained, that the incumbent only should pay 
them. Under the government of the protector Cromwell it 
was ordained, that if the ejected minister left the quiet pos- 
session of his house and glebe to his successor within a 
certain time, he should receive his fifths, and all his ar- 
rears, provided he had not a real estate of his own of thir- 
ty pounds per annum, or five hundred pounds in money. 

f Church History, p. 207. * Cakuny's C!i. and Diss. comp. p. 24. 

t Husband's Collection*;, p. 726. | Sufferings of the Cler^v, p. 100. 
Vol. III. 20 


After all, it was a hard case on botii sides ; the incum- 
bents thought it hard to be obliged to all the duties of their 
place, and another to go away with ajifth of the profit, at 
a time when the value of church lands was considerably 
lessened by the. neglect of tillage, and exorbitant taxes laid 
upon all the necessaries of life. To which may be added,, 
an opinion that began to prevail among the farmers, of the 
unlawfulness of paying tithes: Mr. Selden had led the 
way to this in his book of tithes, whereupon the parliament, 
by an ordinance of Nov. 8. l644y " strictly enjoined all 
f persons fully, truly, and effectually to set out, yield, and 
« pay respectively, all and singular tithes, offerings, obla- 
6 tious, obventions, rates for tithes, and all other duties 
6 commonly known by the name of tithes. " Others who 
had no scruple about the payment of tithes, refused to pay 
them to the new incumbent, because the ejected minister 
had the legal right ; insomuch that the presbyterian min- 
isters were obliged in many places to sue their parishion- 
ers, which created disturbances and divisions, and atlengtk 
gave rise to several petitions from the counties of Bucking- 
ham, Oxford, Hertford, &c. praying, that their ministers 
might be provided for some other way. The parliament 
referred them to a committee, which produced no redress, 
because they could not fix upon another fund, nor provids 
for the lay-impropriations. 



Of the several Parties in the Assembly of Divines, Pres- 
byterians, Erastians, Independents. Their Pro- 
ceedings about Ordination, and the Directory for Divine 
Worship. The Rise, Progress, and Sufferings of the 
English Anabaptists. 

BEFORE we proceed to the debates of the assembly 
of divines, it will be proper to distinguish the several par- 
ties of which it was constituted.^ The episcopal clergy 
had entirely deserted it before the bringing in of the cove- 
nant, so that the establishment was left without a single 
advocate. All who remained were for taking down the 
main pillars of the hierarchy, before they had agreed what 
sort of building to erect in its room. 

Th,e majority at first intended only the reducing episco- 
pacy to the standard of the first or second age, but for the 
sake of the Scots alliance, they were prevailed with to lay 
aside the name and function of bishops, and attempt the es- 
tablishing a presbyterial form, which at length they ad- 
vanced into Jits divinum, or a divine institution, derived 
expressly from Christ and his apostles. This engaged 
them in so many controversies, as prevented their laying 
the top stone of the building, so that it fell to pieces be- 
fore it was perfected* The chief patrons of presbytery in 
the house of commons, were Denzil Hollis esq ; sir Wil- 
liam Waller, sir Philip Stajjleton, sir John Clotworthy, 
sir Benjamin Rudyard, serjeant Jllaynard, colonel Mas* 
sey, colonel Harley, John Glynn, esq ; and a few others. 

The erastians formed another branch of the assembly, 
so called from Erastus, a German divine of the sixteenth 
century. The pastoral office according to him was only 
persuasive, like a professor of the sciences over his stu* 

§ The name of Puritans is from this time to be sunk; and they are 
for the future to be spoken of under the distinction of Presbyterians, 
Erastians, and Independents, who imd all their different views. Dr 
Warner's Ecclasiastieal History, vol. ii. p. 561. FA. 


dents, without any power of the keys annexed. || The 
Lord's supper, and other ordinances of the gospel, were to 
be free and open to all. The minister might dissuade the 
vicious and unqualified from the communion, hut might not 
refuse it, or inflict any kind of censure ; the punishment 
of all offences, either of a civil or religious nature, being*e- 
served to the magistrate. The preteuded advantage of 
this scheme was, that it avoided the erecting imperium in 
imperii), or two different powers in the same civil govern- 
ment ; it effectually destroyed all that spiritual jurisdiction 
and coercive power over the consciences of men, which 
bad been challenged by popes, prelates, presbyteries, &c, 
and made the government of the church a creature of ike 
state. Most of our first reformers were so far in these sen-? 
timents, as to maintain that no one form of church govern- 
ment is prescribed in scripture as an invariable rule for fu- 
ture ages ; as Cranm?r, Redmayn, Cox, &c. and arch- 
bishop Whitgift, in his controversy with Cartwright, de- 
livers the same opinion ; " I deny (says he) that the scrip? 
( ture has set down any one certain form of church-govern- 
( ment to be perpetual. v — Again, i( It is well known, that 
4 the manner and form of government expressed in the 
4 scriptures neither is now, nor can, nor ought to be observ- 
ed either touching persons or functions. — The charge of 
'this is left to the magistrate, so that nothing be contrary to 
s the word of God. The government of the church must 
* be according to the form of government in the commou- 
4 wealth." The chief patrons of this scheme in the as- 
sembly were Dr. Lightfuot, Mr. Caiman, Mr. Selden, Mr, 
Whitlock, and in the house of commons, besides Selden 
and Whitlock, Oliver St. John, esq ; sir Thomas Wid- 
drington, John Crew, esq ; sir John Ilipsley, and others 
of the greatest names. 

The independents, or congregational brethren, compos- 
ed a third party, and made a bold stand against the pro- 
ceedings of the high presbyterians ; their numbers were 
small at first, though they increased prodigiously in a few 
years, and grew to a considerable figure under the protect- 
orship of Oliver Cromwell. 

|] Baxter's Life, p. 139. 


We have already related their original, and carried on 
their history till they appeared in public about the latter 
end of the year 1610. The divines who passed under this 
denomination in the assembly, had fled their country in the 
late times, and formed societies according to their own mod- 
el in Holland, upon the states allowing them the use of 
their churches, after their own service was ended, with lib- 
erty of ringing a bell to public worship. Here (as they 
declare) they set themselves to consult the holy scriptures 
as impartially as they could, in order to find out the dis- 
cipline that the apostles themselves practised in the very 
first age of the church ; the condition they were in, and 
the melancholy prospect of their affairs affordin'g no temp- 
tation to any particular bias. The rest of their history, 
with their distinguishing opinions, I shall draw from their 
,ijwlogetical Narration, published in 1643, and presented 
to the house of commons. 

' As to the church of England (say they) we profess be- 

* fore God and the world, that we do apprehend a great 
( deal of defilement in their way of worship, and a great 
( deal of unwarranted power exercised by their church gov- 
i ernors, yet we allow multitudes of their parochial church- 
< es to be true churches, and their ministers true minis- 
( ters. In the late times, when we had no hopes of re- 
6 turning to our own country, we held communion with 
? them, and offered to receive to the Lord's supper some 
' that came to visit us in our exile, whom we knew to be 
i godly, upon that relation and membership they held in 
' their parish churches in England, they professing them- 
( selves to be members thereof, and belonging thereto. The 
i same charitable disposition we maintained towards the 
i Dutch churches among whom we lived. We mutually 
f gave and received the right hand of fellowship, holding 
6 a brotherly correspondence with their divines, and ad- 
' mitting some of the members of their churches to com- 

* munion in the sacrament, and other ordinances, by virtue 
f of their relation to those churches."* 

The scheme they embraced was a middle way between 
trownism and presbytery, viz. that " every particular con- 

* gregation of christians has an entire and complete power 

* Anologet. Narr. of the Independents, p. 78. 

.158 THE HISTORY «HAP. <k, 

* of jurisdiction ever its members, to be exercised by the 
' elders thereof within itself. This they are sure must 
' have been the form of government in the primitive church, 
' before the numbers of christians in any city were multi- 
' plied so far as to divide into many congregations, which 
' it is dubious, whether it was the fact in the apostles times.* 

" Not that they claim an entire independency with re- 
» gard to other churches, for they agree that in all cases of 
' offence, the offending church is to submit to an open ex- 
' animation, by other neighboring churches, and on their 
' persisting in their error of miscarriage, they then are to 
'renounce all christian communion with them, till they re- 
' pent, which is all the authority or ecclesiastical power 
' that one church may exercise over another, unless they 

* call in the civil magistrate, for which they find no autlior- 

* ity in scripture. U i 

" Their method of public worship in Holland was the 
'same with other protestants ; they read the scriptures of 
' the old and new testament in their assemblies, and ex- 
' pounded them on proper occasions ; they offered up pub- 
' lie and solemn prayers for kings, and all in authority ; 
' and though they did not approve of a prescribed form, 
' they admitted that public prayer in their assemblies ought 
' to be framed by the meditation and study of their minis- 
' ters, as well as their sermons ; the word of God was con- 
' stantly preached ; the two sacraments, of baptism to in- 
' fants, and the Lord's supper, were frequently adminis- 
' tered ; to which was added, singing of psalms, and a col- 
' lection for the poor every Lord's day. 

"They profess their agreement in doctrine with the ar- 
*' tides of the church of England, and other reformed 
' churches. 

"Their officers, and public rulers in the church, were 
■'pastors, teachers, ruling elders (not lay, but ecclesiasti- 
4 cal persons, separated to that service) and deacons. 

"They practised no church censures but admonition ; 
'and excommunication upon obstinate and impenitent of- 
4 fenders, which latter they apprehended should not be 
' pronouueed but for crimes of the last importance, and 

* Apologet. Nam ef the Independents, p. 12, 15. fl Ibid. p. 18, 

4THAP. 4f. 0* TH1 PURITANS. 159 

4 which may be reasonably supposed to be committed con- 
4 trary to tue light and conviction of the person's con- 
' science. 

* In conclusion, they call God and man to witness, that 
' out of a regard to the public peace they had forbore to 

* publish their peculiar opinions, either from the pulpit or 
' press, or to improve the present disposition of the people 
' to the increase of their party ; nor should they have pub- 

4 lis lied that apology to the world, had not their silence 

5 been interpreted as an acknowledgment of those reproach- 
' es and calumnies that have been cast upon them by their 
4 adversaries ; but should have waited for a free and open 
4 debate of their sentiments in the present assembly of di- 
4 vines, though they are sensible they shall have the dis- 
'advantage with regard to numbers, learning, and the 
4 stream of public interest ; however, they are determined 
4 iu all debates to yield to the utmost latitude of their con- 
' sciences, professing it to be as high a point of religion to 
4 acknowledge their mistakes when they are convinced of 
'them, as to hold fast the truth; and when matters are 
' brought to the nearest agreement, to promote such a tem- 
' per as may tend to union, as well as truth. || 

" They therefore beseech the honorable houses of par- 
'liament, not to look upon them as disturbers of the pub- 
' lie peace, but to consider them as persons that differ but 
' little from their brethren ; yea, far less than they do from 
4 what themselves practised three years ago. They be- 
4 seech them likewise to have some regard to their past exile 
4 and present sufferings, *and upon these accounts to allow 
' them to continue in their native country, with the enjoy - 
' ment of the ordinances of Christ, and au indulgence ia 

* some lesser differences, as long as they continue peacea- 
ble subjects. Signed by 

Thomas Goodwin, 
Sydrach Simpson, 
Philip Nye, 
Jer. Burroughs, 
William Bridge."* 

ii Apologet. Narr. of tha Independents, p. 24, 25, 27. * Ibid. p. 31, 


The reverend Mr. Herle, afterwards prolocutor of the 
assembly, in his imprimatur to this Apology, calls it a 
performance full of peaceableness, modesty, and candor; 
aud though he wrote against it, yet in his preface to his 
book, entitled The Independency upon Scripture of the 
Independency of Churches, says, "the difference between 
' us and our brethren who are for independency, is nothing 
i so great as some may conceive ; at most it does but ruffle 
' the fringe, not any way rend the. garment of Christ ; it is 

* so far from being a fundamental, that it is scarce a mate- 
f rial difference." The more rigid presbyterians attacked 
the Apology with greater severity ; swarms of pamphlets 
were published against it in a few months, some reflecting 
on the persons of the apologists, and others on their prin- 
ciples, as tending to break the uniformity of the church, 
under the pretence of liberty of conscience. The most fu- 
rious adversaries were Dr. Bastwick, old Mr. Vicars, and 
Mr. Edwards minister of Christ Church, London, who 
printed an antapologia, of three hundred pages in quarto, 
full of such bitter invectives, that the pacific Mr. Bur- 
roughs said, " he questioned whether any good man ever 
i vented so much malice against others, whom he ac- 

* knowledges! to be pious and religious persons." But we 
shall have occasion to remember this gentleman hereafter. 

Lord Clarendon and Mr. Eachard represent the inde- 
pendents as ignorant and illiterate enthusiasts ; and though 
Mr. Hapin confesses,* he knew nothing of their rise and 
progress, he has painted them out in the most disadvanta- 
geous colors, affirming " that their principles were exceed- 
*' ing proper to put the kingdom into a flame ; that they ab- 
i horred monarchy, and approved of none but a republican, 
' government, and that as to religion, their principles were 
( contrary to all the rest of the world ; that they would not 

* endure ordinary ministers in the church, but every one 

* among them prayed, preached, admonished, and inter- 
6 preted scripture, without any other call, than what him- 
i self drew from his supposed gifts, and the approbation of 

* his hearers." 

It is surprising so accurate an historian should take such 
liberties with men whose principles he was so little ac- 

* Vol. ii. p. 514s folio. 


quaiuted with, as to sa.y, the independents abhorred monar- 
ch}/, and approved of none but a republican government ; 
whereas they assure the world in their Apology, that they 
prayed publicly for kings, and all in authority. This was 
no point of controversy between them and the presbyteri- 
ans, for when they had the king in their custody they ser- 
ved him on the knee, and in all probability would have re- 
stored him to the honors of his crown, if he had complied 
with their proposals. When they were reproached with 
being enemies to magistracy, a declaration was published 
by the congregational societies in and about London, in the> 
year 1647, wherein they declare, " that as magistracy and 

• government in general is the ordinance of God, they do not 
' disapprove of any form of civil government, but do freely 
i acknowledge, that a kingly government, bounded by just 

• and wholesome laics, is both allowed by God, and a good' 
i accommodation unto men"* And if we inay believe Dr. 
Welwood,^ when the army resolved to set aside the pres- 
ent king, the governing party would have advanced the 
duke of Gloucester to the throne, if they could have done 
it with safety. With regard to religion Rapin adds, their 
principles were contrary to all the rest of the world ; and 
yet they gave their consent to all the doctrinal articles of the 
Assembly's confession of faith, and declared in their Apol- 
ogy, their agreement with the doctrinal articles of the 
church of England, and with all the protestant reformed 
churches iu their harmony of confessions, differing only a- 
bout the jurisdiction of classes, synods, and convocations, 

and the point of liberty of conscience. Our historian 

adds, that " they were not only averse to episcopacy, but 

• would not endure so much as ordinary ministers in the 
1 church. They maintained, that every man might pray in 
i public, exhort his brethren and interpret scripture, with- 
*' out any other call than what himself drew from his zeal 

• and supposed gifts, and without any other authority than 
" the approbation of his hearers.''" Here his anuotator Mr. 
Tindal rightly observes, that he has mistaken the indepen- 
dents for tiie broicnists ; the independents had their stated 
officers in the church for public prayer, preaching, auu ad- 

* Pasre S. § Memoirs, p. 90, iris. 

Vol. IU. 21 

168 friia history chap. 4, 

ministring the saeraments, as pastors, teachers, and elders, 
(who were ecclesiastics) and deacons to take care of the 
poor ; nor did they admit of persons unordained to any of- 
fice, to exercise their gifts publicly, except as 'probationers, 
in order to their devoting themselves to the ministry. The 
Words of their confession are ; " the work of preaching is 

< not so peculiarly confined to pastors and teachers, but that 
» others also gifted, and fitted by the Holy Ghost for it, and 

* approved ( being by laivful ways and means, by the prov- 
( idence of God, called thereunto J may publicly, ordinarily 
' and constantly perform it, so that they give themselves up 
( thereunto.''* It is necessary the reader should make these 
remarks, to rectify a train of mistakes which run through 
this part of Mr. Mapin's history, and to convince him, that 
the king's death was not owing to the distinguishing tenets 
of any sect or party of christians. There were indeed some 
republicans and levellers in the army, whose numbers in- 
creased after they despaired of bringing the king into their 
measures, and it is well known that at their first appear- 
ance, Cromwell by his personal valor suppressed them with 
the hazard of his life. These were chiefly anabaptists, and 
proved as great enemies to the protector as they had been 
to the king. But there is nothing in the principles of the 
presbyterians, independents, or anabaptists, (as far as I 
can learn) inconsistent with monarchy, or that had a nat- 
ural tendency to put the kingdom into a flame. 

Mr. Baxter, who was no friend to the independents* and 
knew them much better than the above-mentioned writers, 
admits, " that most of them were zealous, and very many 

* learned, discreet and pious, capable of being very serviee- 
e able to the church, and searchers into scripture and anti- 
<quity;"|| though he blames them on other occasions, for 
making too light of ordination ; for their too great strict- 
ness in the qualification of church-members ; for their pop- 
ular form of church-government; and their too much ex- 
ploding of synods and councils ; and then adds, " I saw 
6 commendable care of serious holiness and discipline in 
( most of the independent churches ; and 1 found that some 
'episcopal men, of whom archbishop Usher was one, a- 

< greed with them in this, that every bishop was independ- 

* Saroy Confereace, 4to. p. 24, art. 14. ({Baxter's Life, p. 140, 143. 


* ent, and that synods and councils were not so much for 
' government as concord." And I may venture to declare, 
that these are the sentiments of almost all the protestant 
non-conformists in England at this day. 

There was not one professed anabaptist in the assembly, 
though their sentiments began to spread wonderfully with- 
out doors. Their teachers were for the most part illiter- 
ate, yet Mr. Baxter says,* " he found mauy of them sob- 
4 er, godly, and zealous, not differing from their brethren 
4 but as to infant baptism." These joining with the inde- 
pendents in the point of discipline and toleration, made 
them, the more considerable, and encouraged their opposi- 
tion to the presbyterians, who were for establishing their 
own discipline, without regard to such as differed from, 

It is not to be wondered, that so many parties with dif- 
ferent views should entangle the proceedings of this ven- 
erable body, and protract the intended union with the 
Scots ; though as soon as the covenant was taken, they 
entered upon that affair, the parliament having sent them 
the following order, dated October IS, 1643. 

" UPON serious consideration of the present state of 

< affairs, the lords and commons assembled in this present 
' parliament do order, that the assembly of divines and 
4 others do forthwith confer, and treat among themselves, 
4 of such a discipline and government as may be most agree- 

< able to God's holy word, and most apt to procure and 
4 preserve the peace of the church at home, and a nearer 
4 agreement with the church of Scotland, &c. to be settled 

* in this church instead of the present church government 
4 by archbishops, bishops, &c. which it is resolved to take 
4 away ; and to deliver their advice touching the same to 
4 both houses of parliament with all convenient speed." 

Hereupon the assembly set themselves to enquire into 
the constitution of the primitive church, in the days of the 
apostles, which being founded upon the model of the Jew- 
ish synagogues, gave the Lightfoots, the Seldens, the Cole- 
mans, aud other masters of Jewish antiquities, an oppor- 
tunity of displaying their superior learning, by new aud 
nnherd-of interpretations of scripture, whereby they fre? 

* Life, p. 40. 


quently disconcerted the warmer presbyterians, whose plan 
of discipline they had no mind should receive the stamp 
of an apostolic sanction, in the church of England. f 

It was undoubtedly a capital mistake in the proceedings 
of parliament, to distroy one building before they were, 
agreed upon another. The ancient order of worship and 
discipline in the church of England was set aside above 
twelve months before any other form was appointed; dur- 
ing which time, no wonder sects and divisions arrived to 
such a pitch, that it was not in their power afterwards to 
destroy them. Committees indeed were appointed to pre- 
pare materials for the debate of the assembly, some for 
discipline, and others for worship, which were debated in 
order, and then laid aside without being perfected, or sent 
up to parliament to be framed into a law. Nothing can 
be alledged in excuse of this, but their backwardness to 
unite with the Scots, or the prospect the parliament might 
yet have of an agreement with the king. 

The first point that came upon the carpet was the ordin- 
ation of ministers ; which was the more necessary, because 
the bishops refused to ordain any who were not in the in- 
terest of the crown:* this gave occasion to enquire into 
the antient right of presbyters to ordain without a bishop, 
which meeting with some opposition, the committee pro- 
posed a temporary provision till the matter could be set- 
tled, and offered these two queries : 

First, " Whether in extraordinary cases, something ex- 
1 traordinary may not be admitted, till a settled order can 
6 be fixed, yet keeping as near to the rule as possible ? 

Secondly, u Whether certain ministers of this city may 
t not be appointed to ordain ministers in the city and neigh- 
borhood, for a certain time, jure fraternitatis ?" 

To the last of which, the independents entered their dis- 
sent, unless the ordination was attended with the previous 
election of some church. New difficulties being continually 

| Lightfoot's Remains, in pref. p. 8. 

* Bishop Hall complained, that he was violently. restrained in his 
power of ordination. On this single instance Dr. Grey grounds a gen- 
eral assertion, that the bishops were prevented from ordaining by the 
rabble. Ed. 


started, upon this and some other heads, the Seots com- 
missioners were out of all patience, and applied to the ci- 
ty ministers to petition the parliament to call for the advice 
of the assembly. The petition was presented Sept. 18, 
1614, in which, having reminded the commons of their re- 
monstrance, wherein they declare, it was not their inten- 
tion to let loose the golden reins of discipline ; and of their 
national covenant, wherein they had engaged to the most 
high God. to settle an uniformity in the church ; they add, 
" give us leave, we beseech you, in pursuance of our na- 

* tional covenant, to sigh out our sorrows at the foot of this 

< honorable senate. Through many erroneous opinions, 
( ruinating schisms, and damnable heresies, unhappily fo- 

< mented in this city and country, the orthodox ministry is 
L neglected, the people are seduced, congregations torn 

* asunder, families distracted, rights and duties of relations, 
e national, civil, and spiritual, scandalously violated, the 
' power of godliness decayed, parliamentary authority un- 
6 dermined. fearful confusions introduced, imminent de- 
1 struction threatened, and in part inflicted upon us lately 

* in the west. May it therefore please your wisdoms, as a 
' sovereign remedy for the removal of our present miseries, 

* and preventing their further progress, to expedite a di- 

< rectory for public worship, to accelerate the establish- 
' ment of a pure discipline and government, according to 
6 the word of God, and the example of the best reformed 
6 churches, and to take away all obstructions that may im- 
i pede and retard our humble desires. "§> Upon this the 
assembly were ordered to send up the humble advice upon 
this head ; which was to the following effect, [Sept. &2,] 
viz. That in this present exigency, while there were no 
presbyterians, yet it being necessary that ministers should 
be ordained for the army and navy, and for the service of 
many destitute congregations, by some who, having been 
ordained themselves, have power to join in the setting apart 
of others : they advise, 

(1.) That an association of some godly ministers in and 
about the city of London be appointed by public authori- 

§ Rushworth, vol. v. p. 780. 



CHAP. 4. 

ty, to ordain ministers for the city and the neighboring 
parts, keeping as near to the rule as may be. 

(&.) That the like associations be made by the same 
authority in great towns and neighboring parishes in the 
several counties, which are at present quiet & undisturbed. 

(3.) That such as are chosen, or appointed for the ser* 
vice of the army or navy, being well recommended, be 
ordained as aforesaid, by the associated ministers of Lon- 
don, or some others in the country ; and the like for any 
other congregations that want a minister. f 

According to this advice the two houses passed an ordi- 
nance, October %, for the ordination of ministers fro tem- 
pore, which appoints the following ten persons, being pres- 
byters, and members of the assembly, to examine and or- 
dain, by imposition of hands, all those whom they shall 
judge qualified to be admitted into the sacred ministry, viz. 

Dr. Corn. Burgess, assessor, 
Dr. William Gouge, 
Mr. John Ley, 
Mr. George Walker, 
Mr. Edmund Calamy, 

Mr. Starkey Gower. 
Mr. John Conant, 
Mr. Humphrey Chambers, 
Mr. Henry Roborough, 
Mr. Daniel Cawdry. 

And the following thirteen being presbyters of the city 
of London, but not members of the assembly, viz. 

TheRev. Mr. John Downham, 
Mr. Cha. Offspring, 
Mr. Richard Lee, 
Mr. Tim. Dod, 
Mr. James Cranford, 
Mr. Tho. Horton, 
Mr. Tho. Clendon, 

TheRev. Mr. Sam. Clarke, 
Mr. Arthur Jack- 
Mr. Em. Bourne, 
Mr. Fulk Billers, 
Mr. Fr. Roberts, 
Mr. Leon. Cooke. 

Any seven, or more, to be a quorum, and all persons so 
ordained to be reputed ministers of the church of England, 
sufficiently authorized for any office or employment there- 
in, and capable of all advantages appertaining to the same. 
Their rules for examination, and trial of candidates, will be 
seen the next year, when this affair was fully settled. In 
the mean time another ordinance passed the houses, for the 

f Vol. Pamp. pen«s me, No. 6J8. 


benefit of the county of Lancaster, whereby the reverend 
M. Charles Herle, Mr. Richard Jlerrick, Mr. Hyet, Mr. 
Bradshaw, Mr. Isaac Ambrose, and others, to the number 
of twenty-one, had full power given them to ordain pro 
tempore in the county of Lancaster. And to obviate the 
reproaches of the Oxford divines, the following clause was 
added, "that if any person do puhlicly preach, or other- 
6 wise exercise any ministerial office, who shall not be or- 

* dained, or thereunto allowed by seven of the said minis- 
6 ters, their names shall be returned to both houses of par- 
6 liament, to be dealt with as they in their wisdom shall 
' think fit." It was voted further, that " no minister be al- 

* lowed to preach, unless he has a certificate of his ordi- 

< nation, or at least of his being examined and approved 
6 by the assembly. "* And Feb. 16, at a conference be- 
tween the two houses it was agreed, that the assembly of 
divines be desired to admit none into their pulpits, except 
such whose doctrine they would be answerable for. Such 
was the concern of the parliament in these distracted times 7 
to have a sober and well-regulated clergy. 

Next to the providing for a succession of ministers by 
ordination, the assembly consulted about a form of public 
devotion. The old liturgy being laid aside, there were no 
public offices in the church : a committee was therefore ap- 
pointed, October 17, 1643, to agree upon certain general 
heads, for the direction of the minister in the discharge of 
his office, which, having passed through the assembly, 
were sent into Scotland for the approbation of the general 
assembly, and then established by an ordinance of parlia- 
ment bearing date Jau. 3, 1644-5, under the title of a di- 
rectory for public worship. 

The reasons which induced the parliament to discard 
the old liturgy, and form a new plan for the devotion of 
the church, I shall transcribe from their own preface. "It 
'is evident, (say they) after long and sad experience, that 
' the liturgy used in the church of England, notwithstand- 

< ing all the pains and religious intentions of the compil- 
4 ers, has proved an offence to many of the godly at home, 

* and to the reformed churches abroad. The enjoining the 

* Parliamentary CUroBicle, p. 152. 


' reading all the prayers heightened the grievances ; and 
4 the many unprofitable and burdensome ceremonies have 
' occasioned much mischief, by disquieting the consciences 
' of many, who could not yield to them. Sundry good 
6 people have by this means been kept from the Lord's ta- 
' hie, and many faithful miuisters debarred from the exer- 
cise of their ministry, to the ruin of them and their fami- 
' lies. The prelates and their faction have raised their es- 
' timatioti of it to such aii height, as if God could be war* 
: shipped no other way but by the service book ; in conse- 
' queuce of which the preaching of the word has been de- 
' predated, and in some places entirely neglected. 

" In the mean time the papists have made their advan- 
' tage this way, boasting that the common prayer book came 
'up to a compliance with a great part of their service ; by 
' which means they were not a little confirmed in their ido- 
latry and superstition, especially of late, when new cer- 
emonies were daily obtruded on the church. 

" Besides, the liturgy has given great encouragement to 
' an idle and unedifying ministry, who chose rather to con- 
'fine themselves to forms made to their hands, than to ex- 
e ert themselves in the exercise of the gift of prayer, with 
'which our Savior furnishes all those whom he calls to 
6 that office. 

f For these and many other weighty considerations, re- 
e latins; to the book in general, besides divers particulars 
' which are a just ground of offence, it is thought advisea- 
' ble to set aside the former liturgy, with the many rites 
' and ceremonies formerly used in the worship of God, not 
'out of any affectation of novelty, nor with an intention 
'to disparage our first reformers, but that we may answer 
'in some measure the gracious providence of God, which 
' now calls upon us for a further reformation ; that we 
' may satisfy our own consciences ; answer the expecta- 
'tions of other reformed churches; ease the consciences 
' of many godly persons among ourselves ; and give a pub- 
'lic testimony of our endeavors after an uniformity in di- 
' vine worship, pursuant to what we had promised iu our 
'solemn league and covenant." 

It has been observed, that the directory is not an abso- 
lute form of devotion, but, agreebly to its title, contains 


only some general directions, taken partly from the word 
of God and partly from rules of christian prudence ; it 
points out the heads of public prayer, of preaching, and 
other parts of the pastoral function, leaving the minister a 
discretionary latitude to fill up the vacancies according to 
his abilities. It is divided into several chapters, and be- 
ing a book of a public nature, comprehending all the pecu- 
liarities of the presbyterian reformation, I have given it a 
place iu the appendix.* Mr, Fuller observes,^ that the 
independents in the assembly were hardly persuaded to 
consent to it, for fear of infringing the liberty of prayer, 
yet being admitted to qualify some things in the preface, 
they complied. The committee who composed the preface 
were Mr. Nye, Mr. Bridges. Mr. Surges, Mr.Thos. Good- 
win, all independents , Mr. Vines Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Mar- 
shall, and Dr. Temple, with the Scots commissioners. 

The directory passed the assembly with great unanimi- 
ty ; those who were for set forms of prayer resolving to 
confine themselves to the very words of the directory, while 
others made use of them only as heads for their enlarge- 

It may not be improper in this place to advise the reader 
of the following variations introduced into the service of 
the church upon this occasion. Instead of one prescribed 
form of prayer, the directory only points out certain top- 
ics on which the minister might enlarge. The whole A- 
•pocryiiha is ejected ; private and lay baptism, with the use 
of god-fathers and ^od-mothers, and the sign of the cross, 
arediscontinued.|| In the sacrament of the Lord's supper 

* Appendix, No. VIII. § Church History, h. xi. p. 222. 
|| Another variation, not noticed by Mr. Neal, was the exclusion of 
dipping, and declaring sprinkling sufficient. This was owing to Or. 
Lightfoot. When the assembly came to the vote, whether the direc- 
tory should run thus: "The minister shall take water, aud sprinkle 
' or pour it with his hand upon the face or forehead of the child :" 
some were unwilling to have dipping excluded, so that the vote came 
to an equality within one; for the one siie there being twenty-four, and 
for the other twenty-five. Next day the affair was resumed, when the 
doctor insisted on hearing the reasons of those who were for dipping. 
At length it was proposed, that it should be expressed thus : that 
1 pouring on of water, or sprinkling in the administration of baptism, 
4 is lawful and sufficient." . Lightfoot excepted against the word law- 
ful, it being the same as if it should be determined lawful to use bread 

- Vol. III. 22 


no mention is made of private communion, or administering 
i to the si< k. The altar with rails is changed into a com- 
munion table, to be placed in the body of the church, about 
which the people might stand or sit, kneeling not being 
thought so proper a posture. The presbyterians were for 
giving the jiower of the keys into the hands of the minis- 
ter's and elders, as the independents were to the whole 
brotherhood ; but Light foot, Selden, Coleman, ami others, 
were for an open communion, to whom the parliament 
were most inclinable, for all they would yield was, that 
the minister immediately before the communion should 
warn, in the name of Christ, all such as are ignorant* 
scandalous, prophane, or that live in any sin or offence 
against thtir knowledge or conscience, that they presume 
not to come to that holy table, shelving them, that he that 
eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drink eth judg- 
ment to himself The prohibition of marriage in Lent, 
aud the. use of the ring, is laid aside. In the visitation of 
the sick, no mention is made of private confession, or au- 
thoritative absolution. No service is appointed for the bu- 
rsal of the dead. All particular vestments for priests or 
Ministers, and all saints days, are discarded. It has been 
reckoned a considerable omission, that the directory does 
no- enjoin reading the apostles creed and the ten command- 
ments ',* lord Clarendon reports,! that when this was ob- 
served in private conversation at the treaty of Uxbridge y 
the earl of Pembroke said, he was sorry for the omission, 
but that upon a debate in the house of commons, it was 
carried in the negative by eight or nine voices. Which 
made many smile (says his lordship ;) but the jest will be 
lost, when the reader is informed, that the question in the 
bouse was not, whether the creed should be received or 
ejected, but whether it should be printed with the directory 
for worship ; it being apprehended more proper for a con- 
fession of faith ; and accordingly the creed and ten com- 
mandments were added to the assembly 7 s confession, pub- 
lished a year or two forwards. The ordinance for esta*b- 

and wine in the Lord's supper; and he moved, that it mi^lit be ex- 
pressed thus : " it is not onlv lawful, but also sufficient ;" and it was put 
down so accordingly. Robinson's History of Baptism, p. 450, 51. EcL 
\ Clarendon, vol. ii. p. 588. 


lisliins; the directory repeals and makes void the, acts of 
Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth, by which the old lit- 
urgy was established, and forbids the. use of it within any 
ciiurch, chapel, or place of public worship in England or 
Wales, appointing the use of the directory \x\ its room ; and 
thus it continued till the restoration of King Charles II. 
when the constitution being restored, the old liturgy took 
place again, the ordinance for its repeal having never ob- 
tained the royal assent. 

It was a considerable time before this great revolution, 
in the form of public worship took place over the whole 
kingdom. In some parts of the country the churchwardens 
could not procure a directory, and in others they despised 
it, and continued the old common-prayer book ; some would 
read no form, and others would use one of their own. In. 
order therefore to give life to the directory, the parliament 
next summer called in all common- prayer books, and impo- 
sed a fine upon those ministers who should read any other 
form than tnat contained in the directory. Tue ordinance 
is dated Aug. 23, 1645, and enacts, that "the knights and 
' burgesses of the several counties of England and Wales, 
'shall send printed books of the. directory fairly bound o 
' the committee of parliament in their several counties, who 
' shall deliver them to the officers of the several parishes, 
'in England and Wales, by whom they shall be delivered 
' to the several ministers of each parish. It ordains further, 
' that the several ministers next Lord's day after their re- 
' ceiving the book of directory, shall read it openly in their 

'respective churches before morning sermon. It then 

' forbids the use of the common-prayer-book in any church, 
' chapel, or place of public worship, or in any private place 
' or family, under penalty of five pounds for the first offence-, 
'ten for the second, and for the third a year's imprison*. 
' ment. Such ministers as do not observe the directory 
■' in all exercises of public worship shall forfeit forty shil- 
' liugs ; and they who, with a design to bring the directory 
6 into contempt, or to raise opposition to it, shall preach, 
' write, or print any thing in derogation of it, shall forfeit 
'a sum of money not under five pounds, nor more than fif- 
' ty, to be given to the poor. All common-prayer-books 
'remaining in parish churches or chapels, are ordered witlr- 


'in a month, to be carried to the committee of the several 
f counties, to be disposed of as the parliament shall direct."* 
These were the first fruits of presbyterian uniformity, 
and are equally to be condemned with the severities and 
oppressions of the late times ; for though it should be ad- 
mitted, that the parliament or legislature had a right to ab- 
rogate the use of the common-prayer-book in churches, was 
it not highly unreasonable to forbid the reading it in pri- 
vate families or closets? Surely the devotion of a private 
family could be no disturbance to tLe public ; nor is it any 
excuse to say, that very few suffered by it, because the law 
is still the same, and equally injurious to the natural rights 
of mankind. 

Though his majesty's affairs were very desperate after 
the battle of JSTaseby, yet he had the courage to forbid the 
use of the new directory and enjoin the continuance of the 
common -prayer, by a proclamation from Oxford, dated 
!Nov. 13, 1645, in which his majesty takes notice, that 
* the book of common-prayer, being a most excellent form 
of worship, grounded on the holy scriptures, is a great 
help to devotion, and tends, to preserve an uniformity in 
the church of England ; whereas the directory gives lib- 
erty to ignorant, factious, and evil men, to broach their 
own fancies and conceits, and utter those tilings in their 
long prayers which no conscientious man can assent to ; 
and be the minister never so pious, it breaks in upon the 
uniformity of public service. And whereas this altera- 
tion'is introduced by an ordinance of parliament, inflict- 
ing penalties on offenders, which was never pretended to 
be in their power without our consent : Now, lest our si- 
lence should be interpreted as a connivance in a matter so 
highly concerning the worship of God, and the establish- 
ed laws of the kingdom, we do therefore require and com- 
mand all ministers in all cathedral and parish churches, 
and all other places of public worship, that the said book 
of common-prayer be kept and used in all churches, chap- 
els, &c. according to the statute primoEliz. and that the 
directory be in no sort admitted, received, or used ; and 
whensoever it shall please God to restore us to peace, 
and the laws to their due course, we shall require a strict 

* Rushworth, part iv. vol. i, p.. 205. 


{ account, and prosecution against the breakers of the said 
Maw. And in the mean time, in such places where we 
»' shall come and find tne book of common-prayer suppress- 

< ed and laid aside, and the directory introduced, we shall 

< account all those that are aiders, actors, or contrivers 

< therein, to be persons disaffected to the religion and laws 
i established.'*'* jj 

His majesty likewise issued out warrants under his own 
hand, to the heads of the university, commending them to 
read divine service as usual, morning and evening; and 
assured his peers at Oxford, that he was still determined 
to live and die for t;ie privileges of his crown, his friends, 
and church government. 

About this time the anabaptists began to make a consid- 
erable figure, and spread themselves into several separate 
congregations. We have already distinguished the Ger- 
man anabaptists from the English, who differed only from 
their protectant brethren aboat the subject and mode of 
baptism ; these were divided into general and particular, 
from their different sentiments upon the arminian contro- 
versy ; the former appeared in Holland, where Mr. Smith 
their leader published a confession of faith in the year 
1811, which Mr. Robinson, the minister of the independent 
congregation at Leyden, answered in 1614; but the sever- 
ity of those times would not admit them to venture into 
England. The particular baptists were strict calvinists* 
and were so called from their belief of the doctrines of par- 
ticular election, redemption, &c. They separated from 
the independent congregation about the year 1638, and set 
up for themselves under the pastoral care of Mr. Jesse, (as 
has been related) and having renounced their former bap- 
tism, they sent over one of their number, [Mr. Blunf] to 
be immersed by oue of the Dutch anabaptists of Amster- 
dam, that he might be qualified to baptize his friends in 
England after the same manner. J A strange and unac- 
countable conduct! for unless the Dutch anabaptists could 
derive their pedigree in an uninterrupted line from the a- 
postles, the first reviver of this usage must have been un- 
baptized, and consequently, not capable of communicating 
the ordinance to others. Upon Mr. Blunf s return he. 
baptized Mr. Blackloclc a teacher, and Mr. Blacldock 
(i Rushworth, part iv. vol. i. p. 207. \ MS. penes me. 

17-4 the history en a?. 4.- 

dipped the rest of the society, to the number of fifty. three, 
in this present year £.644; "Presuming upon the pa- 
'tience of the state (says Dr. Featly) they have rebaptized 
6 one hundred men and women together, in the twilight, in 
6 rivulets, and some arms of the Thames, and elsewhere, 
6 dipping them over head and ears. They have printed 

* divers pamphlets in defence of their heresy (says the same 
< author) and challenged some of our preachers to a dispu- 
6 tation." Nay, so wonderfully did t<<is opinion prevail, 
that there were no less than forty-seven congregations in 
the country, and seven in London at this time, who pub- 
lished a confession of their faith, signed in the name of 
their congregations, by William IC-ijjiiu Thomas Patience, 
George Tipping, John Spilsbury, Thomas Sheppard, 
Thomas Munden, Thomas Gun, John Mabhett, John, 
Webb, Thomas Kilcop, Paul Hobso-n, Thomas G re, John 
Philips, and Ed ward Heath. In the year 1646. it wis 
reprinted, with the additional names of Dennis le Barbier 
and Christopher Durell, ministers of the French congre- 
gation in London, of the same judgment. 

Their confession consisted of fifty-two articles, and is 
strictly calvinistical in the doctrinal part, and according 
io the independent discipline ; it confines the subject of 
baptism to grown christians, and the mode to immersion ; 
it admits of gifted lay-preachers, and acknowledges a due 
subjection to the civil magistrate in all things lawful ; and 
concludes thus, " We desire to live quietly and peaceably, 

* as becomes saints, endeavoring in ail things to keep a 
6 good conscience, and to do to every man (of what judg- 
ement soever) as we would they should do to us : that as 
'our practice is, so it may prove us to be a eonscionab'e, 
' quiet, and harmless people, (no way dangerous or trou- 
8 hlesome to human society) and to labor to work with 
6 our hands, that we may not be chargeable to any. but to 

* give to him that needetb, both friend and enemy, account- 
6 ing it more excellent to give than to receive. Also we 
6 confess, that we know but in part, to shew us from the 
' word of God, that which we see not, we shall have cause 
*to be thankful to God and them. But if any man shall 

* impose upon us any thing that we see not to be comraand- 
4 ed by our Lord Jesus Christ, we should, in his strength, 

CHAP. 4*. OF THE F&MTAXS. ijlf 

< rather embrace all reproaches, and tortures of men; to 

* be s ripped of all our outward comforts, and if it were 

* possible, to die a thousand deaths, rather than to do any 

* thing against the truth of (rod, or against the light of our 
' own consciences. And if any shall call what we have 
i s lid heresy, then do we with the apostle acknowledge, 

* that after the way they call heresy so worship we the God 
i of our fathers ; disclaiming all heresies (tightly so called) 

* because they are against Christ ; and desiring to be sted- 
i fast and immoveable, always abounding in obedience to 
6 Christ, as knowing our labor shall not be in vain in the 

* Lord." 

When Dr.Featly had read this confession, he owned they 
were neither heretics nor schismatics, but tender-hearted 
christians, upon whom, through false suggestions, the hand 
of authority had fallen heavy whilst the hierarchy stood. 

The advocates of this doetrine were, for the most part, 
of the meauest of the people ; their preachers were gener- 
ally illiterate, and went about the country making prose- 
lvtes of all who would submit to immersion, without a due 
regard to their acquaintance with the principles of relig- 
ion, or their moral characters. The writers of these times 
represeut them as tinctured with a kind of enthusiastic fu- 
ry against all that opposed them. Mr. Baxter says,| 
« there were but few of them that had not been the opposers 

' and troublers of faithful ministers That in this they 

4 strengthened the hands of the profane, and that in gene- 
6 al, reproach of ministers, faction, pride, and scandalous 
'practices, were fomented in their way."* But still there 

t Baxters Life. p. 102, 144. 
* We refer our reader, for a more full account of the baptists of this 
period, to the supplement to this volume. Suffice it to sav here : that 
Mr. Baxter, great and t xeellent as he was. had his weaknesses and 
prejudices, for which much allowance must be made. Severe as is 
what he says above of the baptists, he speaks of them, at other times, 
with more candor and respect. As p 140 of his life: "For the an* 
' ubaptists themselves, (though I have written and said so much against 
'them) as I found most of them were persons of zeal in religion, so 
'many of them were sober, godly people: and differed from others but 
<in the point of infant-baptism : or at most in the points of predesti- 
nation, and free-will and perseverance ? ' It is to be regretted, ou 
the irround of the justice due to this people and even to Mr. Baxter, 
that Mr JSfoal should have everlooked, or omitted, this testimonv, so 
honorable to both. Ed, 


were among them some learned, and a great many sober 
and devout christians, who disallowed of the imprudence 
of their country friends. The two most learned divines 
that espoused their cause were Mr. Francis Cornwall, JVL 
A. of Emanuel college, and Mr. John Tomes, B. D. edu- 
cated in the university of Oxford, a person of incompara- 
ble parts, well versed in the Greek and Hebrew languages, 
and a most excellent disputant. He wrote several letters 
to Mv.Selden against infant baptism, and published a Latin 
exercitation upon the same subject, containing several argu- 
ments, which he represented to the committee appointed by 
the assembly to put a stop to the progress of this opinion. 
The exercitation being translated into English, brought 
upon him a whole army of adversaries, among whom were 
the reverend Dr. Hammond, Dr. Holmes, Mr. Marshal, 
Fuller, Geree, Baxter, and others. The people of tills * 
persuasion were more exposed to the public resentments, 
because they would hold communion with none but such 
as had been dipped. All must pass under this cloud be- 
before they could be received into their churches ; and the 
same narrow spirit prevails too generally among them 
even at this day. 

Besides the above-mentioned writers, the most eminent 
divines in the city of London, as Mr. Vines, Calami/, and 
others, preached vigorously against these doctrines, which 
they had a right to do ; though it was most unjustifiable to 
fight them at the same time with the sword of the civil 
magistrate,* and shut them up in prison, as was the case 
of several in this and the following year, among whom are 
reckoned the reverend Mr. Henry J)enn, formerly ordain- 
ed by the bishop of St. David's, and possessed of the liv- 

* Nothing, it is justly observed by Mr. Crosby, is more evident, than 
that the mast distinguished of the presbyterian divines preached and 
wrote against toleration ; anil were strenuous advocates for the inter- 
ference of the civil power to suppress what they deemed error. Mr. 
Baxter always freely avowed, that "he abhorred unlimited liberty, or 
' toleration of all." Dr. Lightfoot informed the house of commons, in 
a sermon at St. Margaret's, Westminster, that though " he would not 
* go about to determine whether conscience might be bound or not, yet 
' certainly the devil in the conscience might be, yea, must be bound by 
1 the civil magistrate." Crosby's History of the English Baptists, 
vol. i. p. 176, 178. Robinson's History of Baptism, p. 151. Ed. 

fcllAP. 4. OF THE VURITANfr. 177 

ing of Pyeton in Hertfordshire ; Mr. Coppe, minister in 
Warwickshire, and sometime preachef to the garrison in. 
Compton-Hotise ; Mr. Hanserd Knollys, who was several 
times before the committee for preaching antinomianism* 
and antipcedobaptism ; and being forbid to preach in the 
public churches, he opened a separate meeting in Great 
St. Helen's, from whence he was quickly dislodged, and 
his followers dispersed. Mi\ Andrew WyTee, in the coun- 
ty of Suffolk, was imprisoned on the same account ; and 
Mr. Gates* in Essex, tried for his life at Chelmsford as- 
sizes for the murder of Anne Mart in, because, she died a 
few days after her immersion, of a cold that seized her at 
that time. Lawrence Clarhson was imprisoned by the 
committee of Suffolk, and having lain in gaol six months, 
signed a recantation and was released. The recantation,!: 
as entered in the committee's books, was in these words : 

" July 15, 1645. 
" THIS day Lawrence Clarkson, formerly commit. 
'ted for an anabaptist, and for dipping, does uow, before 
' the committee, disclaim his errors. And whereas form* 
' erly he said he durst not leave his dipping, if lie might 
' gain all the committee's estates, now he says, that he by 
'the holy scriptures is convinced, that his said opinions 
' were erroneous, and that he will not, nor dares not prac- 
' tise it again, if he might gain all the committee's estates 
' hi doing it. And that he makes this recantation not for 
' fear, or to gain his liberty, but merely out of a sense of 
'his error, wherein he will endeavor to reform others." 

It must be granted, that the imprudent behavior of the 
baptist lay preachers, who declaimed against human liter- 
ature, and hireliug priests, crying down magistracy, and 

| Every instance of a recantation, which ecclesiastical history fur- 
nishes, moves our pity, and excites our indignation ; our pity of the 
"weakness and timidity from which it flows : and our indignation at 
the spirit of intolerance, which can demand the sacrifice of principle 
and integrity. "Mr. Clarkson. had not only been imprisoned six 
i months, hut all the intercession of hi* friends, though he had several, 
'could not procure his release. The committee were unrelenting. 
'Nay; though an order came down, either from a committee of parlia- 
* ment, or the chairman of it. to discharge him. yet they refused to obey 
«it." Croshv's History of English Baptist*, vol. i. preface p. 16. Ed. 

Vol. III. S3 


a regular ministry, and talking in the most exalted strains 
of a fifth monarchy, and kins; Jesus, prejudiced the minds 
of in my sober people against them ; but still the impris- 
oning men merely on acconnfc of religious principles, not 
inconsistent with the public peace, nor propagated in a 
riotous and tumultuous manner, is not to be justified on any 
pretence whatsoever ; and it was the more inexcusable in 
t:iis case, because Mr. Baxter admits,|| that the presbyte- zeal was in a great measure the occasion of it. 

Before we leave the assembly for this year, it will be 
proper to take notice, that it was honored with the presence 
of Charles Lewis, rtectorPalatine of the Rhine, eldest sou 
of Frederick, &c. king of Bohemia, who married king 
James's daughter, and lost his territories, by the fatal bat- 
tle of Prague in 16 19. The unhappy Frederick died in. 
1(533. and left behind him six sons and five daughters, a- 
niong whom were prince Rupert, prince .Maurice, and the- 
piincess Sophia. The young elector and his mother often so- 
lfeited the "English court for assistance to recover their do- 
minions, and were as often complimented with empty prom- 
ises. All the parliaments of this reign mention with con- 
cern the calamitous condition of the queen of Bohemia and 
her children and offer to venture their lives and fortunes 
for the recovery of the Palatinate, but king Charles I. did 
not approve his sister's principles, who being a resolved 
protectant, had been heard to say (if we may believe L'lfy- 
trangpj that rather than have her son bred up in idolatry 
iv the Emperor's court, she had rather be his executioner. 
And Mr. Eachard adds,f that the birth of king Charles II. 
in the year 1630, gave no great joy to the puritans, be- 
cause as one of them declared, God had already provided 
fir them in the family of the queen of Bohemia, who were 
bred up in the protestant religion, while it was uncertain 
what religion king Charles's children would follow, being 
to be, brought up by a mother devoted to the church of Borne. 
When the war broke out between the king and parliament, 
the electors younger brothers, Rupert and Maurice, serv- 
ed the king in his army, but the elector himself being in 
Holland took the covenant, and by a letter to the parlia- 
ment testified his approbation of the cause in which they 

|| Baxters Life. p. 103. t History, p. 449. 


were engaged. This summer he made a tour to England, 
and was welcomed hy a committee of the two houses, who 
promised him their best advice and assistance ; to whom 
ti.e prince made the following reply : 

" I Hold myself much obliged to the parliament fur 
'their favors, and my coming is to express in person v 
'I have often done by letter, my sincere affections to them, 
' and to take off such jealousies, as either the actions of 
'some of my relations, or the ill effects of what my ene- 
'mies might by my absence cast upon me. My wishes* 
' are constant for the good success of the great work you 
'have undertaken, for a thorough reformation; and my 
' desires are to be ruled and governed by your grave eoun- 
' sels."|| 

The parliament ordered an apartment to be fitted up fop 
the prince at Whitehall, and voted him eight thousand 
pouudsf a year for his maintenance, and ten thousand for 
Lis royal mother, till he should be restored to his electo- 
rate. $ While he stayed here, he frequently attended the 
assembly in their debates, and after some time had a pass 
for himself and forty horse into the Low Countries. His 
sister princess Sophia, afterwards married the duke of 
Brunswick and Hanover, whose son, upon the decease of 
Queen Anne, succeeded to the crown of Great-Britain, by 
the name of George I.; the numerous posterity of King 
Charles I. being set aside as papists, and thus the de- 
scendants of the Queen of Bohemia, electress Palatine, and 
daughter of King James I. came to inherit the imperial 
crown of these kingdoms, as a reward for their firmness to 
the protestant religion : — and may the same illustrious fam- 
ily continue to be the guardians of our liberties, both sa- 
cred and civil, to the end of time ! 

Religion was the fashion of the age ; the assembly was 
often turned into a house of prayer, and hardly a week 

* Bishop Warburton thinks it apparent, from many circumstances, 
that the elector had his eye on the crown : matters being gone too far 
for the king and parliament ever to agree. Ed. 

llOldmixon's History of the Stuarts, p. 268. 
fit was ordered October lfi4.5, but Dr. Grey quotes an authority to 
.prove that it was ill paid. Vol. ii. Appendix, No. 50. Ed. 

§ 01dmixoB ? s History of the Stuarts, p. 372. 


passed without solemn fasting and humiliation, in several 
of the churches of London and Westminster; the laws 
against profaneness were carefully executed ; anil because 
the former ordinances for the observation of the Lord's 
day had proved ineffectual, it was ordained, April 6, that 
all persons should apply themselves to the exercise of pie- 
ty and religion on the Lord's day, u that no wares, fruity 
6 herbs, or goods of any sort, be exposed to sale, or cried 
4 about streets, upon penalty of forfeiting the goods. That 
* 'no person without cause shall travel, or cany a harden, 
4 or do any worldly labor, upon penalty often shillings for 

* the traveller, and five shillings for every bur hen, J That 
4 no person shall, on the Lord's day, use, or be present at 

* any wrestling, shooting, fowling, ringing of bells Tor plea- 

* sure, markets, wakes, church-aiies, dancing, games 
6 or sports whatsoever, upon penalty of five shillings, to 
6 every one above fourteen years of age. And if child 
'are found offending in the premises, their parents 0| 

* guardians to forfeit twelve pence for every offence. 1 

i all May-poles be pulled down, and none others erected. 

* That if the several fines above-mentioned lev* 
( ied, the offending party shall be set in tSie stocks fat the 
6 space of three hours. That the king's declaration eon- 
tf cerning lawful sports on the Lord's day be called in> 
6 suppressed, and burnt. 

6i This ordinance shall not extend to prohibit dressing 
c meat in private families, or selling victuals in a moderate 
' way in inns or victualling- houses, for the use of such who 
c cannot otherwise be provided for; nor to the crying of 

* milk before nine in the morning, or after four in the af- 
i ternoon."* 

The solemn league and covenant was in such high repute 
at this time, || that by an order of the house of commons, 
Jan. 39, 1644, it was appointed, " that ou every fast-day, 
4 and day of public humiliation, the covenant should 
<be publicly read in every church and congregation 

| tl And for every offence in doing any worldly labor or work." Ed. 

* Sobel's Collect, p. 68. 
|j Dr. Grey gives various passages from the sermons of the day to 
prove in what extravagant estimation it was held, and to shew what 
high, encomiums were passed on it. Ed. 


< within the kingdom ; and that every congregation be en- 
joined to have one of the said covenants fairly printed, in 

* a fair letter, in a table fitted to hang up in some public 
6 place of the church to be read." Which was done ac- 
cordingly, and they contiuued there till the restoration.* 

But taat which occasioned the greatest disturbance over 
the whole nation, was an order of both houses relating to 
Christmas-day. Dr. Lightfoot says, the London ministers 
met together last year, to consult whether they should 
preach on that day ; and one of considerable name and au- 
thority opposed it, and was near prevailing with the rest, 
when the doctor convinced them so far of the lawfulness 
and expediency of it, that the question being put it was 
carried in the affirmative with only four or five dissenting 
voices. But this year it happening to fall on the monthly 
fast, so that either the, fast, or the festival, must be omit- 
ted, the parliament, after some debate, thought it most a- 
greeable to the present circumstances of the nation, to go 
on with fastiug and prayer ; and therefore published the 
following order : 

" Die Jovis 19 Dec. 1644. 
" WHEREAS some doubts have been raised, wheth- 
i er the next fast shall be celebrated, because it falls on 
1 the day which heretofore was usually called the feast of 
6 the nativity of our Saviour ; the lords and commons in 
' parliament assembled do order and ordain, that public 
4 notice be given, that the fast appointed to be kept the last 

* Wednesday in every month ought to be observed, till it be 
' otherwise ordered by both houses ; and that this day in 
6 particular is to be kept with the more solemn humiliation, 
' because it may call to remembrance our sins, and the sins 
' of our forefathers, who have turned this feast, pretending 
i the memory of Christ, into an extreme forgetfulness of 
i him, by giving liberty to carnal and sensual delights, be- 
i ing contrary to the life which Christ led here on earth, 
6 and to the spiritual life of Christ in our souls, for the 

* sanctifying and saving whereof, Christ was pleased both 
i to take a human life, and to lay it down again. "f 

*Lond. Min. Testimony to the Truth of Jesus Christ, p. 26.- 
tRushworth, vol. v. p. 8 IT. 

18® THE HISTORY 611 AP. *. 

The royalists raised loud clamors on account of the 
supposed impiety and profaneness of this transaction, as 
what had never before been heard of in the christian world, 
iho ? they could not but know, that this, as well as other 
festivals, is of ecclesiastical appointment; J that there is no 
mention of the observation of Christmas in the first or sec- 
end age of Christianity ; that the kirk of Scotland never 
observed it since the reformation, except during the short 
reign of the bishops, and do not regard it at this day. 
Some of the most learned divines among the presbyteriaus, 
as well as independents, were in this sentiment. Mr. Ed- 
mund Calamy, in his sermon before the house of lords on 
this day. has these expressions : "This day is commonly 
' called Christmas-day, a day that has heretofore been much 

* abused to superstition and profaneness. It is not easy 
' to say, whether the superstition has been greater, or the 
6 profaneness. I have known some that have preferred 

• Christmas-day before the Lord's-day. Some that would 
£ be sure to receive the sacrament on Christmas -day, though 
' they did not receive all the year after. Some thought, 
' though they did not play at cards all the year long, yet 
6 they must play at Christmas, thereby it seems, to keep 
' in memory the birth of Christ ! This, and much more, 
' hath been the profanation of this feast; and truly, I think 
6 the superstition and profaneness of this day is so rooted 
'into it, that there is no way to reform it, but by dealing 
'with it as Hpzekiah did with the brazen serpent. This 
'year God, by his providence, has buried this feast in a 
'fast, and I hope it will never rise again. You have set 
'out, right honorable, a strict order for keeping of it, and 
*you are here this day to observe your own order, and I 
i hope you will do it strictly. The necessities of the times 
' are great, never more need of prayer and fasting. The 
' Lord give us grace to be humbled in this day of humilia- 
tion, for all our own and England's sins, and especially 
'for the old superstition and profaneness of this feast." 

About Midsummer this year died doctor Thomas Wpst- 
field bishop of Bristol, born in the isle of Ely 1573, educat- 

tDr. Grey says, that the observation of Christmas was app&inted 
by statute g'& 6 Edward VI. e. 3. Ei. 

tfHAP. 4?. OF THE PL T RITA^S\ 188 

ed iii Jesus-College, Cambridge, and afterwards vector of 
Hornsey, and of St. Bartholomew the Great, Loudon, and 
archdeacon of St. Alban's. In the year 1611, he was ad- 
vanced to the see of Bristol, which he accepted, though he 
had refused it (as is said) twenty-five years before.* He 
was a gentleman of great modesty, a good preacher, an ex- 
cellent orator. The parliament had such an esteem for 
him. that they named him one of the assembly of divines, 
and he had the goodness to appear among them for some 
time. Upon the bishop's complaint, that the profits of his 
bishopric were detained, the committee ordered them to be 
restored, and gave him a pass to go to Bristol to receive 
them, wherein they stile him a person of great learning 
and merit. He died in possession of his bishopric, June 
2=?. 1644, aged seventy-one, and composed, his own epi- 
taph, one line of which was, 

Spuio 8£ moemre confectms. 
Worn out with age and grief. 

And another ; 

JEpiscoporum infimus, peccatorum primus. 
The least of bishops, the greatest of sinners. 

Dr. Calibute Downing was born of an ancient family in 
Gloucestershire, about 1616; he was educated in Oriel- 
college, Oxford, and at length became vicar of Hackney 
near London, by the procurement of archbishop Laud; 
which is very strange, if (as Mr. Wood says) he always 
looked awry on the church. In his sermon before the*ir- 
iillery company, Sept. 1, 1640, he maintained, that for the 
defence of religion, and reformation of the church, it teas 
lawful to take up arms against the king, if it could be ob- 
tained no other way. For this he was forced to abscond 
till the beginning of the present parliament. He was after- 
wards chaplain in the earl of Essex's army, and a member 
of the assembly of divines; but died before he was forty 
years of age, having the character of a pious man, a warm 
preacher, and very zealous in the interest of his country. 

* Walker's SufFeri^gs of (he Clergy, p. 3. 



Abstract of the Trial of Archbishop Laud; and,ofth& 
Treaty of Uxbridge. 

NEXT day after the establishment of the directory, I)r„ 
William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, received sen- 
tence of death. He had been a prisoner in the Tower al- 
most three years, upon an impeachment of high treason by 
the house of commons, without once petitioning for a trial, 
or so much as putting in his answer to the articles ; how- 
ever as soou as the parliament had united with the Scots, 
it was resolved to gratify that nation by bringing him to the 
bar; accordingly serjeant Wild was sent up to the house 
of lords, October 23, with ten additional articles of high 
treason, and other crimes and misdemeanors; and to pray, 
that his grace might be brought to a speedy trial. We 
have already recited the fourteen original articles under 
the year 1640. The additional ones were to the follow- 
ing purpose : 

1. " That the archbishop had endeavored to destroy the , 

* use of parliaments, and to introduce an arbitrary govern- 

* ment. 

2. < That for ten years before the present parliament, he 
i had endeavored to advance the council-table, the canons 
1 of the church, and the king's prerogative above law. 

3. 'That he had stopt writs of prohibition to stay pro- 
6 ceedings in the ecclesiastical courts, when the same ought 
tf to have been granted. 

4. * That he had caused Sir John Corbet to be commit- 
i ted to the Fleet for six months, only for causing the pe- 
< tition of right to be read at the sessions. 

5. < That judgment having been given in the court of 

* King's-Be-nch against Mr. Burley, a clergyman of a bad 
1 character, for non-residence, he had caused the judgment 


1 to be strayed, saying he would never suffer judgment to 

* pass upon any clergyman by nihil dicit. 

6. " That large sums of money bavins; been contributed 
»for buying in impropriations, the. archbishop had caused 
i the feoffments to be overthrown into his majesty's Exche- 
' qner, and by that means suppressed the design. 

7- " That he had harbored and relieved divers popish 

* priests, contrary to law. 

8. u That he had said at Westminster, there must be a 
'blow given to the church, such as had not been given, be- 
i fore it could be brought to conformity, declaring thereby 
f his intention to alter the true protectant religion establish- 
i ed in it. 

9. " That after the dissolution of the last parliament, he 
' had caused a convocation to be held, in which sundry 
' canons were made contrary to the rights and privileges of 
£ parliament, and an illegal oath imposed upon the clergy, 
' with certain penalties, commonly known by the et ccetera, 

* oath. 

10. "That upon the abrupt dissolving of the short par- 
liament 164;0, he. had told the king, he was now absolved 
* from all rules of government, and at liberty to make use 

* of extraordinary methods for supply." § 

I omit the charge of the Scots commissioners, because 
the archbishop pleaded the act of oblivion. 

The lords ordered the archbishop to deliver in his an- 
swer in writing to the above-mentioned articles in three 
weeks, which he did, taking no notice of the original ones.* 
The trial was put off from time to time, at the request of 
the prisoner, till Sept. 16, when the archbishop appeariug 
at the bar, and having kneeled some time, was ordered to 
stand, and one of the managers for the commons moved 
the lords, that their articles of impeachment, with the arch- 
bishop's answer, might be read ; but when the clerk of the 
house had read the articles, there was no answer to the 
original ones. Upon which serjeaut JIaynard rose up 
and observed, "how unjust the archbishop's complaints of 

§Prynne"s Complete History of the Trial of Archbishop Laud, p. 3P. 

* Prynne, p. 45. 
Vol. ITT. m 


6 his long imprisonment, and of the delay of his hearing r 
' must be, when in all this time he had not put in his an- 
' swer to their original articles, though he had long since 
'council assigned him for that purpose. That it would 

< be absurd in them to proceed on the additional articles, 
' when there was no issue joined on the original ones ; hs 
' therefore prayed, that the archbishop might forthwith put 
' in his answer to all their articles, and then they should 
'be ready to confirm their charge whenever their lordships 
'should appoint." 

The archbishop says, the lords looked hard one upon: 
another, as if they would ask where the mistake was, he 
himself saying nothing, but that his answer had not been 
called for.* His grace would have embarrassed them fur- 
ther, by desiring them to hear his council, whether the ar- 
ticles Were certain and particular enough to receive an an- 
swer. He moved likewise, that if he must put in a new 
answer, his former might be taken off the file ; and that, 
they would please to distinguish which articles were trea- 
son, and which misdemeanor. But the lords rejected all 
Ills motions, and ordered him to put in his peremptory an- 
swer to the original articles of the commons by the SSd in- 
stant, which he did accordingly, to this effect : 

" As to the 18th article, concerning the troubles in Scot- 
1 land, and all actions, attempts, assistance, counsel, or de- 
' vice relating thereto, this defendant pleadeth the late act 
'of oblivion, he being none of the persons excepted by the 
' said act, nor are any of the offences charged upon this 
' defendant excepted by the said act. 

"And as to all the other articles, both original and ad- 
' ditional, this defendant saving to himself all advantage* 
'of exception to the said articles, humbly saith, that he is 

< not guilty of all or any the matters, by the said articles- 
' charged in such manner and form as the same are by 
' the said articles charged against him. ?? 

The trial was deferred all the month of February, as the 
archbishop insinuates, because Mr. Pvynne was not ready 
with his witnesses. When it came on, lord Grey of 

»* Wharton's History of Archbishop Laud's Troubles, p. 214, 215.. 


Werk speaker of the house of lords, was appointed presi- 
dent; but Hie archbishop complains, that there were sel- 
dom more than sixteen or eighteen peers a f a time. The 
managers for the commons were Mr. Serjeant Wild, and 
Mr. M'iijnard, Mr. Brown, Mr. Nicolas, and Mr. Hill, 
whom the archbishop calls consul bibulus, because he said 
nothing; their solicitor was Mr. Prynne, the archbishop's 
grand enemy. His grace's counsel were Mr. Heme, Mr. 
Hales, Mr. Chute, Mr. Gerard; aud his solicitor was his 
own secretary, Mr. Dell. The trial was depending almost 
five months, in which time the archbishop was heard twen- 
ty days, with as much liberty and freedom of speech as 
could be reasonably desired. When he complaiued of 
the seizure of his papers, the lords ordered him a copy of 
all such as were necessary for his defence ; and when he 
acquainted them, that by reason of the sequestration of his 
estate, he was incapable of feeing his counsel, they mov- 
ed the committee of sequestrations in his favor, who or- 
dered him two hundred pounds. His counsel had free 
access to him at all times, and stood by to advisa him dur- 
ing the whole of his trial. 

The method of proceeding was (his ; the archbishop had 
three or four days notice of the day of his appearance, and 
of the articles they designed to proceed on : he was brought 
to the bar about ten in the morning, and the managers were 
till one making good their charge ; the house then adjourn- 
ed till four, when the archbishop made his defence, after 
which one of the managers replied, and the archbishop 
returned to the Tower between seven and eight of the clock 
in the evening. 

It is unhappy that this remarkable trial, which contains 
the chief heads of controversy between the puritans and 
the hierarchy, was not published by order of the house of 
peers, that the world might have seen the arguments on 
both sides in their full strength. Mr. Prynne, by order 
of the house of commons, has given us their evidence to 
that branch of the charge which relates to religion, and the 
archbishop has left behind him his own defence on every 
day's hearing, mixed with keen and satyrical reflections 
on his adversaries ; but these being detached performan- 
ces, I have endeavored to reduce the most material pas- 


sages into a proper method, without confining myself to 
the exact order of time in which the articles were debated. 
All the articles may be reduced to these three general 

First, " That the archbishop had traiterously attempted, 

* and endeavored to subvert the rights of 'parliament, and 

* to exalt the king's power above law. 

Secondly, i( That he had traiterously endeavored to 
e subvert the fundamental temporal laws and government 
£ of the realm of England, and to introduce an arbitrary 
' government against law and the liberties of the subject. 

Thirdly, " That he had traiterously endeavored, and 

* practised, to alter and subvert God's true religion by law 
£ established in this realm, and instead thereof to set up 
6 popish superstition aud idolatry, and to reconcile us to 
6 the church of Rome. 7 ' 

The trial began March 12. 1643-4 when Mr. Serjeant 
Wild, one of the managers of the house of commons, open- 
ed the impeachment with a smart speech, in which he stat- 
ed and aggravated the several crimes charged upon the 
archbishop, and concluded with comparing him to J\Taa- 
man the Syrian, who was a great man, but a leper. 

The archbishop, in his reply, endeavors to wipe off the 
aspersions that were cast upon him, in a labored speech 
which he held in his hand. He says, " It was no less than 
' a torment to him to appear in that place, and plead for 
f himself on that occasion, because he was not only a chris- 
tian but a clergyman, and by God's grace advanced to 
6 the greatest place this church affords. He blessed God 
^that he was neither ashamed to live, nor afraid to die ; 
6 that he had been as strict an observer of the laws of his 

< country, both in public and private, as any man whatso- 
^ ever ; and as for religion, that he had been a steady mem- 
< ber of the church of England as established by law, which 
6 he had endeavored to reduce to decency, uniformity, 
6 and beauty, in the outward face of it ; but he had been 
' as far from attempting any alterations in favor of pope- 

< ry, as when his mother first bore him into the world ; 

* and let nothing be spoken but truth, (says he) and I do 


* here challenge whatsoever is between heaveu and hell, 
' that can be said against me in point of my religion, in 
' which I have ever hated dissimulation.'** He then con- 
cludes with a list of twenty-one persons whom he had con- 
verted from popery to the protestant religion. 

It was observed by some, that if the passionate expres- 
sions in this speech had been a little qualified, that they 
would have obtained more credit with bis gratis?* judges ;| 
but as they were pronounced, were thought hardly fit for 
the mouth of one who lay under the weight of so many ac- 
cusations from the representative body of the nation. 

The next day [March 13] the managers for the com- 
mons began to make good the first branch of their charge, 
to the following purpose, viz. 

(i That the archbishop had traiterously attempted to sub- 
i vert the rights of parliament, and to exalt the king's pow- 

* er above the laws.*" 

In support of which they produced, (1.) a passage out of 
his own Diary, Dec. 5, 1639. Ci JL resolution was voted at 
i ihP. board to assist the king in extraordinary ways, if (says 
i he) the parliament should prove peevish and refuse." 

The archbishop replied, that this was the vote of the 
whole council-table, of which he was only a siugle mem- 
ber, and therefore could not be called his counsel. Besides, 
the words had relation to the troubles of Scotland, and are 
therefore included in the act of oblivion. 

2. « They produced another expression in one of the. 
i archbishop's papers under his own hand, in the beginning 

* of which he says, that Magna Charta had an obscure birth, 
i and was fostered by an ill nurse "\\ 

The archbishop replied, that it was no disgrace to Mag- 
na Charta to say it had an obscure birth ; our histories 
confirm the truth of it, and some of our law-books of good 

* Wharton's History of Archbishop Laud's Troubles, p. 223. 

f Dr. Grey thinks that the severest expressions were justifiable in 
answer to so foul-mouthed an impeaeher as serjeant Wild, and that 
there was nothing in the bishop's speech unbecoming that great prp- 
late to speak, or that assembly to hear. Ed. 

|| Laud's History, p. 229, 230. 23J. 


account use almost the same expressions : and shall the 
same words be history and law in them, and treason in me?^ 

3. They averred, " that he had said in council, that the 
'king's proclamation was of as great force as an act of par* 
' Ha merit ; and that he had compared the king to the stone 
' spoken of in the gospel, that whosoever falls upon it shall 
' be broken, but upon whomsoever it falls it will grind him 
' to powder." 

The archbishop replied, that this was in the case of the 
soap business, twelve years ago ; and thinks it impossible 
those words should be spoken by him ; nor does he appre- 
hend the gentlemen who press this evidence can believe it 
themselves, considering they are accusing him as a cunning 
delinquent. So God forgive these men the falsehood and 
malice of their oaths (says he!) but as to the allusion to the 
stone in the scripture, if I did apply it to the king, it wag 
far enough from treason, and let them and their like take 
care, lest it prove true upon themselves, for Solomon says, 
The anger of a king is death.* 

4. In further maintenance of this part of their charge, 
the managers produced " two speeches which his grace, 
' framed for the king to be spoken to the parliament ; and 
' his majesty's answer to the remonstrance of the house of 
'commons in the year 1628, which was all written with 
' the archbishop's own hand, and these words endorsed by 
' himself, My answer to the parliament's remonstrance. In 
' which papers were sundry passages tending to set up an 
' absolute power in the king, and to make the calling of 
< parliaments in a manner useless. The king is made to 
' say, that his power is only from God, and to him only he 
' is accountable for his actions ; that never king was more 
'jealous of his honor, or more sensible of the neglect and 
' contempt of his royal rights. His majesty bids the com- 
' mons remember, that parliaments are altogether in his 
' pmver, for their calling, sitting, and dissolution; and that 
' according as they behaved themselves they should con- 
'tinue, or not be. When some of the members of parlia- 
' ment had spoken freely against the duke of Buckingham, 
* they were by the king's command sent to the Tower ; and 

§ Laud's History, p. 409. * Ibid. p. SSL*. 


* his majesty coming to the house of peers, tells them, that 
' he had thought lit to punish some insolent speeches lately 
» spoken against the duke, for I am so sensible of nil your 
' honors, (says he) that he that touches any of you, touch- 

* es me in a vwy great measure. Further, when the par- 

* liament was dissolved in the year 1628, a proclamation 

* was published, together with the above-mentioned remon- 
4 strance, in which his majesty declares, that since his par- 

* liament was not so dutiful as they ought, to be, lie was 
4 resolved to live without them, till those who had inter- 
4 rupted his proceedings should receive condigu punish- 
1 ment, and his people come to a better temper ; and that 

* in the mean time, he would exact the duties that were 
' received by his father, which his now majesty neither 
< could nor would dispense with."! 

The archbishop replied, that he did indeed make the 
above-mentioned speeches, beiug commanded to the ser- 
vice, and followed his instructions as close as he could. 
As for the smart passages complained of, he hopes they 
will not be thought such, when it is considered whose 
mouth was to utter them, and upon what occasion. How- 
ever, if they be, he is heartily sorry for them, and humbly 
desires they may be passed by. The answer to the remon- 
strance was drawn by his m.ijesty's command, as appear* 
by the endorsement; and the severe passages objected to, 
were in his instructions. When a parliament errs, may 
not their king tell them of it? Or must every passage in 
his answer be sour that pleases not?|| 

The managers proceeded to produce some other passa- 
ges tending more immediately to subvert the rights of par- 
liament, and among others, they insisted on these three : 

1. " That the archbishop had said at the council-table, 

* after the ending of the late parliament, that now the king 
' might make use of his own power. This was attested by 
s ' sir Harry Vane the elder, who was a privy-counsellor, 
i and ihen present." K 

The archbishop replied, that he did not remember the 
words ; that if he did speak them they were not treasona- 

\ King's Speeches, March $f, 29, May 11. 
Laud's Hist. p. 230, 403, 404, 40&. 

THE HISTORY tiltkP. 5; 

ble ; or if they were, lie ought to have been tried within 
six months according to the statute 1 Eliz. cap. 6. That 
sir Henry Vane was only a single witness, whereas the 
law requires two witnesses for treason : besides, he con- 
ceived that this advice relating to the Scottish troubles was 
within the act of oblivion, which he had pleaded. But last 
of ail, let it be remembered, says the archbishop, for sir 
Harry's honor, that he being a man in years, has so good 
a memory, that he alone can reuiember words spoken at a 
full council-table, which no person of honor remembers 
save himself; but I would not have him brag of ft, for I 
have read in St. Austin, that some, even the worst of men, 
have great memories, and so much the worse for having 
them. God bless sir Henry /# 

3. The archbishop had affirmed, "that the parliament 
' might not meddle with religion, without the assent of the 
* clergy in convocation. Now if this were so (say the man- 
6 agers) we should have had no reformation, for the bish- 
' ops and clergy dissented." 

The archbishop in his reply cited the statute 1 Eliz. cap. 
1, which says, that what is heresy shall be determined by 
the parliament, with the assent of the clergy in convoca- 
tion, from whence he concluded, the parliament could not 
by law determine the truth of doctrine without the assent 
of the clergy ; and to this the managers agreed, as to the 
point of heresy, but no further. The archbishop added, 
that in his opinion, it was the prerogative of the church 
alone to determine truth and falsehood, though the power 
of making laws for the punishment of erroneous persons, 
was in the parliament with the assent of the clergy. || In- 
deed the king and parliament may, by their absolute pow- 
er, change Christianity into turcism if they please, and the 
subjects that cannot obey must fly, or endure the penalty 
of the law ; but of right they cannot do this without the 
church. Thus the parliament, in the beginning of Queen 
'Elizabeth'' 's reign, by absolute power abolished popish su- 
perstition ; but when the clergy were settled, and a form 
of doctrine was to be agreed on, a synod was called 1562, 
and the articles of religion were confirmed by parliament, 
with the assent of the clergy, which gave all parties their 

* Laud's History, p. 231. |] Ibid. p. 401. 


just right, as is so evident, that the heathens could see the 
justice of it, for Liiciillus says in Tally , that the priests 
were judges of religion, and the senate of the law. 

3. " At a reference between Dr. Gill, school-master of 
6 St. Paul's, and the Mercers' company, the archbishop 
c had said, that the company could not turn him out of the 

* school, without consent of his ordinary; and that upon. 
' mention of an act of parliament, he replied, I see nothing 
' will down with you but acts of parliament, no regard at 
4 all to the canons of the church ; but I will rescind all 

* acts that are against the canons, and I hope shortly to 
' see the canons and the king's prerogative of equal force 

* with au act of parliament.' 7 

The archbishop was so provoked with the oath of the 
witness who gave this in evidence, [Mr. Samuel Bloody 
that he was going to bind his sin on his soul, not to be for- 
given him, till he should ask him forgiveness ;\ but he 
conquered his passion, and replied, that since by a canon* 
no person is allowed to teach school without the bishop's 
licence, and that in case of offence he is liable to admoni- 
tion arid suspension, it stands good, that he may not be 
turned out without the said bishop's knowledge and ap- 
probation. As for the words, that he saw nothing would 
down with them hut an act of parliament; and that no re- 
gard was had to the canons, he conceived them to be no 
offence ; for though the superiority belongs to acts of par- 
liament iu this kingdom, yet certainly some regard is due 
to the canons : and therefore he says again, that if nothing 
will down with men but acts of parliament, the govern- 
ment in many particulars cannot subsist. As to the last 
words, of his rescinding those acts that were against the 
canons, he is morally certain he could not utter them ; nor 
does he believe any man that knows him will believe him 
such a fool, as to say, he hoped to see the canons and the 
king's prerogative of equal force with an act of parliament, 
since he has lived to s see sundry canons rejected, and the 
king's prerogative discussed by law, neither of which can 
be done by any judges to an act of parliament. However, 
if such words should have escaped him, he observes there 
is only one witness to the charge : and if they be within 
t Laud's History, p. 236. 237. * Can. 77, 79. 

Vol. HI. 25 


the danger of the statute, then to that statute which requires 
his trial within six months, he refers himself. 

The managers went on to the second charge against the 
archbishop, which was his design to subvert the funda- 
mental temporal laws of the kingdom, and to introduce an 
arbitrary government against law and the liberty of the 
subject. Iu maintenance whereof they alledged " his ille- 
<gal pressures of tonnage and poundage without act of 
' parliament, ship-money, coat and conduct money, soap- 

< money, &c. and his commitment of divers persons to pris- 
* on for non-payment ; for a proof of which there appear- 

< ed, among others, three aldermen, viz. aldermen Atkins, 
6 Chambers, and Adams." 

The archbishop confessed, that as to the business of ship- 
money, he was zealous in that affair, yet not with an intent 
to violate the law, for though this was before judgment 
given for the king, it was after the judges had declared 
the legality of it under their hands, and he thought he 
might safely follow such guides. He was likewise of o- 
pinion, that tonnage and poundage, coat and conduct-mon- 
ey were lawful on the king's part ; that he was led into this 
opinion by the express judgment of some lords present, 
and by the silence of others ; none of the great lawyers at 
the table contradicting it ; however, that it was the com- 
mon act of the council-table, and therefore all were as cul- 
pable as himself; and he was sure this could not amount 
to treason, except it were against the three aldermen, At- 
kins, Chambers, and Adams. f 

They objected further, " sundry depopulations, and 
pulling down houses ; that for the repair of St. Paul's a- 
bove sixty dwelling-houses had been pulled down, by 
order of council, without any satisfaction to the tenants, 
because they did not accept of the committee's composi- 
tion. — That he had obliged a brewer near the court not 
to burn sea-coal, under penalty of having his brewhouse 
pulled down ; and that by a like order of council many 
shopkeepers were forcibly turned out of their houses in 
Cheapside, to make way for goldsmiths, who were forbid 
to open shop in any other places of the city. When a 

f Laud's History, p. 232, 233, 234. 


6 commission was issued under the brord seal to himself, to 

< compound with delinquents of this kind, Mr. Talboys was 

< fined fifty pounds for non-compliance ; and when he 
i pleaded the statute of the 39th of Elizabeth, the archbish- 
1 op replied, Do you plead law here ? either abide the or- 
6 der, or take your trial at the star-chamber. When Mr. 
* Wakern had one hundred pounds allowed him for the 

< pulling down his house, he was soon after fined one hun- 
6 died pounds iu the high commission court, for profana- 
i tion; of which he paid thirty." 

This the archbishop admitted, and replied to the rest, 
that he humbly and heartily thanked (rod, that he was 
counted worthy to suffer for the repair of St. Paul's, which 
had cost him out of his own purse above twelve hundred 
pounds. As to the grievances complained of, there was a 
composition allotted for the sufferers, by a committee nam- 
ed by the lords, not by him, which amounted to eight or 
nine thousand pounds, before they could come at the church 
to repair it ; so that if any thing was amiss, it must be im- 
puted to the lords of the council, who are one body, and 
whatsoever is done by the major part is the act of the whole; 
that, however, here was some recompence made them, 
whereas in King James's time, when a commission was is- 
sued for demolishing these very houses, no care w T as taken 
for satisfaction of any private man's interest ; and I can- 
not forbear to add (says the archbishop,) that the bishop, 
and dean and chapter, did ill in giving way to these build- 
ings, to increase their rents by a sacrilegious revenue ; 
there being no law to build on consecrated ground. When 
it was replied to this, " that the king's commission was no 
6 legal warrant for pulling down houses, without authority 
6 of parliament," he answered, that houses more remote 
from the church of St. Paul's had been pulled down by 
the king's commission only in King Edward the third's 
time. As to the brew-house, the archbishop owned that he 
had said to the proprietor, that he must seal a bond of two 
thousand pounds to brew no more with sea-coal ; but it 
was at the council-table, when he was delivering the sense 
of the board, which office was usually pnt upon him if 

* Laud's History, p. 335, 214, 446, 365. 


present ; so that this or any other hardship he might suf- 
fer ought not to be imputed to hirn, but to the whole coun- 
cil ; and he was very sure it could not amount to treason, 
except it were treason against a brew-house. The like an- 
swer he made to the charge about the goldsmiths shops, 
namely, that it was the order of council, and was thought 
to be for the beauty and grandeur of the city, and he did 
apprehend the council had a right to command in things 
of decency, and for the safety of the subject, and where 
there was no law to the contrary. As to the words which 
he spoke to Mr. Talboys, they were not designed to dero- 
gate from the law, but to shew, that we sat not there as 
judges of the law, but to offer his majesty's grace, by way 
of composition to them who would accept it, and therefore 
he had his option, whether he would agree to the fine we 
imposed upon hira, or take his trial elsewhere. The com- 
mons replied with great reason, that no commission from 
the king could justify the pulling down men's houses, or 
oblige them to part with their estates without act of par- 

The managers objected further to the archbishop, u sev- 
eral illegal commitments, and exhorbitant fines and cen- 
'sures in the star-chamber, and high commission court, as 
i in the cases of Prynne, Burton, Bastwick, Huntley, and 
' others: and that when the persons aggrieved brought 
'prohibitions, he threatened to lay them by the heels, say- 
' ing, Does the king grant tis power, and are we then pro- 
{ hibited? Let us go and complain, 1 will break the back of 
'prohibitions, or they shall break mine. Accordingly sev- 
eral persons were actually imprisoned for delivering^ro- 
* hibitions, as was testified by many witnesses ; nay, Mr. 
1 Wheeler swore, he heard the archbishop in a sermon say, 
' that they which granted prohibitions to the disturbance of 
1 the church's right, God ivill prohibit their entrance into 
c the kingdom of heaven." 

The archbishop replied, that the fines, imprisonments, 
and other censures complained of, were the acts of the sev- 
eral courts that directed them, and not his. That the 
reason why several persons were imprisoned for prohibi- 
tions, was because they delivered them in court in an uu- 
' mannerly way, throwing them oh the table, or handing 


them over the heads of others on a stick, to the affront of 
the court ; notwithstanding which, as many prohibitions 
had heen admitted in his time as in his predecessors ; and 
after all, he apprehended these prohibitions were a very 
great grievance to the church ; nor was there the same 
reason for them now, as before the reformation, while the 
bishops' courts were kept under a foreign power, whereas 
now all power exercised in spiritual courts, as well as in 
temporal, is for the king. As to the words in his sermon, 
though he did not remember them, yet he saw no great 
harm in them. And here the archbishop put the lords in 
mind, that nothing had been done of late in the star-cham- 
ber, or council-table, more than had been done in king 
James and queen Elizabeth's times. Nor is there any 
one witness that says, what he did was with a design to 
overthrow the laws, or introduce arbitrary government ; 
no, that is only the construction of the managers, for luliich, 
and something else in their proceedings, I am confident, 
says he, they shall answer at another bar.\\ 

The managers objected further, u the archbishop's tak- 
ing undue gifts, and among others, his receiving two bids 
e of sack, in a cause of some Chester men, whom it was in 
< his power to relieve, by mitigating the fine set on them in 
e the high commission, aud taking several large sums of 
e money by way of composition for fines in the high-cora- 
* mission court, making use of the method of commutation, 
' by virtue of a patent obtained from the king, which took 
i away all opportunity from his majesty of doing justice, 
6 and shewing mercy to his poor subjects, and invested the 
' archbishop with the final determination. ?? 

His grace heard this part of his charge with great re- 
sentment and impatience. If I would have had any thing 
to do in the base, dirty business of bribery, (says he) I 
needed not be in such want as I am now. As to the sack,* 
he protested, as he should answer it to God, that he knew 
nothing of it, and offered to confirm it by his oath, if it 

|| Laud's History, p. 270, 271, 273, 274. 
* Dr. Grey charges Mr. Neal with not giving the whole truth here, 
and with being cautious not to produce too many things in favor of 
the archbishop. The Editor, not having " Laud's History," cannot 
ascertain the truth or candor of this charge. Ed. 


might be admitted. He declared, that when his steward 
told him of Mr. Stone's design, he absolutely forbad his 
receiving it, or any thing from any man who had business 
before him; but Mr. Stone, watching a time when his 
steward was out of town, and the archbishop at court, 
brought the sack, telling the yeoman of the wine-cellar that 
he had leave to lay it in. Afterwards, when his steward 
acquainted him that the sack was brought in he commanded 
it should be carried back ; but Mr. Stone intreated that 
he might not be so disgraced, and protested he did not do 
it on the accout of the Chester business, though after this 
he went home and put it on their account ; for which they 
complained to the house of commons, and produced Mr. 
Stone for their witness. The arehbishop observes, that 
Mr. Browne, in summing up his charge, did him justice 
in this particular, for neither to the lords nor commons 
did he so much as mention it. 

As to the other sums of money which he received by 
was of composition or otherwise, for fines in the high com- 
mission, he said, that he had the broad seal from the king, 
for applying them to the repairing the westendof St. Paul's, 
for the space of ten years, which broad seal was then in 
the hands of Mr. Holford, and was on record to be seen. 
And all fines in the high commission belonging to the crown, 
his majesty had a right to give them to what use he pleas- 
ed ; that as for himself, he thought it his duty to get as 
much money for so good a work as he could, even by way 
of commutation for certain crimes ; which method of pecu- 
niary commutations was according to law, and the ancient 
custom and practice of this kingdom, especially where men 
of quality were offenders, and he had applied no part of 
them to his own benefit or advantage. 

It was next objected, " that he had made divers altera- 
tions in the king's coronation oath, and introduced sev- 
i eral unwarrantable innovations with relation to that august 
i ceremony ; as particularly, that he had inserted those 
6 words into the oath, agreeable to the king's prerogative, 
6 with about twenty other alterations of less moment, which 
* they apprehended to be a matter of most dangerous con- 
' sequence. That he had revived certain old popish cere- 
f monies, disused since the reformation, as the placing a 


( crucifix on the altar, the consecrating the holy oil, the a- 
i nointing the king in form of a cross, the offering up the 
' regalia on the altar, without any rubric or direction for 
' these things, and inserting the following charge taken 
6 verbatim out of the Roman pontifical : " Stand, and hold 
'fast, from henceforth, the place to tchich you have been 
6 heir by the succession of your forefathers, being now de- 
' livered to you by the authority of Almighty God, and by the 
6 hands of us, and all the bishops and servants of God; and 
< as you see the clergy come nearer the altar than others, 
6 so remember, that in place convenient you give them great- 
i er honor, that the mediator of God and man may establish 
6 you in the kingly throne, to be the mediator between the 
' clergy and the laity, and that you may reign for ever with 
6 Jesus Christ, the King of kings* and Lord of lords, who 
6 with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth 
( for ever. Amen." 

The archbishop replied, that he did not insert the words 
above-mentioned into the coronation oath, they being first 
added in King Edward VI. or Queen Elizabeth's time, 
and had no relation to the laws of the kingdom, mentioned 
before in the beginning of the oath, but to the profession 
of the gospel, whereby the king swears to maintain his pre- 
rogative against all foreign jurisdictions : and if this be not 
the meaning, yet he avers, that the clause was in the coro- 
nation oath of King James. As to the other alterations 
they were admitted not to be material ; but his grace con- 
fesses, that when they met in the committee, they were for- 
ced to mend many slips of the pen in some places, and to 
make sense and good English in others, and the book being 
intrusted with him he did it with his own hand, openly in 
the committee and with their approbation. As to the cer- 
emonies of the coronation, they are nothing to him, since 
his predecessor crowned and anointed the king, indeed he 
supplied the place of the dean of Westminster, and was 
obliged to look after the regalia, and conceives the offer- 
ing them at the altar could be no offence. He does not re- 
member the crucifix was brought out, [though Heylin says 
it was] and as to the prayer, it was not taken from the pon- 
tifical by him, for it was used at King James' coronation, 
and being a good one it is no matter whence it was taken. 


To all which the managers replied, that it appeared by his 
own Diary, that he had the chief direction oi' all these in- 
novations. || 

The managers went on, and charged the archbishop 
" with endeavoring to set up an independent power in the 
'church, by attempting to exempt the clergy from the ju- 
4 risdiction of the civil magistrate; of which they produced 
6 several examples; one was, -the archbishop's forbidding 
{ the lord-mayor of the city of London to carry the sword 
f upright in the church, and then obtaining an order of coun- 
8 cil for submitting it in time and place of divine service. 

* Another was taken out of the archbishop's Diary ; upon 

* making the bishop of London, lord treasurer, he says, No 
t churchman had it since Henry VII. and now, if the church 
6 will not hold up themselves, under God, lean do no more. 
? A third was, his saying in the high commission, that no 

* constable, should* meddle with men in holy order's. A fourth, 
f- was, his calling some justices of peace into the high-corn- 
c mission, for holding the sessions at Tewksbury in the 
f church yard, being consecrated ground, though they had 
' licence from the bishop, and though the eighty-eighth ca- 
i von of the church of England gives leave, that temporal 
i courts or leets may be kept in the church or church-yard. 
F And a fifth was, that he had caused certain churchwar- 
"'dens to be prosecuted, for executing the warrant of a jus- 
tice of peace upon an ale-house-keeper.f 

The archbishop replied in general, that he never attempt- 
ed to bring the temporal power under the clergy, nor to 
free the clergy from being under it; but this he confessed, 
that he had labored to preserve the clergy from some lay- 
men's oppressions, for vis laica has been an old and a just 
complaint; and this I took to be my duty, (says he) assur- 
ing myself that God did not raise me to that place of emi- 
nence to sit still, and see his ministers discountenanced 
and trampled upon. To the first particular he replied, that 
it was an order of council, and therefore not his ; but it 
was a reasonable one, for the sword was not submitted to 
any foreign or home power, but to God only, and that in 
the place and at the performance of his holy worship, at 
which time and place kings submit themselves, and there- 

f! Laud's Hist. p. 318. Prynne, p. 475. t Laud'* Hist. p. 293. 

fcHA?. 6. OF THE PURITANS. 30k 

fore cannot insist upon the emblems of their power. To 
Use second and third examples he replied, that he saw no 
treason or crime in them. To the fourth he replied, that. 
no temporal courts ought to be kept upon consecrated 
ground; and that though some such might upon urgent 
occasions be kept in the church with leave, yet that is no 
warrant for a sessions, where there might be a trial for 
blood ; and certainly it can be no crime to keep off profa- 
nation from churches : but be it never so criminal, it was 
the act of the high commission, and not his ; nor is there 
any thing in it that looks towards treason. To the prose- 
cuting the churchwardens lie answered, that those statutes 
concerned ale-house-keepers only, and the reason why 
they were prosecuted was, because being church-officers 
they did not complain of it to the chancellor of the diocese ; 
for certainly standing in such a relation to the church* 
they ought to have been as ready to inform the bishop as 
to obey the justice of the peace.* 

Lastly. The managers objected to the archbishop, "the 

* convocation's sitting after the parliament was dissolved, 
' contrary to law ; their imposing an oatli on the subject, 
i and their making sundry canons, which had since been 
6 voted by both houses of parliament contrary to the king's 
i prerogative, to the fundamental laws of the realm, to the 
i rights of parliament, to the property and liberty of the 
i subject, and containing matters tending, to sedition, and 

* of dangerous consequence." 

The archbishop replied, that the sitting of the convoca- 
tion after the dissolution of the parliament was, in the o- 
pinion both of judges and other lawyers, according to law ; 
that as tiiey were called to sit in convocation by a differ- 
ent writ from that which called them as bishops to sit in 
parliament, so they could not rise till they had a writ to 
discharge them. As for the oath so much complained of, 
it was according to law, or else they were misled by such 
precedents as were never excepted against ; for in the 
canons made in king James's time, there was an oath a- 
gainst simony, and an oath for licences for marriages, and 
an oath for judges in ecclesiastical courts, and all these 
established by no other authority than the late one. As 

* Laud's History, P. 2S7, 292. 

YOL.ITT-. 26' 


to the vote of both houses, which condemned the canons, 
sinee their lordships would not suffer him to debate the 
justice and equity of it, he could only reply, that all these 
canons were made in open and full convocations, and are 
acts of that body, and cannot be ascribed to him, though 
president of that synod, so by me (says the archbishop) 
they were not made.* 

These were the principal evidences produced by the 
commons, in maintenance of the first branch of their charge, 
viz. his grace's endeavors to subvert the rights of parlia- 
ment, and the fundamental temporal \slws of the kingdom. 
From whence it is easy to observe, that besides the sharp- 
ness of the archbishop's temper, there are three capital mis- 
takes which run through this part of his defence. 

1. A groundless supposition, that where the law is silent 
the prerogative takes place ; and that in all such cases, a 
proclamation, or order of council, or a decree of the star- 
chamber, &c. is binding upon the subject ; and that disobe- 
dience to such proclamations or orders might be punished 
at discretion. This gave rise to most of the unwarranta- 
ble orders by which the subject was insufferably oppress- 
ed in the former part of this reign, and to the exorbitant 
fines that were levied for disobedience, in which the arch- 
bishop himself was notoriously active. 

2. The false conclusions drawn from his being but a 
single member of the council or high commission, viz. that 
therefore he was not answerable for their votes or orders, 
even though he had set his hand to them ; because what is 
carried by a majority is supposed to be the act of the whole 
hodij, and not of any particular member.^ According to 
which way of reasoning, the constitution might be destroy- 
ed, without a possibility of punishing the authors. 

3. His wilful misconstruction of the manager's reason- 
ings ; as when he replies with an air of satisfaction and 
triumph, he hopes this or the other particular will not be 
construed treason, unless it be against a brew-house or an 
alderman, or the like; though he was told over and over, 
by the managers for the commons, that they did not object 
these things to him as so many treasonable acts, but as* 

* Laud's History, p. 283. fl Ibid. p. 437. 


proofs and evidences of one general charge, which was, a 
traiterous attempt and endeavor to subvert the fundamen~ 
tul temporal laics, government, and liberties of the realm; 
And how far they have made good this part of the charge 
must be left with the reader. 

The commons proceeded next to the 3d general charge, 
relating to religion, in which our history requires us to be 
more particular; and here they aver, " That the archbish- 
6 op had traiterously endeavored and practised to alter an$ 
6 subvert God's true religion by law established in thi$ 
' realm, and instead thereof to set up popish superstition 
t and idolatry, and to reconcile us to the church of Home. 

This was divided into two branches : 

1st. " His introducing and practising certain popish in- 
( novations, and superstitious ceremonies, not warranted 
I by law, nor agreeable to the practice of the church of 
i Kngland since the reformation. 

Sdly. »'* His countenancing and encouraging sundry doc- 

* trinal errors in favor of arminianism and popery." 

The managers began with popish innovations and cere- 
monies, iu maintenance of which they insisted on the foU 
lowing proofs : 

(1.) "His countenancing the setting up of images in 
t churches, church-windows, and other places of religious 
£ worship. That in his own chapel at Lambeth he had re- 
paired the popish paintings on the windows, that had 

* been destroyed at the reformation, and made up the histo- 

* ry of Christ crucified between two thieves; of his rising 
t out of the grave ; of his ascension into heaven ; of the Ho- 
4 ly Ghost descending in form of a dove ; of Christ raising 
< Lazarus out of the grave ; and of God himself raining 
'down manna from heaven; of God's giving the law of 
'•Moses on mount Sinai; of fire descending from heaven 
i at tiie prayer of Elisha ; of the Holy Ghost overshadow- 
l ing the virgin, &c. all taken from the Roman missal, with 
'several superstitious mottoes and inscriptions. That he 
i had caused divers crucifixes to be set up in churches over 
i the communion table, in his chapel at Lambeth, at White- 
i hall, and at the university at Oxford, of which he was 
' chancellor. That in the parish of St. Mary's there was 
; since his time erected a statue of the Virgin Mary cut in 


£ stone, with a child in her arms, to which divers people 

* bowed and did reverence as they went along the streets ; 
•which could not be done without his allowance ; nay, so 
c zealous was this prelate (say the managers) in defence of 
e images, that he procured Mr. Sheffield to be sentenced 
( in the star-chamber, for defacing a church window in or 
6 near Salisbury, because there was an image in it of Gmd. 
i the Father ; all which is contrary to the statute of the 3d 

* and 4th of Edward VI. and the injunctions of Queen E- 
'lizabeth, which enjoin all pictures, paintings, images, 

* and other monuments of idolatry and superstition to be de- 
£ strayed, so as that there remain no memory of them in 
< walls, glass windows, or elsewhere, within any church 
1 ' or house."* 

The archbishop answered in general, that crucifixes and 
images in churches were not simply unlawful ; that they 
were in use in Constantine"s time, and loug before, and 
therefore there could be no popery in them. Tertullian 
says, they had the picture of Christ engraven on their cha- 
lice in form of a shepherd carrying home a lost sheep ; and 
even Mr. Calvin allows an historical use of images, Insiit. 
1. 1, cap. 11, sect. i%. JSTeqw tamen ea superstitione ten- 
eor ut nullas prorsus imagines ferendas censeam, sed quia 
sculptura §f pictura, l)ei dona sunt, purum §* legitimvm 
utriusque usum requiro. The archbishop appealed like- 
wise to the homilies, p. 64, 65, for an historical use of im- 
ages ; but if it should be granted (says he) that they are 
condemned by the homilies, yet certainly one may sub- 
scribe to the homilies as containing a godly and wholesome 
doctrine, necessary for those times, without approving ev- 
ery passage or sentence, or supposing it necessary for all 
times. I do not approve of images of God the father, though 
some will justify them from Dan. vii. %%, but as for the 
images of things visible, they are of use, not only for the 
beautifying and adorning the places of divine worship, but 
for admonition and instruction ; and can be an offence to 
none but such as would have Grod served slovenly and 
nieanly under a pretence of avoiding superstition. f 

As to the particulars, the archbishop allowed his repair- 

*Prynne's Cant. Doom, p. 157, 462, &c. 
t Laud's Hist. p. 3 It. IVynne, p. 463, 463, 479. 


ing the windows of his chapel at Lambeth, and making out 
the history as well as he could, but not from the Roman 
missal, since he did not know the particulars were in it, 
but from the fragments of what remained in the windows 
since the reformation ; but if they had been originally 
painted by his order, as in the case of the new chapel at 
Westminster, he knows no crime in it.f The image of the, 
virgin Mary in Oxford was set up by bishop Owen, and 
there is no evidence that I countenanced the setting it up, 
nor that any complaint was made to me of any abuse of it.* 
As to Mr. SherfieWs case, one of the witnesses says, it 
was the picture of an old man with a budget by his side 
pulling out Adam and Eve, it is not therefore certain that 
it was the image of God the father ; but if it was, yet Mr. 
Sheffield ought not to have defaced it but by command of 
authority, though it had been an idol of Jupiter ; the or- 
ders of the vestry, which Mr. Sheffield pleads, being 
nothing at all without the bishop of the diocese. $ The 
statute of Edward VI. has nothing to do with images in 
glass-windows, the words of the statute are, any images of 
stone, timber, alabaster, or earth, graven, carved, or paint- 
ed, taken out of any church, 8£c. shall be destroyed. So 
here is not a word of glass- windows, nor images in them. 
The managers for the commons replied, that it was no- 
toriously false, that the primitive christians approved of 
images, for Justin Martyr, Clemens Alexandrians, Iren- 
ceus, and all the ancient fathers, agree that they had none 
in their churches. J Lactantius says, there can be no re- 
ligion in a place where any image is. Epiphanius rent 
in pieces an image painted on cloth, which he found in a 
church, out of holy indignation. All the ancient coun- 
cils are against images in churches ; and rnany godly em- 
perors cast them out, after they began to be in use in latter 
times, as our own homilies expressly declare, Peril of idol- 
atry, part ii. p. 38. As for Tertullian, all that can be 
proved from him is, that those heretics against whom he 
wrote had such a chalice, not that the orthodox christians 
allowed of it. Calvin only says, that he is not so super- 
stitious as to to think it altogether unlawful to make ima- 

t Prynue, p. 463. * Laud's Hislory, p. 329. § Ibid. p. 431, 
jPrvmie, p. 463, 464, 4G5. 

%0d **I£B HIS T&UY tfHAP. 5; 

gesofmen ©r beasts for civil use. because painting is the 
gift of God. But he affirms, in the very next section, 
that there -were no images iu churches for five hundred 
years after Christ ; and says expressly, that they were not 
m use till the christian religion was corrupted and deprav- 
ed. He then adds, that he accounts it unlawful and wick- 
ed to paint the image of God, because he has forbidden it. 
But the homilies are so express that they wonder the arch- 
bishop can mention them without blushing ; as well as his 
not knowing that the paintings were according to the mass- 
book, when his own mass-bo >k is m irked in those places 
with his own hand.§> The images in those windows were 
broken and demolished at the reformation, by virtue of our 
statutes, homilies, and injunctions, and remained as mon- 
uments of our indignation against Romish idolatry, till the 
archbishop repaired them. The managers observed fur- 
ther, that the archbishop had confessed the particulars of 
this part of their charge, and had only excused himself as 
"to the. university of Oxford though they conceive it impos- 
sible he could be ignorant of those innovations, being chan- 
cellor and visitor, and having entertained the king, queen, 
and elector Palatine, there, for several days. As for Mr. 
SherfieWs case, they apprehend the authority of the vestry 
was sufficient in a place exempt from the jurisdiction of the 
bishop, as St. Edmund's church was. And the managers 
are still of opinion, that the statute of Edward VI. extends 
to images in glass-windows ; and that which confirms them 
in it is, that the injunctions of queen Elizabeth, made in 
pursuance of this law, extend in direct terms to images in 
glass-windows ; and the practice of those times in defac- 
ing them, infallibly proves it. 

{% .) Another popish innovation charged on the archbi- 
shop was, "his superstitious manner of consecrating chap- 
' els, churches, and church- yards ; they instanced in Creed- 
c church, of which the reader has had an account before ; 
e and St. Giles's in the fields, which, being fallen to decay, 
i was in part re-edified and finished in bishop Mountaine's 
4 time, divine service, and administration of sacraments hav- 
'■ log been performed in it three or four years before his 
6 death ; but no sooner was the archbishop translated to thfe 

§ Peril of Idol. p. 41, *$> 43. 


4 see of London, than he interdicted the church, and shut 
i up the doors for several weeks, till he had re-consecrated 
'it, after the manner of Creed-chnrch, to the very great 

* cost and charge of the parish, and contrary to the judg- 
i meut of bishop Parker, and our first reformers. "§. 

"They objected further, his consp era ting of altars with 
6 all their furniture, as pattens, chalices, altar-cloths, &c. 
*even to the knife that was to cut the sacramental bread; 
•and his dedicating the churches to certain saints, together 
< with his promoting annual revels, or feasts of dedication, 

* on the Lord's-day, in several parts of the country, wkere- 

* by that holy-day was profaned, and the people encouraged 
; in superstition and ignorance." 

The archbishop answered to the consecration of church- 
es, that the practice was as ancient as Closes, who conse- 
crated the tabernacle, with all its ve-sels and ornaments ; 
that the temple Was afterwards consecrated by king Solo- 
mon ; that as soon as christian churches began to be built, 
in the reign of Constantine the great, they were consecrat- 
ed, as Eiisebms testifies concerning the church of Tyre 7 
in his Ecclesiastical History, I. 10, cap. 3, and so it has 
continued down to the present time. Besides, if church- 
es were not consecrated, they would not be holy $ nor does 
archbishop Parker speak against consecrations in general, 
but against popish consecrations, which mine were not 
(says the archbishop) for I had them from bishop An- 
dre ics.j 

As to the manner of consecrating Creed-church, St. 
(riles's, &c. his grace confessed, that when he came to the 
church door, that passage in the psalms was read, Lift up 
your heads, O ye gates, even lift them up, ye everlasting 
doors, tkatthe King of glory may come in ;| that he kneel- 
ed and bowed at his entrance into the church, as Moses 
and Aaron did at the door of the tabernacle; that he de- 
clared the place holy, and made use of a prayer like one in 
the Roman pontifical; that afterwards he. pronounced di- 
vers curses on such as should profane it, but denied his 

§ Prynne. p. 113, 114, 497. 
t Land's History, p. 339. 340. Prynne. p. 115. 
% The archbishop alledged. that this place of' scripture had been aa- 
eiently used in consecrations; and that it referred not to the bishop. 
but to the true King of glory. Dr. Grey. Ed. 

&08 tHE HISTORt CHAP, fi 

throwing dust into the air, in which he said, the witnesses 
had forsworn themselves, for the Roman pontifical does 
not prescribe throwing dust into the air, hut ashes ; and 
he conceives there is no harm, much less treason in it.ij: 
The practice of giving the names of angels and saints to 
churches at their dedication, for distinction sake, and for 
the honor of their memories, (says his grace) has been very 
ancient, as appears in St. Austin, and divers others of the 
fathers ; but the dedication, strictly speaking, is only to 
God ; nor is the observing the annual feasts of dedication 
less ancient ; the feast of the dedication of the Temple 
was observed in our Savior's time, and though, no doubt, 
it was abused by some among the Jews, yet our Savior 
honored it with his presence. Judge Richardson, indeed, 
had made an order in his circuit, for putting down these 
wakes, but he was obliged to revoke it by authority, and 
under favor (says the archbishop) I am of opinion that 
the feasts ought not to be put down for some abuses, any 
more than all vines ought to be rooted up because some 
will be drunk with the juice of them.* The feasts are 
convenient for keeping up hospitality and good neighbor- 
hood ; nor can there be a more proper time for observing 
them than on Sundays, after divine service is ended. 

And as the consecrating of churches, and dedicating 
them to God, has been of ancient usage, so has the conse- 
cration of altars and their furniture, and such consecra- 
tions are necessary, for else the Lord's table could not be 
called holy, nor the vessels beiongiug to it holy, as they 
usually are ; yea, there is an holiness in the altar which 
sanctifies the gift, which it could not do, except itself were 
holy ; if there be no dedication of these things to God, no 
separation of them from common use, then there can be no 
such thing as sacrilege, or difference between an holy table 
and a common one.f And as to the form of consecrating 
these things, I had them not from the Koman pontifical, 
but from bishop Andrews. 

The managers for the commons replied, that if the tem- 
ple was consecrated, it was by the kins; himself, and not 
by the high-priest ; and if the tabernacle was consecrated, 
it was by Moses the civil magistrate, and not by Aaron the 

$ Prynnc, p. 498. * Laud's Hist. p. 269. 1 Ibid. p. 313. 


high-priest ; but we read of no other consecrating the tab- 
ernacle and its utensils, but anointing them with oil, for 
which Moses had an express command ; nor of auy other 
consecrating the temple, but of Solomon's making an ex- 
cellent prayer in the outward court, not in the temple it- 
self, and of his hallowing the middle court by offerings and 
peace-offerings ; and it is observable that the cloud and 
glory of the Lord filled the temple, so as the priests could 
not stand to minister before Solomon made his prayer, 
which some call his consecration. But if it should be al- 
lowed that the temple was consecrated in an extraordinary 
manner, we have no mention either in scripture or Jewish 
writers of the consecration of their synagogues, to which 
our churches properly succeed.* And after all, it is no 
conclusive way of arguing, to derive a christian institution 
from the practice of the Jewish church, because many of 
their ordinances were temporary, ceremonial, and abolish- 
ed by the coming of Christ. 

From the beginning of christianitv, we have no credible 
authority for consecrating churches for three hundred 
years. || Eusebius, in his life of Constantine the great, in- 
deed meutions his consecrating a temple that he built over 
our Savior's sepulchre at Jerusalem; but how? with 
prayers, disputations, preaching, and exposition of scrip- 
ture, as he expressly defines it, cap. 45. Here were no 
processions, no knocking at the doors by the bishop, cry- 
ing, Open, ye everlasting doors ; no casting dust or ashes 
into the air, and pronouncing the ground holy ; no rever- 
encing towards the altar, nor a great many other inventions 
of latter ages ; no, these were not known in the christian^ 
church till the very darkest times of popery ; nay, in those 
very dark times, we are told by Otho the pope's legate, in 
his Ecclesiastical Constitutions, that in the reign of King 
Henry III. there were not only divers parish churches but 
some cathedrals in England, which had been used for ma- 
ny years, and yet never consecrated by ai bishop. But it 
is plain to a demonstration, that the archbishop's method 
of consecrating churches is a modern popish invention ; for 
it is agreed by Gratian, Platina, the Centuriators, and 
others, that pope Hyginus, Gelasius, Silvester, Felix, and 
* Pivnne, p. 113, 499, &c. y Ibid. p. 501. 

Vol.TTT. * 37 

310 TUB II 1ST O It * C H A V . 5v 

Gregory, were the first inventors and promoters of it ; and 
it is no where to be found but in the Rom:m pontifical, 
published by command of pope Clement VIII. de Eccle- 
sice Dedication?, p. 209, 2S0, for which reasons it was ex- 
ploded and condemned by our first reformers, and particu- 
larly by bishop Pitkington in his comment upon Haggai, 
ch. i. ver. 7> 8, and archbishop Parker, who in his Jlntif. 
Brit an. expressly condemns the archbishop's method of 
consecration as popish and superstitious, p. 85, 86, 87. f 

But the archbishop says, if churches are not consecrated 
they cannot be holy, whereas many places tiiat were uever 
consecrated are stiled holy, as the most holy place, and the 
holy city Jerusalem ; and our homilies say. that the church 
is called holy, not of itself, but because God's people re- 
sorting thither are holy, and exercise themselves in holy 
things; and it is evident that sauctification when applied 
to places, is nothing else but a separating them from com- 
mon use to a religions and sacred one, which may be done 
without the superstitious method above-mentioned ; and 
though the archbishop avers he had not his form of conse- 
cration from the Roman pontifical, he acknowledges he had 
it from bishop Andrews, who could have it no where else.§> 

As for consecrating altars, pattens, chalices, altar-cloths, 
and other altar-furniture ; their original is no higher than 
the Roman missal and pontifical, in both which there are 
particular chapters and set forms of prayer for this pur- 
pose ; but to imagine that these vessels may not be reput ; 
ed holy, though separated to an holy use, unless thus con- 
secrated, is without any foundation in reason or scripture, 
raid contrary to the practice of the church of England, and 
the opinion of our first reformers.* 

To the archbishop's account of feasts of dedication we 
answer as before, that an example out of the Jewish law is 
no rule for the christian church. Ezra kept a feast at the 
dedication of the temple, when it was rebuilt, and offered 
a great many burnt-offerings, Ezra vi. 16. 17, but it was 
not made an annual solemnity ; for the feast of dedication 
mentioned John x. 22, was not of the dedication of the 
temple, but of the altars, instituted by Judas Maccabmus, 
to be kept annually by the space of eight days, 1 Mac. iv. 

•1 Pryime, p. 115—117. § Ibid. p. 002. * Ibid. p. 65, &c. 467, 470. 


56, 59, which being; of no divine institution, but kept only 
by the superstitious Jews, not by Christ or his apostles, 
(who are only said to be at Jerusalem at that time) cau be 
no precedent for oar modem consecrations. || 

Pope Felix and Gregory are the first that decreed the 
aumul observation of the dedication of churches since oup 
Savior's time, which were observed in England under 
the names of wakes or revels, but were the occasion of so 
much idleness and debauchery, that King Henry VIIL 
ann. 1536, restrained them all to the first Sunday in Octo. 
ber, not to be kept on any other day ; and afterwards, by 
the statute 5 and 6 Edward VI. cap. 3, of holy days, they 
were totally abolished. But these feasts being revived a- 
gain by degrees, in sundry places of this realm, and partic- 
ularly in Somersetshire, judge Richardson, when he was ou. 
the circuit, at the request of the justices of the peace for the 
county, published an order for suppressing them ; but was 
obliged the next year as publicly to revoke it, and to de r 
dare such recreations to be lawful ; and as a further pun P 
ishment ou the judge, the archbishop obtained his removal 
from that circuit. It is very certain, that at these revels 
there were a great many disorders; as drunkenness, quar^ 
veiling, fornication, and murder, it is therefore very unlike- 
ly they should answer auy good purpose, and how fit they 
were to succeed the public devotions of the Lord's day, 
we shall leave to your lordships' consideration. 

(3.) The managers charged the archbishop further, 
*f with giving orders to Sir Naih. Brent, his vicarrgeueral, 
6 to enjoin the churchwardens of all parish churches within 

* his diocese, that they should remove the communion table 
'from the middle of the chapel to the upper end, and place 
6 it infirm of an altar, close to the wall, with the ends north 
{ and south, and encompass it with rails, according to the 
S model of cathedrals. They objected likewise to his fur- 

* making the altar in his own chapel, and the king's at 
i Whitehall, with basins, candlesticks, tapers, and other 
i silver vessels, not used in his predecessor's time ; and to 
i the credentia or side-table, in conformity to the lioaaan 

Prune, p. 128, -^ 


< ceremonial, on which the elements Were to he placed on 
( a clean linen cloth before they were brought to the altar 

< to be consecrated; and to the hanging over the altar a piece 
<of arras with a large crucifix. "$ 

The archbishop answered, that the placing the commu- 
nion-table at the east end of the chancel, was commanded 
by Queen Elizabeth's injunctions, which say, that the holy 
table shall be set in the place where the altar stood, winch, 
all who ate acquainted with anti([uity know, was at the 
east end of the chancel, with the ends north and south, close 
to the wall, and thus they were usually placed both in this 
and other churches of Christendom ; the innovation there- 
fore was theirs who departed from the injunctions, and not 
mine who have kept to them. Besides, altars, both name 
and thing, were in use in the primitive churches long be- 
fore popery began ; yea, they are to be found both in the 
Old and New Testament ; and that there can be no popery 
in railing them in, I have proved in my speech in the 
star-chamber. However, I aver, that I gave no orders nor 
directions to Sir JS*ath. Brent, my vicar- general, neither 
by letter nor otherwise, to remove or rail in communion ta- 
bles in all parish churches ; and I desire Sir JSTath. may 
be called to testify the truth upon his oath. Sir JSTath. being 
sworn, the archbishop asked him upon his oath, whether 
he had ever given him such orders? To which he replied, 
My lords, upon the oath I have taken, I received an express 
direction and command from the archbishop himself to do 
what I did of this kind, otherwise I durst never have done 
it.* The archbishop insisting that he never gave him such 
orders, and wondering he should be so unworthy as to af- 
firm it upon oath, Sir JSTath, produced the following letter 
under the archbishop's own hand, directed to himself at 

" Sir, 

" I require you to command the communion-table at 
6 Maidstone to be placed at the east, or upper end of the 
( chancel, and there railed in, and that the communicants 
4 there come up to the rail to receive the blessed sacrament; 

§ Prynne, p. 62, 91, &c. * Laud's Hist. p. 319. 


» and the like you are required to do in all churches, and 
• in all other places where you visit metropolitically. 

< W. CANT." 

To which the archbishop, heing out of countenance, 
made no other reply, but that he had forgot it.* 

As to the furniture upon the altar, he added, that it was 
no other than was used in the king's chapel at Whitehall 
before his time, and was both necessary and decent ; as is 
likewise the credentia, or side-table, the form of which he 
took from bishop Andrews's model ; and the piece of arras 
that was hung up over the altar in passion week, he ap- 
prehended was very proper for the place, and occasion, 
such representations being approved by the Lutherans, and 
even by Calvin himself, as had been already shewn. 

The managers replied to the antiquity of altars, that 
though the name is often mentioned in scripture, yet it is 
never applied to the Lord's table ; but altars and priests 
are put in opposition to the Lord's table and ministers of 
the New Testament, 1 Cor. ix. 13, 14. Christ himself 
celebrated the sacrament at a table, not at an altar, and he 
calls it a supper, not a sacrifice ; nor can it be pretended 
by any law or canon of the church of England, that it is 
called an altar more than once, stat. 1 Edw. VI. cap. 1, 
which statute was repealed within three years, and anoth- 
er made, in which the word altar is changed into table. It 
is evident from Lhe unanimous suffrage of most of the fath- 
ers that lived within three hundred years after Christ, and 
by our most learned reformers, that for above two hundred 
and fifty years after Christ, there were no altars in church- 
es, but only tables ; pope SLvtus II. being the first that 
introduced them :|| and the canons of the popish council of 
Aix, 1583, being the only ones that can be produced for 
railing them in ; one of which prescribes thus, unumquod- 
que altare sepiatur omnino septo ferreo, vel lapideo, vel 
ligneo.-\ Let every altar be encompassed with a rail of 
irou, stone, or wood. The text, Heb. xiii. 10. We have 
an altar, wli ere of they have no right to eat which serve the 
tabernacle, is certainly meant of Christ himself, and not of 
the altar of wood or stone, as our protestaut writers have 

*Prynnc. p, 89. f| Prynne, p. 4S0, 481. f Prynne, p. 02. 

214) THB M1ST0KY CTHAP. 5'. 

proved at large ; agreeably to which all altars in churches 
were commanded, to he taken away and removed, as su- 
perstitions and popish, by public laws and injunctions air 
the reformation and tables were set up in their stead, 
which continued till the archbishop was pleased to turn 
them again into altars. 

But the archbishop is pleased to maintain, tliat the 
queen's injunctions prescribe the communion table to be 
set in the place where the altar stood, and that this was 
anciently at the east end of the choir ; whereas we affirm, 
that he is not able to produce one precedent or authority 
in all antiquity for this assertion ; on the contrary, we are 
able to demonstrate to your lordships, that altars and 
Lord's tables, amongst Jews and christians, stoo 1 ancient- 
ly in the midst of their churches or choirs ;* where the peo- 
ple might sit, stand, and go conveniently round them. So 
it was certainly in the Jewish church, as every one allows; 
and it was so in the christian church, till the very darkest 
times of popery, when private masses were introduced.! 
TCusehius, Dionysius Areopagita, Chrysostom, Athauasu 
us, Augustine, &c. affirm, that the table of the Lord stood 
in the middle of the chancel, so that they might compass it 
about; nay, Durandus, a popish writer, informs us, that 
when a bishop consecrates a new altar, he must go round 
about it seven times ; by which it is evident, it could not 
stand against a wall ; but our most eminent writers against 
popery, as Bucer, bishop Jewel, bishop Babington, bishop 
Morton, and archbishop Williams, have proved this so 
evidently, that there is no room to call it in question ; and 
we are able to produce several authorities from venerable 
Bede, St. Austin the first archbishop of Canterbury, aiidf 
others, that they stood thus in England in their times. 

Nor do Queen Elizabeth's injunctions in the least favor 
the archbishop's practice, of fixing the communion-tabje 
to the east wall with rails about it, for they order the table 

* Choir or Chorus has its denomination from the multitude standing 
round about the altar [in modum corunce^ in the form of a ring or cir- 
cle. In the ancient liturgies they prayed for all those that stood round 
about the altar. — The priests and deacons stood round about the ahar 
when they officiated, and so did the bishops when they consecrated it, 

t Prynne, p. 483, 484, Vide Bishop Williams's Life, p. 109. 

»>HAl». 5. 0? THB PtfRITAftS, tl& 

to be removed when the sacrament is to be distributed, and 
placed in such sort within the chancel, as whereby the 
minister may be more conveniently heard of the communi- 
cants, and the communicants may more conveniently, 
and in greater numbers, communicate with him. Now, if 
it be to be removed at the time of communion, it is absurd 
to suppose it to be fixed to the wall, and encompassed with 
rails. Besides, the rubric of the commou-prayer-book, 
and the eighty-second canon of 1603, appoint the commun- 
ion table to be placed in tiie body of the church, where the 
chancel is too small, or near the middle of the chancel, 
where it is large enough ; and thus they generally stood 
in all churches, chapels, and in Lambeth chapel itself till 
the archbishop's time, which puts the matter out of ques- 
tion.- And if it be remembered, that the saying of pri- 
vate masses brought in this situation of altars into the 
church of Rome, contrary to all antiquity, the archbishop's 
imitating them in this particular must certainly be a pop- 
ish innovation. 

The furniture upon the altar, which the archbishop 
pleads for, is exactly copied from the Roman pontifical and 
the popish council of Aix, and is condemned by our homi- 
lies and Queen Elizabeth's injunctions, which censure, con- 
demn, and abolish as superstitious, ethnical, and popish, all 
candlesticks, trendals, rolls of wax, and setting up of ta- 
pers, as tending to idolatry and superstition, injunct. 2, 
83, £j. Therefore, instead of conforming to the chapel 
»i Whitehall, he ought, as dean of that chapel, to have re- 
formed it to our laws, homilies, and injunctions. 

The like may be said of the credefttia [or side tablej 
which is taken expressly out of the Roman ceremonial and 
pontifical, and is used amongst the papists only in their 
most solemn masses. It was never heard of in any proles- 
taut church, nor in the church of England, till tiie arch- 
bishop's time; and as for tiie stale pretext, of his having it 
from bishop Andrews ; if it be true, we are certain that bish- 
op could have it no where else but from the Roman missal.^ 

The arras hangings, with the picture of Christ at his 
last supper, with a crucifix, are no less popish than the 
former, being enjoined by the Roman ceremoniale, Ed. 

♦Prynne. p. 467. 481. (1 Ibid. p. 63, 468. 


Par. 1633, lib. 1. c. 13, p. 69, 70, in these words, Quod si 
alt are parieti adlmreat, applicari poterit ipsi parieti supra 
alt. are pannus aliquis ccnteris nobilior <§f speciosior, ubi in-> 
textce Bint D. «/V. Jesu Christi aut glorioam Virginia, vel 
sanctorum imagines. " If the altar be fixed to the wall, 

* let there be some hangings more noble and beautiful than 
4 the rest, fastened upon the wall over the altar, in which 
fare wrought the images of Christ, the blessed virgin, or 
' the saints." Besides, these things being condemned by 
our statutes, homilies, and injunctions, as we have already 
proved, ought not certainly to have been introduced by a 
prelate, who challenges all that is between heaven and hell, 
justly to tax him in any one particular savoring of popish 
superstition or idolatry. 

u Another innovation charged on the archbishop, was 
tf his introducing divers superstitions into divine worship, 
f as bowing towards the altar, bowing at the name q/* Jesus, 

* enjoining people to do reverence at their entrance into 
1 church, reading the second service at the communion ta- 

* ble, standing up at the gloria patri/J" and introducing the 
f use of copes and church music. They objected further, 
c his repairing old crucifixes, his new statutes of the univer- 
sity of Oxford, among which, some were arbitrary, and 
'others were superstitious; of the former sort, are the im- 
tf posing new oaths; the statute of bannition ; referring 
? some misdemeanors to arbitrary penalties, and obliging 

* students to go to prison on the vice-chancellor's or proc- 
6 tor's command. Of the latter sort, are bowing to the al- 
' tar, singing the litany, and reading Latin prayers in Lent; 
( together with the abovemeu tinned superstitions in the man- 
' tier of divine worship."* 

The archbishop answered, that bowing in divine worship 
was practised among the Jews, 2 Chron. xxix. 29, and 
the psalmist says, O come, let us worship, and bow down, 

t "It is observable," remarks Mrs. Mac an lay, " tltat the mast ob- 
i noxious of those ceremonies which Laud so childishly insisted on, 
*\vere established at the Restoration, and h;ive been ever since regu- 
larly practised in the church; and that many of his most offensive 
\ measures have been adopted by revolution ministers, such as the nom- 
'inating clergymen to be justices of peace, with restraints laid on 
4 marriage." History of England, vol. iv. p. 135, the note. Ed. 
* Prynne, p. 73, &c. 


let us kneel before the Lord our maker, Psal. xcv. 6. that 
it was usual in queen Elizabeth's time ; and that the knights 
of the garter were obliged to this practice by the orders of 
their chapter. Besides, the altar is the chief place of God's 
residence on earth, for there it is, this is my body ; whereas 
in the pulpit it is only, this is my ivord. And shall I bow* 
to men in each house of parliament, and not bow to God in. 
his house whither I come to worship him? Surely I must 
worship God, and bow to him, though neither altar nor 
communion-table be in the church. || 

Bowing at the name of Jesus is prescribed in direct 
terms by queen Elizabeth's injunctions, No. 12, and by 
the 18th canon of our church ; and though standing up at 
the Gloria Patri is not prescribed by any canon of the 
church, it is nevertheless of great antiquity ; nor is the 
reading the second service at the communiontable an inno- 
vation, it being the constant practice in cathedrals, and war* 
ranted by the rubric. 

The use of copes is prescribed by the 24th canon of 1603, 
which says, That in all cathedrals, and collegiate churches, 
the communion shall be administered on principal feast 
days, sometimes by the bishop if present, sometimes by the 
dean, and sometimes by the canon or prebendary, the prin- 
cipal minister using a decent cope ; so that here is no in- 
novation, any more than in the use of organs, whieh our 
church has generally approved, and made use of. 

As to the statutes of the university of Oxford, it is hon- 
or more than enough for me, that I have finished and set- 
tled them ; nor did I any thing in them but by the consent 
of the convocation ; and as to the particulars, there is no- 
thing but what is agreeable to their charters, and the an- 
cient custom and usage of the university.^ 

The managers replied, that bowing to the altar is popish, 
superstitious, and idolatrous, being prescribed only by po- 
pish canons, and introduced on purpose to support the doc- 
trine of transubstantiation, which the archbishop's practice 
seems very much to countenance, when at his coming up 
to the altar to consecrate the bread, he makes three low 
bows, and at his going away three more, giving this reas- 
on forit,quia hoc est corpus meum, because, this is my body ; 

II Laud's Historv, p. 313, 361. § Ibid. p. 30-1. 

Yol, III. " 2$ 

% 1 S t hi: hist o m c ii a n: &* 

whereas he does not bow to the pulpit,, because a greater 
reverence is due to tlwbody than to the word of the.Lord.\ 
Besides, it has no foundation in antiquity, nor has it been 
approved by any protectant writers, except the archbishop's 
ereatures, such as l)r Meylhi, Pockiington, &c. and has 
been condemned by the best writers, as popish and super- 
stitious. The black book of the knights of the garter at 
"Windsor, is a sorry precedent for a protestant archbishop 
to follow, being made in the darkest times of popery, viz.. 
in the reign of Henry V. and if they bow Dpo <$f altari, to 
Ciod and to his altar, as the archbishop in the star-cham- 
ber is of opinion christians ought to do, we cannot but think 
it both popish and idolatrous. His passages of scripture 
are nothing to the purpose, for kneeling before the Lord 
our maker, has no relation to bowing to the alta-r ; nor is- 
there any canon or injunction of the church to support the 

The archbishop confesses, that there is neither canon 
nor injunction for standing up at the gloria patri, which 
must therefore be an innovation, and is of no greater an- 
tiquity than the office of the mass, for it is derived from 
the or do Romanus, as appears from the works of Cassan- 
der, p. 98.* And though bowing at the name of Jksus be 
mentioned in the canons, yet these canons are not binding, 
not being confirmed by parliament, || especially since the 
homilies, the common-prayer-book, the articles of religion 
and the book of ordination which are the only authentic 
rules of the church, make no mention of it ; nor was it ev- 
er introduced before the time of pope Gregory X. who first 
prescribed it ; and from the councils of Basil, Sennes, and 
jLugusta, it was afterwards inserted in the Roman eeremo- 
niale ; besides, our best protestant writers have condemn- 
ed the practice. , 

Reading the second service at the altar, when there is 
no communion, is contrary to the canons of 1571, and 16J)3, 
contrary to the queen's injunctions, the homilies, the 

f Pry line, p. 63 ; 64, 474, 477, 4S7. * Pryirae, p. 6*. 
|| Dr. Grey contends, here, that the canons of a convocation duly 
licensed by the king, when confirmed by royal authority, are properly 
the ecclesiastical laws of the church of England, and are as binding 
as the statutes of parliament. Ed. 


rubric in ibe common- prayer-book, and was never prac- 
tised in parish-churches till of late, though used in some 
cathedrals, where the rubric enjoins the communion to be 
administered every Sunday in the year, which being omit- 
ted, the second service at the table was left to supply it. 
The Lord's table was ordained only to administer the sac- 
rament, but the epistle and gospel, which are the chief parts 
of the second service, are appointed to be read with the two 
lessons in the reading pcu\§ 

As for copes, neither the common-prayer-book, nor book 
of ordination, nor homilies confirmed by parliament, nor 
Queen Elizabeth's injunctions in her first year, make any 
mention of them, though they are evidently derived from 
the popish wardrobe, and the last common- prayer-book of 
Kiug Edward VI, expressly prohibits them.* The 24th. 
canon of 1603, enjoins only the chief minister to wear a 
cope at the administration of the sacrament, whereas the 
archbishop prescribed them to be worn by others besides 
the chief minister, and as well when the sacrament was not 
administered as when it was. But, as we observed before, 
those canons not being confirmed by parliament, expired 
with King James, and therefore can be no warrant for their 
present use. Nor is the use of music in churches, or chaua- 
ting of prayers, of any great antiquity, being first introdu- 
ced by pope Vitalian, A. J). 666, and encouraged only by 
popish prelates. || 

And though the archbishop pleads, that the statutes of 
Oxford are agreeable to ancient custom and usage, we af- 
firm they contain sundry innovations, not only with regard 
to the liberty of the subject, but with regard to religion, for 
Latin prayers were formerly said on Ash- Wednesdays be- 
fore the bachelors of arts, whereas now none others are to 
be said throughout all Lent ; the statute for singing in sol- 
emn processions was made in time of popery, and renewed 
in these statutes to keep up the practice of such supersti- 
tious perambulations ; and though the archbishop with his 
wonted assurance wonders what these things have to do 
with treason, we apprehend, that if they appear so many 
proofs of a design to subvert the established religion of the 

§ Pryune. p. 492. * Ibid. p. Sit, 479, ISO. I] Ibid. p. 63. 

S20 THE HIST011Y CHAP. 5. 

church of England,* they will he judged so in the highest 

Further they charged the archbishop with advising the. 
king " to publish his declaration for the use of sports on 
'the Lord's day, in order to suppress afternoon sermons ; 

* with obliging the clergy of his diocese to read it in their 
•■'pulpits, and punishing those that refused. "|| 

The archbishop answered, that he had the king's war- 
rant for printing the book of sports ; that there is np proof 
that it was by his procurement, nor that it was done on 
purpose to take away afternoon sermons, since these recre- 
ations are not allowed till they are over ; besides, the de- 
claration allows only lawful recreations, which is no more 
than is practised at Geneva, though for his own part he al- 
ways observed strictly the Lord's day. What lie enjoined 
the reading the declaration was by his majesty's command, 
and he did not punish above three or four for not reading it.| 

The commons replied, that it was evident, by the arch- 
bishop's letter to the bishop of Bath and Wells, that the 
declaration was printed by his procurement, the warrant 
for printing it being written all with his own hand, and 
without date, and therefore might probably be obtained 
afterwards ;§> moreover, some of the recreations mentioned 
in it are unlawful on the Lord's day, according to the opin- 

* Mrs. Macauly thinks, that to the charge of endeavoring to subvert 
the established religion, and to set up popish superstition and idolatry, 
the archbishop was particularly strong in his defence, and the allega- 
tions to support the charge were particularly vague and trifling 

" The truth is," as that author observes, " those superstitious ceremo- 
' nies which he with so much blind zeal had endeavored to revive, and 

* which were so justly ridiculed and abhorred by the more enlightened 
6 protectants, were the discipline of the first reformers in this country, 
'<■ and had the sanction both of the civil and ecclesiastical power: refor- 
mation had begun in England at the wrong end ; it was first adopted 
< and modelled by government, instead of being forced upon govern- 
' ment by the general sense of the people ? and thus, to further the am- 
'bitious views of the monarch, and to gratify the pride of the prelacy, 
'a great part of the mystery of popery was retained in the doctrine, 
'and a great part of the puppet-shews of the papists in the discipline, 
S of the church of England." History »f England, vol. iv. p. 135. Ed: 

t Prynne, p. 478. || Ibid. p. 128, 154, 382. 

^ Laud's History, p. 343, 344. § Prynne. p. 505, 


ion of fathers, councils, and imperial laws ; and though 
Calvin differs from our protectant writers about the moral- 
ity of the sabbath, yet he expressly condemns dancing and 
pastimes on that day. As for his grace's own strict ob- 
servation of the Lord's day, it is an averment without 
truth, for he sat constantly at the council-table on that 
day ; and it was his ordinary practice to go to bowls in 
the summer time, and use other recreations upon it ; nor is 
it probable, that the archbishop would have punished con- 
scientious ministers for not reading the book of sports, if 
the thing had been disagreeable to his practice, especially 
when there is no warrant at all in the declaration that min- 
isters should publish it, or be punished for refusing it ; and 
that he punished no more, was not owing to his clemency, 
who gave command to suspend all that refused, but to the 
clergy's compliance ; for so zealous was this archbishop 
and some of his brethren in this affair, that it was inserted 
as an article of enquiry in their visitations, whether the 
king's declaration for sports has been read and published 
by the minister ? And defaulters were to be presented up- 
on oath. Now we appeal to the whole christian world, 
whether ever it has been known, that any who have been 
called fathers of the church, have taken so much pains to 
have the Lord's day prophaned, as first to advise the king 
to publish a declaration to warrant it, then to enjoin the 
clergy to read it in their pulpits, and to suspend, sequest- 
er, and deprive, all whose consciences would not allow 
them to comply, and this not only contrary to the laws of 
God, but to the laws of the laud. 

The reader will, no doubt, remark upon this part of the 
archbishop's trial, that those rites and ceremonies which 
have bred such ill blood, and been contended for with so 
much fierceness, as to disturb the peace of the church, and 
divide its communion, have no foundation in scripture, or 
primitive autiquity, takiug their rise for the most part in 
the darkest and most corrupt times of the papacy. I speak 
not here of such rites as are established by law, as the 
cross in baptism, and kneeling at the communion, &c. be- 
cause the commons could not charge these on the archbish- 
op as criminal, And it will be observed further, that 


when men claim a right to introduce ceremonies for decen- 
cy of worship, and impose them upon the people, there 
can he no bounds to a fruitful invention. Archbishop 
Laud would, no doubt, by degrees, have introduced all the 
follies of the Roman church ; and admitting his authority 
to impose rites and ceremonies not mentioned iu scripture, 
it is not easy to give a reason why fifty should not be en- 
joined as well as five. 

The managers went on next to the second branch of then' 
charge, to prove the archbishop's design to subvert the pro- 
testaut religion, by countenancing and encouraging sun- 
dry doctrinal errors in favor of arminia nism§ and popery. 

And here they charged him, first, " with being the great 
' patron of that part of the clergy who had declared them* 
{ selves in favor of these errors, and with procuriug their 
* advancement to the highest stations in the church, even 
< though they were under censure of parliament, as Dr. 
i Manicuring. Montague, &c. They averred, that the best 
'preferments in his majesty's gift, ever since the archbish- 
'op's administration iu 16^7> had by Ins advice been be- 
s stowed on persons of the same principles ; and that he 
' had advised the king to publish a declaration, probibit- 
tf ing the clergy to preach on i\\z five controverted points, 

§ The reader has seen, iu the preceeding part of this reign, and in 
that of .lames I. how arminianism became connected with the politics of 
the time. There is no natural, or necessary union betwen arminianism 
and despotism. And at the same time that the court in England pro- 
tested and patronised the Arminians, and in return received from them 
a sanction to its arbitrary views ; the reverse took place in Holland : 
where the Arminians, favored by the magistrates of the states, opposed 
the aspiring designs of the stadtholdher Maurice ; and the Calvinists, 
on the contrary, who were there called Gomorists, espoused his inter- 
est, and seconded his ambitious and arbitrary measures against the lib- 
erty of their country. These have continued the dominant party to 
this day : and the most violent of them have not only the sway in the 
church, hut their favor is courted by the prince, who finds bis interest 
advanced by a connexion with them. In this instance the Dutch cal- 
vinists, while they maintain all the rigor of his theological system, 
have greatly and ignominously deviated from the political principles of 
their illustrious founder ; whose character as a legislator, more than as 
a divine, displayed the strength of his genius; and whose wise edicts 
were dictated by genuine patriotism and the spirit of liberty. Appeu- 
dix to the xiith vol. of the Monthly Review enlarged, p. 523,&ndRos~ 
seau's Social Compact, p. 112, note. Ed. 


< by virtue of which the mouths of the orthodox preachers 

* were stopped, and some that ventured to transgress the 
i king's declaration were punished in the high commission, 

* when their adversaries were left at large to spread their 

* opinions at their pleasure." 

The archbishop answered, that he had not defended any 
points of arminianism, though he heartily wished, for the 
peace of Christendom, that these differences were not pur- 
sued with such heat and animosity.* He confessed that 
he had been taxed in a declaration of the house of com- 
mons as a favorer of arminians, but without proof, and he 
took it as a very great slander. Nor had he, to the best 
of his remembrance, advanced any such to ecclesiastical 
livings; if they proved so afterwards it was more than he 
could foresee ; but he had preferred divers orthodox min- 
isters, against whom there was no exception. He denied 
that he had any hand in the preferment of Dr. Manicuring 
or Montague, who were under censure of parliament, nor 
is the pocket book a sufficient proof of it ; he was of opin- 
ion, that J¥eal, Lindsey, Wren, Bancroft, Curie, and oth- 
ers mentioned in the charge, were worthy men, and every 
way qualified for their preferments, though it does not ap- 
pear he had any hand in bestowing them. As for the king's 
declaration prohibiting the clergy to preach the jive points, 
it wa9 his majesty's own, and not his ; and since the pub- 
lishing of it he had endeavored to carry it with an equal 
hand, and to punish the transgressors of it on one side as 
well as the other.J 

The commons replied that they wondered at the arch- 
bishop's assurance in denying his endeavors to promote ar- 
minlanism in the church : that the remonstrance of the com- 
mons was a sufficient evidence of his guilt, being confirmed 
by many proofs, though his answer to it proved so full of 
bitterness and sauciness, as throwing scandal on the whole 
representative body of the nation. $ 

As to the particulars, they say, that his preferring Mr. 
Domnham and Taylor, orthodox men, to some benefices. 
was only a blind to cover his advancing so many popishly 
affected clergymen. It is know u to all the world that Mori- 

* Lan*Ts Hist. p. 852. Prynne, p. 529. i Pry line, p. 5Q«. 
t Prynne, p. «29. 

%2'k THE HISTORY CHAf . 5. 

tague n\\(\Manivailns;wQ,Ye his creatures ; the pocket-book 
says, that his majesty's royal assent to their preferment was 
signed by order of this prelate, (when only bishop of Lon- 
don.) and himself was the person that consecrated them. It 
would be too long to go into particulars, but every body 
knows, that the disposal of all, or most of the bishoprics, 
deanries, and considerable benefices since the year 1637? 
have been under the direction of this archbishop ; and what 
sort of persons have been preferred is apparent to all men, 
by the present distracted condition of the church and uni- 

The king's declaration for prohibiting preaching on the 
live controverted points, was an artifice of the archbishop's 
to introduce the arminian errors, by preventing orthodox 
ministers from awakening the minds of people against them. 
And whereas he avers, that he has carried it with an even 
hand, and could bring witnesses from Oxford to prove it, 
we challenge him to name one scholar or minister that w r as 
ever imprisoned, deprived, silenced, prosecuted in the high 
commission, or cast out of favor on this accouat ; there 
was indeed one Rainsford an arminian, who, in the year 
1632, was obliged publicly to confess his error in disobey- 
ing his majesty's declaration, and that was all his punish- 
ment ; whereas great numbers of the other side have been 
persecuted, so as to be forced to abandon their native coun- 
try, at a time w 7 hen the most notorious aud declared armin- 
inns were advanced to the best preferments in the church, 
as Montague made a bishop, Hai-snet an archbishop, Lind- 
sey promoted to two bishoprics : Potter to a deanry, and 
Diqipa to a deanry and bishopric, and made tutor to the 
prince, &€.* 

The mangers objected further to the archbishop, " that 
r having obtained the sole licensing of the press, by a de- 
claration of the star-chamber in the year 1637, he had 
'prohibited the reprinting sundry orthodox books formerly 
'printed, and sold by authority, as the Geueva 'Bible with 
6 notes Gettibrand's Protestant Almanack, in which the 
' popish saints were left out of the kalendar, aud protestant 
< martyrs put in their places ; that his chaplains had refused 
'to license the confession of faith of the Palatine church- 
<es, Fox's book of martyrs, bishop Jewel's works, some 

* Prynue, p. 173, Sii. 


* p \rtof Dr. Willet's, and the History nftlie Gun-Powder- 
e frtason, as was attested by the clerks of Stationers- 
' Hall, and this reason given for the refusal, that we were 

* not now so angry with the papists as formerly, and there- 
4 fore it was not proper to exasperate them, there being a. 
' design on foot to win them by mildness. That the arch- 
' bishop had suppressed sundry new books written against 
ttarminianism and popery, and had castrated others, ex- 
' ponging stub passages as reflected upon the superstition 
1 and idolatry of that church ;"f a large catalogue of which 
the commons produced; ru.-uy authors appeared in main- 
tenance of this part of the charge, and among others, Dr. 
Featly, Dr. Clarke, Dr. Jones, Mr. Ward, &c.|J It was 
said in particular, " that he had expunged divers passages. 
4 which bore hard upon the papists, out of the collection 
4 of public prayers for a general fast against the plague ; 
4 and tiiat in the prayer-book appointed by authority for the 
' 5th of Xov. instead of root out that babylonish and anti- 
4 christian sect, whose religion is rebellion, whose faith is 
4 faction, and whose practice is murdering of soul and 
4 body ; he had altered that passage, and artfully turned 
' it against the puritans, thus, Root out the antichristian 
4 sect of them, who turn religion into rebellion, and faith 
4 into faction." 

" And as the archbishop had castrated some books, be- 
4 cause they refuted the doctriues he would countenauee : 
'so he gave full licence to others, wherein the grossest 
1 points of arminianism and popery were.openly asserted ; 
'as Cosins's hours of prayer, Sales's introduction to a de- 
4 vout life, Christ's epistle to a devout soul, and others, in 
4 which the following doctrines were maintained, (1.) The 
4 necessity of auricular confession, and the power of priests 
4 to forgive sins. (2.) The lawfulness and benefit of popish 
' penance, as wearing hair-cloth, and other corporal pun- 
ishments. (3.) Absolute submission to the commands of 
4 priests as directors of conscience. (4.) That in the sacra- 
talent, the body and bloorttof Christ is a true and proper 
4 sacrifice ; that the natural body and blood of Christ is re- 

* ally and substantially present in the eucharist ; and that 
4 there can be no true sacrament or consecration of it 

t Prynne. p. 179, 180, 1S2, &e. || H)id. p. 254, 235, 257, 258, &c. 

Vol. HI. m 

&£6 i'HE HISTORY CHAP. 5. 

6 where there is no altar. (5.) That crucifixes, images, and 
i pictures, may he lawfully set up in churches, and ought 

* not to he removed. (6.) That the pope is not antichrist. 
6 (7-) That there are venial sins. (8.) That there is a 
< purgatory or limbus patrum. (9.) That the reliques of 
i saints are to he preserved and reverenced. (10.) That 

* the Virgin Mary and saints are to he invoked and prayed 
i to. (11.) That the church of Rome is the mother 
tf church, and never erred in fundamentals. (13.) That 
6 there are written traditions of equal authority with the 
k ' word of God. J, || To which were added, sundry articles 
of arminian doctrine, as of free-will, total and final apos- 
tasy from grace ; examples of which the managers produc- 
ed from the several authors. 

And as a further encouragement to popery, they objected 
bis grace's "conniving at the importation of popish hooks, 
6 and restoring them to the owners when seized by the 
4 searchers, contrary to the statute of 3 Jacob. I. by which 

* means many thousands of them were dispersed over the 
'whole kingdom ; whereas he gave the strictest commands 
6 to his officers to seize all imported Bibles with notes, and 

* all books against arminian and popish innovations. All 
6 which put together amount to no less than a demonstra- 

* tion of the archbishop's design to subvert our established 

* religion, by introducing doctrinal arminianism and po-^ 

The archbishop answered, that the decree of the star- 
chamber for regulating the press was the act of the whole 
court, and not his ; that the stationers themselves gave him 
thanks for it ; and he is still of opinion, that it was both a 
necessary and useful act, being designed to suppress sedi- 
tious, schismatical, and mutinous books. £ As to the par- 
ticulars, he replied, that the Geneva Bible was only tole- 
rated, not allowed by authority, and deserved to be sup- 
pressed for the marginal note on Exod. i. 17? which allows 
disobedience to the king's command. Gellibrand's alma- 
nack had left out all the saints and apostles, and put in 
those named by Mr. Fox, and therefore deserved to be 
censured. As to the book of martyrs, it was an abridg- 
ment of that book I opposed (says his grace,) lest the hook 

R Prynne, p. 188, 203. f Prynrie, p. 349. \ Laud's Hist. p. 350. 


itself should be brought into disuse, and lest any tiling ma- 
terial should be left out. Jrlut the licensing of books was 
left in general to my chaplains, for an archbishop had bet- 
ter grind, than take that work into his own hands; and 
Whereas it has been inferred, that what is done by pay 
chaplain must be taken as my act, I conceive no man can 
by law be punished criminally for his servant's fact, unless 
it be proved that he had a hand in it. 

The like answer the archbishop gave to the castrating 
and licensing books, — his chaplains did it ; and since it 
was not proved they did it by his express command, they 
must answer for it. He admits, that he altered the pray- 
ers for the 5th of Nov. and for the general fast by his ma- 
jesty's command : and he is of opinion the expressions 
were too harsh, and therefore ought to be changed. 

He denied that he ever connived at the importation of 
popish books ; and if any such were restored to the own- 
ers, it was by order of the high commission, and therefore 
be is not auswerable for it. 

The commons replied, that the decree for regulating the 
press was procured by him with a design to enlarge his 
jurisdiction ; and though some things in it might deserve 
the thanks of the stationers, they complained Loudly that 
books formerly printed by authority, might not be reprint- 
ed without a new licence from himself. § — As to particu- 
lars, they affirm that the Geneva Bible was printed by au- 
thority of queen Elizabeth and king James, cum privile- 
gio ; and in the 15th Jacob, there was an impression by 
the king's own printer, notwithstanding the note upon Ex- 
odus, which is warranted both by fathers and canonists. 
Gellibrand's almanack was certainly no offence, and there- 
fore did not deserve that the author should be tried before 
the high commission ; and if the queen and the papists 
were offended at it, it was to be liked never the worse >\y 
all good protestants. The archbishop is pleased, indeed, 
to cast the whole blame of the press on his chaplains ; but 
Ave are of opinion (say the managers) that the archbishop 
is answerable for what his chaplains do in this case; the 
trust of licensing books being originally invested in him, 
his chaplains being his deputies, he must answer for them 

§ Prynne, p. 3i/>. 

288 TUB U1ST0KY (JHAP. 5. 

at his peril. When the archbishop of York in the reign 
of Edward I. was questioned in parliament, for excom muni- 
eating two servants of the bishop of Durham, employed in 
the king's service, the archbishop threw the blame on his 
commissary, who was the person that excommunicated 
them ; but it was then resolved in parliament, that the com- 
inissary's act was his own, and he was fined four thousand 
marks to the king. Now the commissary was an officer es- 
tablished by law ; but the archbishop's chaplains are not 
officers by law, and therefore dare not license any thing 
without bis privity and command. 

Besides, it is apparent these books were castrated by 
the archbishop's approbation, for otherwise he would have 
punished the licensers, printers, and publishers, as he al- 
ways did when information was given of any new books 
published against the late innovations. His grace has for- 
got his refusing to license the Palatine Confession of Faith, 
which is his peculiar happiness wheu he can make no an- 
swer ; and it looks a little uudutiful in him to cast the alter- 
ation of the prayers for Nov. 5, on the king, when every 
body knows by whom the king's conscience was directed. || 
And whereas the archbishop denies his conniving at the 
importation of popish books, he does not so much as al- 
ledge that he ordered such books to be seized as he ought 
to have done ; he confesses that such books as were seized, 
had been restored by order of the high commission, where- 
as it had been sworn to be done by his own order ; but if 
it had not, yet he being president of that court ought to have 
crossed those orders, that court not daring to have made 
any such restitutions without his consent; so that we can- 
not but be of opinion that the whole of this charge, which 
shews a manifest partiality on the side of ar mini an ism and 
popery, and the strongest and most artificial attempts to 
propagate these errors in the nation, still remains in its 
full strength. 

The managers went on to charge the archbishop with his 
i severe prosecution of those clergymen, who had dared to 
' preach against the dangerous increase of arm'mianism 
< and jiGjjery, or the late innovations ; they instanced in 
6 Mr. Chauncy, Mr. Workman, Mr. Davenport, and others; 

tl Pry one, p. 522. 


"some of whom were punished in the high commission for 

* not railing in the communion-table, and for preaching a- 

* gainst images ; and when Mr. Davenport iled to New- 

* England to avoid the storm, the archbishop said, his arm 
6 should reach him there. They objected further, his sup- 

< pressing afternoon sermons on the Lord's- day, and the 

< laudable design of buying in impropriations, which was 
6 designed for the encouraging such lecturers."* 

The archbishop answered, that the censures passed on 
the ministers abovementioned, was the act of the high-com- 
mission and not his ; and he confesses their sentences ap- 
peared just and reasonable, in as much as the passages that 
occasioned them, were against the laudable ceremonies of 
the church, against the king's declaration, tending to in- 
fuse into the minds of people groundless fears and jealous- 
ies of popery, and to cast aspersions on the governors of 
the church ; that therefore, if he did say, his arm should 
■reach Mr. Davenport in New-England, he sees no harm 
in it, for there in no reason that the plantations should se- 
cure offenders against the church of England, from the 
edge of the law ; and he meddled with none except such 
as were 'puritanical, factious, schismatical, and enemies to 
the good orders of the church. § 

As to the supressing afternoon sermons, the instructions 
for turning them into caiechizing was before his time, and 
he could not but approve of the design, as a proper expe- 
dient for preserving peace between ministers and people, 
the lecturers being for the most part factious, and the oc- 
casion of great contentions in the parishes where they 
preached .| 

He confessed, that he overthrew the design of buying up 
impropriations, and thanked God he had destroyed it, be- 
cause he conceived it a plot against the church, for if it had 
succeeded, more clergymen would have depended on these 
feoffees than on the king, and on all the peers and bishops 
beside ; but he proceeded against them according to law, 
and if the sentence was not just, it must be the judges 7 fault 
and not his. 

The commons replied, that it was notorious to all men 

* Prynne, p. 3G1, 362, &c § Laud's Hist. p. 332, 348. 

t Prynne, p. 537. 

%S6 THB tilSTdllV CHAP. 5. 

Low cruel he bad been towards all those who had dared to 
make a stand against bis proceedings. They put him in 
mind of Prynne, Burton, and Basticicle, and of great num- 
bers whom lie had forced into Holland, and into the plan- 
tations of America, to avoid the ruin of themselves and 
families; yea, so implacable was this prelate, that lie would 
neither suffer them to live in the land nor out of it, an em- 
bargo being laid on all ministers going to New- England 5 
and if any such got over clandestinely, he threatened his 
arm should reach them there. In vain does he shelter his 
severe proceedings under the authority of the court, for if 
this plea be admitted, no corrupt judges or counsellors can 
be brought to justice for the most arbitrary proceedings; 
but in reality, the act of the court is the act of every jmrtic- 
nlar person that gives his vote for it, arid every individual 
member is accountable. Many instances of this might be 
produced ; but there has been one very lately, in the case 
of ship-money, which is fresh in the memory of all men ; 
and we do aver, that the sermons or books, for which the 
above-mentioned persons suffered so severely, were neither 
factious nor seditious, but necessary for these times, where- 
in the protestant religion runs so very low, and supersti- 
tion and popery are coming in like a flood.* 

As to the instructions for suppressing afternoon sermons, 
whensoever they were drawn up, it is evident he was the 
man that put them in execution, and levelled them against 
those conscientious persons who scrupled reading the pray- 
ers in their surplice and hood, or taking a living with cure 
of souls, all such persons, how orthodox soever in doctrine, 
or how diligent soever in their callings, and pious in their 
lives, being reputed factious, schismatical, and unworthy 
of the least employment in the church. f 

As to the impropriations, there was no design in ihe feof- 
fees to render the clergy independent on the bishops, for 
none were presented but conformable men, nor did any 
preach but such as were licenced by the bishop ; indeed 
the design being to encourage the preaching of the word of 
God, the feoffees were careful to employ such persons as 
would not be idle ; and when they perceived the archbish- 

* Prynne, p. 335, &c. t Ibid. p. 370, 037, 5S8. 


op was bent on their ruin, Mr. White went to his grace, 
and promised to rectify any thing that was amiss, if the 
thing itself might stand. But he was determined to destroy 
it, and by his mighty influence obtained a decree, that the 
money should be paid iuto the king's exchequer, by which 
an end was put to one of the most charitable designs for 
the good of the church, that has been formed these many 
years. * 

The last charge of the managers was " his grace's open 
'attempts to reconcile the church of England with the 
■'church of Rome, as appears, first, by the papal titles he 

* suffered the universities to give him in their letters, as 
' sanctitas vestra, your holiness ; sanctissime pater, most 
' holy father; spiritus sancti effusissime plcnus, full of the 
' holy ghost ; summits pontifex, optimus maximusque in 
' terris, &c. agreeably to this he assumed to himself the ti- 
' tie of patriarch, or pope of Great-Britian, alterius orb is 
'•papa ; which gave the Romanists such an opinion of him, 
' that they offered him twice a cardinal's hat ; though, as 
' things then stood, he did not think it prudent to receive it.|| 
' But Sir H. Mildmay, and Sir JV. Brent swore, that both 
,' at Rome and elsewhere, he was reputed a papist in his 
< heart;! which opinion was not a little confirmed. (i.)By 
' his forbidding the clergy to pray for the conversion of the 
'queen to the protestant faith. (3.) By his owning the 
' church of Rome to be a true church ; by denying the pope 
' to be antichrist, and wishing a reconciliation with her ; 
' and affirming that she never erred in fundamentals, no, 

* not in the worst of times. (3.) By his sowing discord be- 
' tween the church of England and foreign protestants, not 
' only by taking away the privileges and immunities of the 
'French and Dutch churches in these kingdoms, but by 
' denying their ministers to be true ministers, and their 
' churches true churches. (4.) By maintaining an intimate 
' correspondence with the pope's nuncio and with divers 
' priests and Jesuits, conniving at the liberties they took in 
' the Clink, and elsewhere, and threatening those pursui- 
'vants who were diligent in apprehending them; to all 

* Pryane, p. 537. (| Prynne,p. 141. f Prynne, p. 409, See; 


'which they added, the influence the archbishop had in 
' marrying the king to a papist, and his concealment of a 
' late plot to reduce these kingdoms to popery and slavc- 

To this long charge the archhishop gave some general 
answers, in satyrical and provoking language : My lords, 
(says he) I am charged with an endeavor to reconcile the 
church of England to the church of Rome ; I shall recite 
the sum of the evidence, and of the arguments to prove it. 
(1.) I have reduced several persons from popery, whom I 
have named In my speech ; ergo, I have endeavored to bring 
in popery. (2.) I have made a canon against popery, and 
an oath to abjure it; ergo, I have endeavored to introduce 
it. (3.) I have been twice offered a cardinalship and re- 
fused it, because I would not he subject to the pope ; ergo, 
I have endeavored to subject the church of England to him. 
(4.) I wrote a book against popery ; ergo, I am inclinable 
to it. (ii.) I have been in danger of my life from a popish 
plot : ergo, I cherished it, and endeavored to accomplish 
it. (6.) I endeavored to reconcile the lutherans and cal- 
vinists ; ergo, I labored to bring in popery.* 

To the particulars he replied, that whatever papal power 
he had assumed, he assumed it not in his own right, as the 
popes did, but from the king. That the stile of holiness 
was given to St. Augustine, and others, and therefore not 
peculiar to the pope ; why then should so grave a man as 
Mr. Brown (says he) disparage his own nation, as if it were 
impossible for an English bishop to deserve as good a title 
as another? As for the other titles, they must be taken as 
compliments for my having deserved well of the university ; 
but after all, it is one thing to assume papal titles, and a- 
nother to assume papal power. As to the title of patriarch, 
or pope of the other world ; it is the title that Anselm says 
belongs to the archbishops of Canterbury, and not so great 
an one as St. Jerom gave to St. Augustine, when he wrote 
to him with this title, Beatissimo papce Augustino. I con- 
fess I have been offered a cardinal's hat, but refused it, 
saying, I could not accept it till Rome was otherwise than 

f Prynne. p. 539. 
* Laud's Hist. p. 285, 286, 325, &c. Prynne, p. 543. Laud's HisK 

p. 418, 419. 


it noiv is. If, after this, others will repute me a papist, I 
can't help \i,% I hope I shall not be answerable for their 
uncharitable ne^s. Sir Henry Mildmay will witness how 
much I am hated and spoken against at Home. It does 
not appear that I forbad ministers praying for the queen's 
conversion ; but when I was told the queen was prayed 
for in a factious and seditious manner, I referred the mat- 
ter to my visitors, and do acknowledge that Mr. Jones 
was punished in tiie high commission on this accouut.|| 

To the objection, of the church of Rome's being a true- 
church, I confess myself of that opinion, and do still be- 
lieve, that she never erred in fundamentals, for the founda- 
tions of the christian religion are in the articles of the 
creed, and she denies none of them : and it would be sad 
if she should, for it is through her that the bishops of the 
church of England, who have the honor to he capable of de- 
riving their calling from Si. Peter, must deduce their sue- 
cession * She is therefore a true church, though not an 
orthodox one ; our religion and theirs is one in essentials, 
and people may be saved in either. It has not been prov- 
ed, that 1 deny the pope to be antichrist, though many 
learned men have denied it; nor do I conceive that our 
homilies affirm it ; and if they did, I don't conceive myself 
bound to believe every phrase that is in them. I confess, 
I have often wished a reconciliation between the churches 
of England and Rome in a just and christian way; and 
Was iu hopes in due time to effect it; but a reconciliation 
without truth and piety I never desired. 7 

To the objection of the foreign protestant churches, I 
deny that I have endeavored to sow discord between them, 
but I have endeavored to unite the calcinists and luthe- 
rans ; nor have I absolutely unchurched them. I say in- 

§ It may be pertinent to observe here, that, though Laud did not ap- 
prove the doctrinal articles of the church of Home, * ; it is possible that 
'one who dislikes many points of the Romish faith, may yet be very 
'fond of introducing" her tyrannical government, anil, iu order to it, of 
'amusing the poor laity with the long train of her gaudy and myste- 
' ribus ceremonies : that while they stand fondly gazing at this lure, 
' and are busied about impertinencies, they may the more easily be 
'circumvented iu irrecoverable bondage by men of deeper but more 
'mischievous designs." Memoirs of Eoliis, vol. ii. p. 578. Ed. 

|J Laud's History, p. 383. * Ibid. n. 3<>2. t Piynne, p. 53G. 
Vol, III. * 30 


deed, in my book against Fisher, according to St. Jerom r 
JV'o bishop, no church ; and that none but a bishop can or- 
dain, except in cases of inevitable necessity 3 and whether 
that be the case with the foreign churches, the world must 
judge. || The judgment of the church of England is, that 
church government by bishops is unalterable, for the pre- 
face to the book of ordination says, that from the apostles' 
time there have been three orders of ministers in the church., 
bishops, priests, and deacons 5 now if bishops are the a- 
postles 9 successors, and have continued in the church a- 
bove sixteen hundred years, what authority have auy 
christian states to deprive them of that right which Christ 
has given them ? As to the French and Dutch churches in 
t!iis kingdom, I did not question them for their ancient 
privileges, but for their new encroachments, for it was not 
the design of the Queen [Elizabeth^ to harbor them, un- 
less they conformed to the English liturgy ; now I insisted 
on this only with respect to those who were of the second 
descent, and born in England; and if all such had beeu 
obliged to go to their parish churches as they ought, they 
would not have done the church of England so much harm 
as they have since done.§ 

To the fourth objection I answer, that I had no intimate 
correspondence with priests or Jesuits, nor entertained them 
at my table, knowing them to be such. I never put my 
hand to the releasing any priest out of prison, nor have 1 
connived at the liberties they assumed ; the witnesses who 
pretended to prove this are either mean persons, or strong- 
ly prejudiced ; and to most of the facts there is but one 
witness. As to the nuncios from Rome, it was not in my 
power to hinder their coming, the king Slaving condescend- 
ed to it, at the earnest request of the queen ; nor had I auy 
particular intimacy with them whilst they were here ; nor 
do I remember my checking the pursuivants in doing 
their duty. But if it could be supposed that I said, I will 
have "nothing to do with any priest-catching knaves, I hope 
the words are not treason ; nor is it any offence not to be 
a persecutor, or not to give ill language to Jesuits; and I 
do affirm, that I never persecuted any orthodox ministers 
or puritans, though I may have persecuted some for their 
schisms and misdemeanors.* 

|| Laud's Hist. p. 374. Pryone, p. 940. § Ibid. p. 378. 

* Laud's Hist. p. 894, 


As to the king's marrying, it is not proved that I had 
any hand in it, though I acknowledge the duke of Buck- 
ingham did me the honor to make me his confessor. Nor 
did 1 conceal the late plot to bring in popery, but discover- 
ed it to the king as soon as I had intelligence of it ; for the 
truth of which I appeal not only to my letters, but to the 
earl of Northumberland here present ; who btood up, and 
said, he remembered no such thing. 

The commons replied to the archbishop's general de- 
fence, that he had been fighting with his own shadow, for 
they never objected those things to him for the purposes 
which he mentions ; they never objected his reducing any 
from popery, but that many were hardened in it by his 
means. Nor did they object the canons or oath to prove 
bim guilty of introducing popery, but lo quite different 
purposes. So that the archbishop in these, and the other 
particulars abovementioned, has given us a specimen of his 
sophistry and Jesuitism, transforming his own defence in- 
to our charge and evidence, and making our objections 
stand as proofs of a fact, which they were not in the least 
intended to support.* 

To the particulars they replied, that the titles he had as- 
sumed were peculiar to the papacy ; that they were never 
assumed by any protestaut archbishop before himself; nay, 
that in the times of popery there are hardly any examples 
of their being given to English bishops, and that it is blas- 
phemy to give the title of holiness in the abstract to any 
but God himself; the archbishop therefore ought, in his 
answers to the letters of the university, to have checked 
them, whereas he does not so much as mention these ex- 
orbitances, nor find the least fault with them. And though 
there be a difference between papal title and papal power, 
yet certainly his claiming the title of alterius orbis papa, 
pope of the other world, is a demonstration that he was 
grasping at the. same power in Great-Britain, as the pope 
had in Italy ; and though, for prudent reasons, he refused 
the cardinal's hat when it was offered, yet when he had 
made his terras, and accomplished that reconciliation be- 
tween the two churches that he was contriving, no doubt 
he would have had his reward. Sir Henry Mildmay be. 

* Pryune, p. 515. 


ing summoned, at the archbishop's request, to give in evi- 
dence, how much he was hated and spoke against at Home, 
swore that when he was at Rome some of tbe Jesuitical 
faction spoke against the archbishop, because they appre- 
hended he aimed at too great an ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
for himself; but the seculars commended and applauded 
him, because of the near approaches he made to their 
church, and shewed himself favorable to their party. The 
like evidence w?i given by Mr. Challoner, and others. || 

And whereas the archbishop had said, that it was not 
proved, that he forbid ministers to pray for the queen's con- 
version, the managers produced Mr. Hugh Iladclijfe, of 
St. Martin's Ludgate, who swore that Sir JSTath. Brent, 
his vicar- general, at a visitation at Bow church, gave in 
charge to the clergy in his hearing, these words, Whereas 
divers of you, in your prayers before sermon, used to pray 
for the queen's conversion, you are to do so no more, for 
the queen does not doubt of her conversion.* And both 
before and after, the archbishop himself caused Mr. Ber- 
nard, M.i\Peters,aiidMY.Jones,to be prosecuted in the high 
commission on this account, f The archbishop having said, 
that he never put his hand to the releasing any priest out 
of prison, the managers produced a warrant under his own 
hand, dated Jan. 81, 1633, for the release of William 
Walgrave, deposed to be a dangerous seducing priest, in 
these words : 

"THESE are to will and command you, to set at full 
< liberty the person of William Walgrave, formerly corn- 
emitted to your custody, and for your so doing this shall 
"'be your sufficient warrant. " W. Cant. 

" li. Ebor." 

But the archbishop's memory frequently failed him oil 
such occasions. 

His grace confesses the church of Rome to be a true 
church, whereas we aver her to be a*false and anti- 
christian one, for she has no sure foundation, no true head, 
no ordinances, sacraments, or worship, no true ministry, 
nor government of Christ's institution; she yields no true 
subjection to Christ's laws, word, or spirit, but is over- 

IJPrynne, p. 413. * Ibid, p. 418. t Ibid. p. 44*. 


spread with damnable errors in doctrine, aud corruptions 
in manners and worship, and is therefore defined by our 
homilies to be &false church. Must she not err in funda- 
mentals, when she affirms the church to be built on Peter, 
not upon Christ, and resolves our faith into the church, and 
not into the scriptures ? when she deifies the Virgin Mary, 
and other saints, by giving tliem divine worship, and ob- 
liges us to adore the consecrated bread in the sacrament as 
the very body and blood of Christ; when she denies the cup 
to the laity, obliges people to pray in an unknown tongue, 
and sets up a new head of the church instead of Christ, 
with the keys of the kingdom of heaven at his girdle ? 
What are these but fundamental errors, which nullify the 
church that maiutains them ? The religion of the church 
of Rome and ours is not one and the same, for theirs is no 
christian religion, but a heap of superstition and idolatry ; 
and his affirming salvation may be had in that church, is 
contrary to the opinion of our best protestant writers, who 
make her damnable errors the foundation of our separation 
from her. And though the archbishop makes light of his 
not believing the pope to be antichrist, we do aver, that 
our statutes and homilies do either in direct or equivalent 
expressions define him to be antichrist, aud particularly in 
the subsidy act, 3 Jac. penned by the convocation. 

But can any thing more fully demonstrate the archbish- 
op's design to reconcile the church of England with Rome, 
than his own confession ? He says, he has labored this 
matter with a faithful and single heart, Reply to Fisher, 
p. 388, though not to the prejudice of truth aud piety. But 
it must be observed, that the archbishop's design was not 
to bring over the church of Rome to us, but to carry us over 
to them ; and what large advances he has made that way, 
appears by his setting up altars, crucifixes, images, and 
other innovations. What advance has the church of Rome 
made towards us ? why, none at all ; nor is it possible she 
should, till she lays aside her infallibility. The pretence, 
therefore, of the church of Rome's meeting us half way, 
was a mere blind to deceive the people of England, till he 
had carried them wholly over into her territories. 

§Prynne, p. 552, &c. 


The archbishop has denied his endeavors to sow discord 
among foreign protestants, and asserted his endeavors to 
reconcile the lutherans and calvinists, though he has pro- 
duced no evidence of it ; but his late behavior towards the 
Scots, on the account of their having no bishops, and to 
the foreign settlements among ourselves, is a sufficient proof 
of the contrary. The maxim that he cites from Hi.Jerom, 
JSPo bishops, no church, is a plain perverting of his sense, 
for his words are, Ubi non est sacerdos, non est ecclesia ; 
but it is well known that, according to St. Jerom, bishops 
and presbyters are one and the same in jurisdiction and of- 
fice, and presbyters have the power of ordination as well 
as bishops ; and therefore this is a conclusion of the arch- 
bishop's framing, which, if it be true, must necessarily un- 
church all the foreign reformed churches, and render all 
the ordinations of their ministers invalid, which is a suf- 
ficient evidence of his enmity to them.* 

As to the French and Dutch churches, who were settled 
by charter in the reign of king Edward VI. Mr. BultecVs 
book, of the manifold troubles of those churches by this 
archbishop's prosecutions, evidently proves, that he invad- 
ed and diminished their ancient immunities and privileges 
in all parts ; and that he was so far from being their friend, 
that they accounted him their greatest enemy. 

To the fourth objection, relating to the archbishop's cor- 
respondence with popish priests, we reply, that the arch- 
bishop's intimacy with Sir. Toby Matheiv, the most active 
Jesuit in the kingdom, has been fully proved ; that he was 
sometimes with him in his barge, sometimes in his coach, 
sometimes in private with him in his garden, and frequently 
at his table. f The like has been proved of Sancta Clara, 
St. Giles L^ander, Smith, and Price, and we cannot but 
wonder at his denying that he knew them to be priests, 
when the evidence of his knowledge of some of them has 
been produced under his own hand ; and the witnesses for 
the others were no meaner' persons than the lords of the 
council, and the high commissioners, (among which was 
himself) employed to apprehend priests and delinquents; 
from whence we conclude, that all the archbishop's prede* 

*Prymie, p. 54 i. fPrynne, p. 418, 456, 559, 561. 


cessors, since the reformation, had not half the intimacy 
with popish priests and Jesuits as himself, and his harbor- 
ing some of them that "were native Englishmen, is within, 
the statutes of 23 Eliz. cap. 1, and 27 Eliz. cap. 2. It is 
very certain, that the liberty the Jesuits have enjoyed in 
prison, and elsewhere, was owing to his connivance ; and 
though tSie arcli bishop is so happy as not to remember his 
checking the officers for their diligence in apprehending 
popish priests, yet his distinction between not persecuting 
papists, and prosecuting puritans, besides the quibble, is 
an unanswerable argument of his affection to the one be- 
yond the other. || 

The managers produced six or eight witnesses, to prove 
the archbishop's discountenancing and threatening such as 
were active in apprehending priests and Jesuits. And tho' 
he would wash his hands of the affair of the pope's nuncio, 
residing here in character, and holding an intimate corres- 
pondence with the court, because himself did not appear in 
it, yet it is evident, that secretary Windebank, who was the 
archbishop's creature and confident, held an avowed cor- 
respondence with them. If he had no concern in this af- 
fair, should he not, out of regard to the protestant religion, 
and ehurch of England, even to the hazard of his archbish- 
opric, have made some open protestation, when Gregorio 
Panzani resided here in character two years ; Gregory 
Con, a Scot, for three years and two months ; and last of all, 
count Rosetti, till driven away by the present parliament.* 

It has been sufficiently proved, that the archbishop was 
coucerned in the Spanish and French matches, and in the 
instructions given to the prince at his going to Spain, to 
satisfy the pope's nuncio about King James's having de- 
clared the pope to be antichrist ; for the duke of Bucking- 
ham was the prince's director, and himself acknowledged 
that he was the duke's confessor. 

And as to the late plots of llabernfield, we have owned, 
in our evidences, that at first he discovered it to tiie king, 
because he imagined it to be a plot of the puritans, but 
when he found the parties engaged in it to be papists, and 
among others, secretary Windebank and Sir Toby Mathew 
his own creatures, he then concealed his papers, called it a 

(1 Prynne, p. 4SS, 448. * Ibid. p. 446. 


sham plot, anil brow-beat the informers, whereas be ought 
at least to have laid it before the parliameut,that they might 
have sifted it to the bran. But that it was a real plot, his 
own Diary, together with our latter discoveries, fully prove; 
and his concealment of it, we conceive to be an high and 
treasonable offence, tending to subvert the protestant re- 
ligion, and subject us to the church of Rome.-|| 

Thus, we humbly conceive, we have made a satisfactory 
reply to all the archbishop's answers, and have fully made 
good the whole of our charge, namely, that the archbishop 
has traiterously endeavored to destroy our civil liberties* 
and to introduce tyranny and arbitrary power ; and, sec- 
ondly, that he has endeavored to subvert the protestant re- 
ligion established by law in these kingdoms, and to subject 
us to the church of Home ; wherefore We do, in the name 
of all the commons of England, pray judgment against him 
as a traitor. 

Before the archbishop withdrew from the bar, he moved 
the lords, that considering the length of his trial,* and the 
distance of time between the several days of hearing, they 
would allow him a day that he might set before their lord- 
ships in one view, the whole of the commons' charge, and 
his defence ; to which they condescended, and appointed 
Sept. S, which was five weeks from the last day of his tri- 
al. || When the archbishop appeared at the bar, he began 
with a moving address, beseeching their lordships to consid- 
er his calling, his age, his long imprisonment, his suffer- 
ings, his patience, and the sequestration of his estate. He 
then complained, (1.) Of the uncertainty and generality of 
the commons' charge. {%.) Of the short time that was al- 
lowed him for his answer. (3.) That he had been sift- 

|| Prynne, p. 564, &c. 
*It had been drawn out through more than three months, and he 
had been often, when summoned before the lords, sent back unheard. 
This had. needlessly, exposed him to the scorns and revilings «f the 
people, and to an expence which he could HI bear: for he never ap- 
peared but it cost him six or seven pounds per day. His estate and 
goods had been sequestered; and it was not till towards the end of his 
trial, and after repeated solicitations, that the commons allowed him 
two hundred pounds to support his necessary expeuces. Mactiulay's 
History of England, vol. iv. p. 138, note. Ed. 

|| Laud's History, p. 412, 419. 


ed to the bran, and had his papers taken from him. (4.) 
That the things he bad taken most pains in, were for the 
public good, and done at his own great expenee, as the re- 
pair of St. Paul's, and the statutes of Oxford. (5.) That 
many of the witnesses were sectaries and schismatics, 
whereas, by the canon law, no schismatic should be heard 
against his bishop. He complained also of the number 
of witnesses produced agaiust him, which were above one 
hundred aud fifty ; whereas the civil law says, that the 
judges should moderate things so as no man should be op- 
pressed with the multitude of witnesses. (6.) That he. 
had been charged with passionate and hasty words, which 
he hopes their lordships will pardon as human frailties. 
(7.) That other men's actions had been laid to his charge, 
as those of his chaplains, and the actions of the high com- 
mission and star chamber, which, he insists, cannot by any 
law be put upon him, it being a known rule, Hefertur ad 
univer 'sos quod publice '-Jit j)er majorem partem. He then 
went over the particular charges above-mentioned, and 
concluded with a request, that when the commons had re- 
plied to the facts, his council might be heard as to matters 
of law. The commons replied to the archbishop's speech, 
Sept. 11, and the same day his council delivered in these 
two queries, (1.) Whether in all, or any of the articles 
charged against the archbishop, there be contained any trea- 
son by the established laics of the kingdom? (2.) Whether 
the impeachment and articles did contain such certainties 
and particularities as are required by law' in cases of trea- 
son ?* The lords sent down the queries to the commons, 
who, after they had referred them to a committee of law- 
yers, agreed that the archbishop's council might be heard 
to the first query, but not to the second. Accordingly, Oc- 
tober 11, the archbishop being present at the bar, Mr. 
Heme proposed to argue these two general questions. f 

(1.) "Whether there be at this day any other treason 
< than what is enacted by the statute 25th Edward III. 
6 cap. 2, or cuacted by some other subsequent statute ?" 

(2.) "Whether any of the matters, in any of the arti- 
4 cles charged against the archbishop, contain any of the 

* Laud's History, p. 422. + Ibid. p. 423. 

Vol. III. 31 


6 treasons declared by that law, or enacted by any subse- 
6 quent law ?" 

And for the clearing of both these he humbly insisted^, 
that an "Endeavor to subvert the laws, the protestant re- 
' ligion, and the rights of parliament, which are the three 
6 general charges to which all the particulars alledged a~ 
'gainst the archbishop may be reduced, is not treason 
'within the statute of 25 Edward III. nor any other par - 
' ticular statute. 7 '* 

In maintenance of this proposition, he contended, first, 
" that the particulars alledged against tSie arehbishop were 
6 not within the letter of the statute of the 25th Edward 
i III. and then argued, that the statutes of this land ought 
6 not to he construed by equity or inference, because they 
' are declarative laws, and were designed for the security 
'of the subject in his life, liberty, and estate ; and because 
4 since the time of Henry IV. no judgment has been given 
6 in parliament for any treason not expressly contained, or 
6 declared, in that or some other statute, but by bill ; from 
' whence it will follow, that the particulars charged against 
f the archbishop, being only an endeavor to subvert fun- 
' damenial laws, are of so great latitude and uncertainty, 
' that every action not warranted by law may be extended, 
' to treason, though there is no particular statute to make 
'it so. If it be replied, that the statute of 25 Edward III. 
' takes notice of compassing or imagining, we answer, it 
' confines it to the death of the king ; but an endeavor to 
'subvert the laws of the realm is no determinate crime by 
' the laws of England, but has been esteemed an aggrava- 
tion of a crime, and has been usually joined as the resuH 
'of some other offence below treason.'- §> 

" The like may be observed to the second charge, of en- 
' deavoring to subvert religion ; it is not treason by the 
' letter of any law established in this kingdom, for the stat- 
' ute of 1 Edward VI. cap. 12, makes it but felony to at- 
' tempt an alteration of religion by force, which is the 
' worst kind of attempt. || 

" As to the third charge r of endeavoring to subvert 
'the rights of parliament. We insist on the same reply 

* Land's History, p. 431, 425. § Ibid. p. 427. I! Ibid. p. 429. 


' that was made under the first head. We allow that by 
' the statute of 5 Jac. cap. % it is provided that if any man 
' shall put in practice to reconcile any of his majesty's sub- 
jects to the pope or see of Home, it shall be deemed trea- 

* son ; but we conceive this does not reach the archbishop, 
' because (t.) He is charged only with an endeavor where- 
'as in the statute it is putting in practice. (2.) Because 
' the archbishop is charged with reconciling the church of 
' England with the church of Rome, whereas in the statute 
'it is reconciling any of his majesty's subjects to the see 
' of Rome ; now reconciling with, may as well be constru- 
4 ed a reducing Rome to England, as England to Rome. 

"Thus, says Mr. Hearn, we have endeavored to make 
' it appear, that none of the matters in any of the articles 

* charged, are treason within the letter of the law ; indeed 
'the crimes, as they are laid in the charge, are many and 
'great, but their number cannot make them exceed their 
'nature; and if they be but crimes and misdemeanors apart, 
1 below treason, they cannot be made treason by putting 
' them together.'"'! 

These arguments of the archbishop's council staggered 
the house of lords, nor could the managers for the commons 
satisfy them in their reply ; they had no doubts about the 
truth of the facts, but whether any of them were treason by 
the laws of the land ?* — this the judges very much ques- 

f Laud's History, p. 430. 

* "We cannot allow ourselves to withhold here from our reader the 
just and important remarks of a late biographer of t lie archbishop. 
M It appears a great defect in the laws of a free and limited goveru- 
' ment, that an attempt to subvert the constitution and mode of govern- 
1 ment, should not be judicially deemed a capital offence, punishable as 

* such. For, in a just and political sense, the man who endeavors to 
' enslave his countrymen, to deprive them of their natural and legal 
1 rights and privileges, and instead of a free constitution of govern- 

* ment, to introduce one that is arbitrary and despotic; such a man 
'is undoubtedly guilty of as high a crime, and is as much a traitor to 

* his country, as he who attempts to deprive the prince of the crown, 
4 and ought to he punished with equal severity." British Biography, 
vol. iv. p. 286. Nay, it may be added, that the severity of the pun- 
ishment ought to be regulated by the more heinous guilt, which at- 
taches itself to the former than to the latter conduct; by the latter 
conduct the blow is aimed at the rights and prosperity of one person, 
sr at most •!' one family only : but the former conduct robs millions of 


tioned, and therefore the lords deferred giving judgment, 
till the commons thought fit to take another method to ob- 
tain it. 

Various are the accounts of the archbishop's behavior on 
his trial ; his friends and admirers flatter him beyond meas- 
ure, and said he perfectly triumphed over his accusers ; and 
his grace seems to be of the same mind, when he tells us, 
that all men magnified his answer to the house of commons, 
but he forbore to set down in what language, because it was 
high.-\ Mr. Prynne allows, that u he made as full, as gal- 
<lant, and pithy a defence, and spake as much for himself, 
'as w r as possible for the wit of man to invent; and that 
e with so much art, sophistry, vivacity, oratory, audacity, 
6 and confidence, without the least blush, or acknowledg- 

< ment of guilt in any thing, as argued him rather obstinate 
6 than innocent, impudent than penitent, and a far better or- 
6 ator and sophister than protestant or christian. "|| But 
then he imputes his boldness to the king's pardon, which 
he had in his pocket. 

Bishop Burnet is of opinion, that (i in most of the partic- 
ulars the archbishop made but frivolous excuses ; as, that 
6 he was but one of many,* who either in council, star- 

< chamber, or high commission, voted illegal things. Now 
c though this was true, yet a chief minister, and one in high 
c favor, determines the rest so much, that they are little bet- 
c ter than machines acted by him. On other occasions he 

* says, the thing was proved but by one witness. Now 

their rights, and involves, in its effects, generations to come. Nor 
does it lessen the guilt, if men, instead of being the agents of prerog- 
ative, are the tools of influence; if, instead of being awed into a sub- 
serviency to the views of despotism, they are bought over to measures 
inimical to the liberties of the people. Ed. 

t Laud's History, p. 411. || Prynne, p. 462. 

* To what bishop Burnet observes on this plea, it is pertinent to add 
the remarks of a late writer : " that if it were admitted, it would al- 

* ways be impracticable to bring a wicked minister of state to justice, 
'for any proceedings in the privy council, to which the rest concurred ; 
i and that it would not be thought a proper justification of criminals 
4 of an inferior order, in any court of justice, if they were to alledge, 
{ that there were other persons accomplices in the crimes with which 
1 they were accused." British Biography, vol. iv. p. 285. Ed. 


* how strong soever this defence may be iu law, it is of 110 
i force in an appeal to the world ; for if a thing be true, it 
1 is no matter how full or defective the proof is."f 

The archbishop himself has informed us of his great pa- 
tience under the hard usage he met with at his trial ; but 
his Diary furnishes too many examples to the contrary, for 
it appears from thence, that he sometimes gave the witnes- 
ses very rude language at the bar, insinuating to the court, 
that many of them were perjured ; that their evidence was 
the effect of malice, envy, and a thirst after his blood. 
Sometimes he threatened them with the judgments of God, 
and once he was going to bind his sin upon one of them, 
not to be forgiven till he asked pardon ; hue he recovered, 
himself. He is pleased sometimes to observe, that his 
crimes were proved only by one witness jff and yet at last 
he complains that he was oppressed with numbers, no less 
than one hundred and fifty,! and calls them " a pack of 
B such witnesses, as were never produced against any man 
' of his place and calling; 'pursuivants, messengers, pil- 

* lory-men, bawds ; and such as had shifted their religion 
f to and again." || And yet there were among them, men of 
the best fashion and quality in the kingdom, as Sir FT. 
Vane, sen. Sir H. Mildmay, Sir Wm. Balfore, Sir JYath. 
Brent, vicar-general; sundry aldermen of the city of Lon- 
don, and many excellent divines, as Dr. Featly, Dr. Hay- 
wood the archbishop's chaplain, Mr. Dell his secretary, 
Mr. Osbaldiston, and others of an equal if not superior 
character. W hen his grace was checked at the bar for reflec- 
ting upon the witnesses, and put in mind by the managers 
that some of them were aldermen, some gentlemen, and some 
men of quality, he replied smartly, " That is nothing, there 

* is not an active separatist in England but his hand is a- 
i gainst me ; both gentlemen, aldermen, and men of all 
< conditions, are separated from the church of England, and 
6 1 would to God some of my judges were not."* 

f History of his Life, p. 50, or p. 68, edition in 12mo. at Edinburgh. 
§ Laud's History, p. 237* 

\ He also charged Prynne with keeping a school of instruction for 
the witnesses, and tampering with them in a most shameful manner. 
Macaulay ? s History of England, vol. iv. p. 137, note. Ed. 

H Laud's History, p. 417. * Ibid. p. 434. 


After this it can hardly be expected, that the managers 
for the commons should escape his grace's censure ; it must 
be admitted, that in the course of their arguments they 
made use of some harsh expressions, which nothing but 
the character they sustained could excuse ;f but it was no 
argument of the archbishop's patience and discretion, to 
fight them at their own weapons. The managers were, 
serjeant Maynard, one of the ablest lawyers of his age ; 
he lived to be the father of his profession ; and when tne 
prince of Orange [afterwards King William III.] com- 
plimented him upon his having outlived all his brethren of 
the law, he made this handsome reply, that if it had not 
been for the wonderful revolution that his highness had 
brought about, he should have outlived the law itself. He 
managed the first part of the evidence March 13th, 16th, 
18th, and 28th. " This gentleman (says the archbishop) 
4 pleaded, though strongly, yet fairly, against me."* 

Serjeant Wild was the son of serjeant George Wild, of 
Droitwich in Worcestershire ; he was afterwards reader of 
the Inner-Temple, a great lawyer and of unblemished 
morals. After the restoration of King Charles 11. he was 
made lord chief baron, and esteemed a grave and venera- 
ble judge. §> He managed that part of the evidence which 

t " Like true lawyers," says Mrs. Maeaulay, " they played their 

* parts in baiting the unhappy prisoner with the most acrimonious and 

* insulting language; like true lawyers, they took all the unfair ad- 
e vantages which their offices and other opportunities procured them ; 
4 and like true lawyers, they put a forced and unwarrantable construe- 
6 tion on all the facts which they cited against kim." History of En- 
gland, vol. iv. p. 137, Svo. Ed. 

* Laud's History, p. 330. 
§ The character of serjeant Wild is impeached, and the above ac- 
count of his preferment is shewn to be inaccurate, by Dr. Grey. He 
was made Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, (see fFhitlockp's Me- 
morials, p. 337,) 12th October, 1648. In the protectorate of Crom- 
well he retired, and did not act. Duringthe Rump parliament he was 
restored to the Exchequer. After king Charles II. returned, he lived 
nine years in a retired condition. Wood's Athense Oxon. vol. i. p. 
803 * On the authority of [Food, Dr. Grey charges him with having 
received lOOOl. out of the privy purse at Derbyhouse, for the condem- 
nation of Captain Barley, at Winchester, for causing a drum to beat 
up for God and king Charles, in the isle of Wight, in order to rescue 
his captive king. The reader will judge what credit is due to this 
charge, when he is informed, that Capt. Hurley was convicted, sen* 


concerned religion, May SO, 27, June 6, li, 17, SO, and 27, 
July 20, and 24, but " this gentleman, says the archbish- 

< op, though he had language good enough sometimes, he 
i had little or no sense, I had a character given me before 

< of him. which I forbear to express, but by his proceed- 

< ings with me I fouud it exactly true."|] 

Samuel Browne, esq. was au able and grave lawyer. 
In the reign of king Charles II. he was kuiguted and made 
lord chief justice of the common pleas ; he summed up the 
whole evidence at the lords' bar. " His behavior towards 
4 the archbishop was decent and civil, but his pleadings 
i (according to his grace) very unfair."! 

Robert Nicolas, esq. pressed the archbishop very hard, 
and therefore no wonder that he was displeased with him. 
The archbishop allows that he had some sense, but extreme 

teneed and executed, according both to Wood and Whitlocke, [Memo- 
rials, p. 290,] in 16-17, some months before serjeant Wild was made a 
judge. Another charge brought against him. from lord Clarendon and 
Wood, is, that he received another 10001. for the acquittance of major 
Rolph, who had a design to murder or poison the king. That the 
reader may form his judgment on this charge, we will state the pro- 
ceedings on the affair of major Rolph, as they are chronologically 
given by Whitlocke. — 1648. June 23. A charge by Osborne against 
Col. Hammond and Capt. Rolfe, was ordered to be printed. July 11, 
a letter was received from Col. Hammond, desiring that Osborne's 
charge against Mr. Rolfe may come to a speedy hearing, it reflecting 
so highly upon the army and upon him : and being an horrid scandal, 
Whereof he clears his own innocency and the officers of the army and 
Mr, Rolfe Accommodations were ordered for Mr. Rolfe. August 1, 
Major Rolfe was bailed. August 12, At a conference with the lords 
about Mr. Rolfe. the commons alledged, that Mr. Rolfe was commit- 
ted by their lordships without any cause in the warrant, and they found 
reason to clear him. Aug. 31. The grand jury, at Southampton, found 
the bill against Major Rolfe, ignoramus. Sept. 9, There was an order 
for 1501. for Mr. Rolfe for his injust imprisonment. Memoirs, p. 310. 
All these transactions appear to have taken place independently of 
serjeant Wild, and before he was preferred to be a judge. To these 
particulars it may be added, that the king himself acquitted Col. Ham- 
mnnd, involved in the same accusation with Rolfe, and professed a 
perfect confidence in him as a man of honor and trust. Memoirs, p. 
315. The stress, which lord Clarendon and after him Mr. Eachard 
and Dr. Grey, have laid on this charge against serjeant Wild, will 
apologise for so minute an investigation of a matter, not essentially 
aouneeted with the general truth of Mr. «AWs History. Ed. 

|| Laud's Hist. p. 3*0, 32*. t Ibid. p. 390. 


virulent and foul language. He managed the second and 
fourth branches of the evidence, April 16, May 14, July 
39. This gentleman happening to call the archbishop pan- 
der to the whore of Babylon ; the archbishop bide him re- 
member, "that one of his zealous witnesses against the 

< whore of Babylon got all his means by being a pander to 

< other lewd women, and was not long since taken in bed 
*with one of his wife's maids. Good Mr. Nicolas (says 

< lie) do not dispense with all whores but the whore of Bab- 

As for Mr. Hill the other manager, he is called Consul 
Bibulus, because he said nothing. Upon the whole the 
archbishop is of opinion, that the managers for the com- 
mons sought his blood, « and made false constructions, for 

* which (says he) 1 am confident they shall answer at ano- 

* ther bar, and, for something else in these proceedings."^ 

Such was the unhappy spirit of this prelate, who, " though 
6 he had seen the violent effects of his ill counsels, and had 

* been so long shut up, and so much at leisure to reflect 
' upon what had passed in the hurry of passion, and in the 
6 exaltation of his prosperity, yet (as bishop Burnet ob- 

* serves) he does not in any oue part of his Diary acknow- 
' ledge his own errors, nor mix any wise or pious reflec- 

* tions upon the unhappy steps he had made." It was, no 
doubt, a great mortification to his spirit, to be exposed to 
the people, and to wait sometimes an hour or two before 
he was called to the bar ; but as for his charity, and pa- 
tience under his sufferings, I must leave it with the reader 
to form his own judgment. 

While the proceedings against the archbishop were at 
a stand, by reason of the lords being dissatisfied, whether 
the facts proved against him were treason by statute law ; 
the citizens of London assembled, and presented a peti- 
tion to the house of commons, October 28th, signed with 
a great number of hands, praying for speedy justice a- 

|| Laud's History, p. 390. § Ibid. p. 271. 

§ It was greatly against the archbishop, that the management of the 
trial was assigned to Prynne, a man of sour and austere principles ; 
whom Laud had made his enemy by the severe sentence of the star- 
ehamber; and who, by his behavior on this occasion, shewed, that 
he remembered and resented the share Laud had in inflicting his past 
sufferings. Ed* 



gainst delinquents, and particularly against the archbish- 
op ; which was no doubt an artful contrivance of his ene- 
mies. The commons, to prevent all further delays, deter- 
mined not to press the lords for judgment upon the trials 
'but ordered a bill of attainder to be brought in ; and when 
it had been twice read, the archbishop was brought to the 
bar of the house of commons, to hear the evidence on 
which it proceeded, and to make what further defence he 
thought proper. Mr. Browne summed up the charge Nov. 
2, and the archbishop had nine days given him to prepare 
his defence. Nov. 11, he spoke for himself some hours 
at the bar of the house of commons, and Mr. Browne re- 
plied before the archbishop withdrew ; after which the bill 
of attainder passed the house the very same day, with but 
one dissenting voice, and that not upon the substance of 
the charge, but upon the manner of proceeding. The bill 
being sent up to the lords, they made an order Dec. 4u 
That all books, writings, &fc. concerning the archbishop's 
trial, should be brought in to the clerk of the parliament, 
which being done, they examined over again, all the heads 
and principal parts of the evidence, and voted each par- 
ticular as tiiey went forward ; so tender were they of the 
life of this prelate, and so careful to maintain the honor 
aud justice of their proceedings. When they had gone 
through the whole, they voted him guilty of all facts charg- 
ed against him, in three branches, namely, guilty of en- 
deavoring to subvert the laws; of endeavoring to over- 
throw the protectant religion, and the rights of parlia- 
ments. After this they sent a message to the commons, to 
desire them to answer the argument of the archbishop's 
council, as to the point of law, which they accordingly did 
at a conference Jan. 3, when serjeant Wild, Mr. Browne, 
and Mr. Nicolas, having given the reasons of the com- 
mons for their attainder, the lords were satisfied, and Jan. 
4, passed the bill,* whereby it was ordained, that he should 
suffer death as in cases of high treason. To stop the con- 

* Dr. Grey will not allow this decree of the commons to be called 
" a bill." It was, in his opinion, an ordinance only, and that an im- 
perfect one ; because it was not supported by the royal assent, and 
therefore, he says, had no legal force at all. Ed. 

Vol. IIT. 33 

£50 tHE HISTORY 6llAl\ 5". 

sequence of this attainder, the archbishop produced the 
king's pardon under the great seal, signed April 19, 13th 
Car. but it was over-ruled by both houses, 1. Because it 
was granted before conviction. And %. If it had been sub- 
sequent, yet in the present case of treason they argued, 
that the king could not pardon a judgment, of parliament, 
especially as the nation was in a state of war ; for if th& 
king's pardon was a protection, not a deserter, nor a spy ? 
nor an incendiary of any kind against the parliament, 
would have suffered in his life or liberty.* 

All the favor therefore the archbishop could obtain, was y 
upon his petition, to have his sentence altered from hang- 
ing to being beheaded on Tower-Hill, which was appoint- 
ed to be on Friday, Jan. 10, when the archbishop being 
conducted to the scaffold, attended by his chaplain Dr. 
Stern, and Mr. Marshal and Palmer, sent by the parlia- 
ment, f read his last speech to the people, % which was a 
sort of sermon from Heb. xii. 2: Let us run with patience 
the race that is set before as, looking unto Jesus, the au- 
thor and finisher of our faith, who, for the joy that was set 
before him, endured the cross, despising the shame, and is 
set down at the right hand of the throne of God. In 
which he acknowledges himself to have been a great sin- 
ner ; but having ransacked every corner of his heart, he 
thanks God, that he has not found any of his sins deserv- 
ing death by any of the known laws of the kingdom, 
though he does not charge his judges, because they are to 
proceed according to evidence. — He thanks God that h& 

* Whitloeke's Memoirs, p. 117. 

f It marks a virulent and bitter spirit in the conduct of this execu- 
tion, that of the three clergymen, whose consolatory attendance and 
service at his exit Land petitioned for, but one was allowed him ; and 
this under the restraint of the inspection of two ministers appointed 
by parliament. Macaulay's History, vol. iv. p. 141. Ed. 

\ " In this very performance," observes Mrs. Macaulay, " which. 
' was executed with great art of composition, and likewise in his re- 
* marks on the charge which the Scots brought against him, he plainly 
'shews that his adversily had not altered his opinions, nor corrected 
' any one of his most mischievous prejudices; and that, had accident 
're-established him in his former plenitude of power, he would have 
' run to the end of his days, the same persecuting course for which he 
« now suffered," History of England, vol. iv. p. 140. Ed. 


is as quiet within as ever lie was in his life, and hopes 
that his cause in heaven will look of another color than it 
does here. It is clamored against me (says he) that I de- 
signed to bring in popery, but I pray God that the pope 
does not come in, by means of these sectaries which cla- 
mor so much against me. As for the Icings he assured the 
world, that he was as sound a pro tea tan t as any man in the 
kingdom, and would venture as freely for it. He com- 
plains of the citizens for gathering hands to petitions, and 
particularly against himself, whereby they were bringing 
the guilt of innocent blood upon themselves and their city. 
He laments the ruins of the hierarchy, and concludes with 
declaring himself a true protestant, according to the church 
of England established by law, and takes it upon his death, 
that he never endeavored the subversion of the laics of the, 
realm, nor any change of the j) rot est ant religion into popish 
superstition ; nor was he an enemy to parliaments. 

Iu his last prayer he desires that God would give him. 
patience to die for his honor, for the king's happiness, and 
the church of Euglaud. He then prays for the preserva- 
tion of the king in his just rights ; for the parliament in 
their ancient aud just power ; for the church, that it may 
be settled iu truth and peace, and in its patrimony ; and for 
the people, that they may enjoy their ancient laws, and oth- 
er liberties; and then, having forgiven his enemies, he con- 
cluded with the Lord's prayer. After which he gave his 
paper to Dr. Stem, saying, Doctor, I give you this, to shew 
your fellow chaplains, that they may see how I am gone 
out of the world, and God's blessing aud his mercy be up- 
on them. When the scaffold was cleared, he pulled off 
his doublet, and said, God's will he done, I am icilling to 
go out of the world ; no man can be more willing to send 
me out. Then turuing to the executioner he gave him some 
money, and bid him do his office in mercy ; he then kneel- 
ed down, aud after a short prayer, laid his head on the block, 
and said, Lord Jesus receive my spirit ; which being the 
sign, the executioner did his office at one blow.|| The arch- 
il Mrs. Jlacaulay's reflections on this event appear to carry weight 
and pertinence with them. '• As the justice of the country had been 
* something satisfied by the death of the criminal Strafford, it would 


bishop's corpse was put into a eoffin, and by the permiss- 
ion of parliament buried in Barkin church, with the service 
of the church read over him. The inscription upon the 
coffin was this, In hac cistula conduniuv Exuviae Orulielmi 
Laud, avehiepiscopi Caniuariensis, qui securi percussus 
immortalitatem adiit, die x' Januarii, aetatis suae J2, ar- 
chie piscopatus xii. But after the restoration, his body was 
removed to Oxford, and deposited with great solemnity in 
a brick vault, according to his last will and testament, near 
the altar of the chapel of 'St. John Baptist college, July 
S4, 1G63. 

Thus died Dr. William Laud, archbishop of Canterbu-r 
ry, primate of all England, and metropolitan : some time 
chancellor of the Universities of Oxford and Dublin, one 
of the commissioners of his majesty's exchequer, and privy 
counsellor to the king, in the seventy-second year of his 
age, and twelfth of his archiepiscopal translation. He was 
of low stature, and a ruddy countenance ; his natural tem- 
per was severe and uncourtly, his spirit active and rest- 
less, whieh pushed him on to the most hazardous enter- 
prizes. His conduct was rash and precipitate, for, accord- 
ing to Dr. Heylin, he attempted more alterations in the 
church in one year, than a prudent man would have done 
in a great many. His counsels, in state affairs were high 
and arbitrary, for he was at the head of all the illegal pro- 
jects, of ship-money, loans, monopolies, star-chamber fines, 
&c. which were the ruin of the king and constitution. 

' have done honor to the parliament to have left this aged prelate the 
' example of their mercy, rather than to have made him the monument 
4 of their justice. Perpetual imprisonment, with no more than a decent 
' maintenance, and tiie deprivation of his archiepiscopal function, 
' (which of course followed the abolishment of that kind of church 
' government) would have taken away his abilities of doing farther 
'mischief: and the present prosperous state of the parliament affairs 
i rendered his death a circumstance of no importance to the public. It 
' is plain that he fell a sacrifice to the intolerant principle of the pres- 
' byterians, a sect who breathed as fiery a spirit of persecution as him- 
6 self. It is farther to be observed of this prelate, that he is the only 
' individual of that high office in the church of England (Cranmer, 

* the martyr, excepted) who ever suffered death, by the hands of the 
i executioner ; though the turbulent ambition of his order have dis- 
c turbed the peace of society from the first period of the church power 

* to the present day." History of England, vol. iv. p. 113, 41, EiL 


His maxims in the church were no less severe, for he 
sharpened the spiritual sword, and drew it against all sorts 
of offenders, intending (as lord Clarendon expresses it) 
that the discipline of the church should be felt as well as 
spoken of. There had not been such a crowd of business 
in the high commission court since the reformation, nor so 
many large fines imposed, as under the prelate's adminis- 
tration, with little or no abatement, because they were as- 
signed to the repair of St. Paul's which gave occasion to 
au unlucky proverb, that the church was repaired with the 
sins of the jieople. \ 

As to the archbishop's religion, he declared himself, up- 
on the scaffold, a protestant, according to the constitution 
of the church of England, but with more charity to the 
church of Rome than to the foreign protestants ; and 
though he was an avowed enemy to sectaries and fanatics 
of all sorts, yet he had a great deal of superstition in his 
make, as appears from those passages in his diary, in which 
he takes notice of his dreams, of the falling down of pic- 
tures, of the bleeding of his nose, of auspicious aud inau- 
spicious days of the year, and of the position of the stars; 
a variety of which may be collected out of that perform- 

His Grace must be allowed to have had a considerable 
share of knowledge, and to have been a learned man, 
though he was more a man of business than of letters.* 
He was a great benefactor to the college in which he was 
educated, enriching it with a variety of valuable fmanu- 

* "Just the contrary :" says bishop Warhivton. " He did not un- 
derstand business at all, as fully appears from the historian's ac- 
' count of his civil administration, and was a great master of religious 

* controversy." Mr. Hume, speaking of Laud's learning and morals, 
expresses himself in the following manner: ''This man was virtuous, 
' if severity of manners alone, and abstinence from pleasure, could de- 

* serve that name. He was learned, if polemical knowledge could en- 
' title him to that praise." 

History of Great-Britain, vol. v. p. 193. Ed. 
f These manuscripts, which he had purchased at a prodigious ex- 
pence, were in Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee. iEgyptiatt, Ethiopian, Ar- 
menian, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, 
Greek, Latin, Italian, French, Saxon, English, and Irish. The arch- 
bishop also founded an Arabic lecture in the University of Oxford, 
which began to be read in 1636. He obtained the advowson of the 


scripts, besides live hundred pounds in money. § H© 
gave eight hundred pounds to the repair of the cathedral 
of St. Paul, and sundry other legacies of the like nature. 
But with all his accomplishments he was a cruel persecu- 
tor, as long as he was in power, and the chief incendiary 
in the war between the king and parliament, the calami- 
ties of which are in a great measure chargeable upon him. 
4i That which gave me the strongest prejudices against him 
4 (says bishop Burnet) is, that, in his Hiary, after he had 
6 seen the ill effects of his violent counsels, and had been 
4 so long shut up, and so long at leisure to reflect on what 

* had passed in the hurry of passion, in the exaltation of 

* his prosperity, he does not in any one part of that great 
*work acknowledge his own errors, nor mix any wise or 
4 serious reflections on the ill usage he met with, or the un- 

* happy steps he had made." The bishop adds withal,* 
4i that he was a learned, sincere, and zealous man, regular 
6 in his own life, aud humble in his private deportment, but 
4 hot and indiscreet, eagerly pursuing such matters as were 
4 either very inconsiderable or mischievous ; such as set- 
4 tliug the communion table by the east wall of the church, 
4 bowing to it, and calling it an altar, suppressing the wal- 
4 loon privileges, breaking of lectures, and encouraging of 
4 sports on the Lord's-day, &c. His severity in the star 
6 chamber, and in the high commission court ; but above 
»all, his violent, and indeed inexcusable injustice, in the 
4 prosecution of bishop Williams, were such visible blemi- 
4 shes, that nothing but the putting him to death in so un- 
4 just a manner could have raised his character. His Dia- 
4 ry represents him as an abject fawner upon the duke of 
4 Buckingham, and as a superstitious regarder of dreams ;f 

living of St. Lawrence in Reading for St. John's college. He procur- 
ed a charter for Reading, and founded, and endowed with 2001. per 
annum, an hospital in that town. Oxford owed also to his influence 
a large charter, confirming its ancient and investing it with new priv- 
ileges. It is but justice due to his memory to record, to the honor of 
Laud, these acts of munificence and public utility. 

Goadby's British Biography, vol. iv. p. 289, 90. Ed. 
§ Diary, p. 56. 

* History of his Life, vol. i. p. 49, 50, or Scotch edit. p. 68. 
f "His superstitions," says Mrs. Macaulay, " were as contemptible 
1 as those that belonged to the weakest of women." His Diary fell 


<his defence of himself, written with so much care when 

* he was in the Tower, is a very mean performance ; and 
< his friends have reallv lessened him ; Heylin by 

* writing his life, and Wharton by publishing his vin- 
dication of himself." Mr. Hap in adds, " Let the archbi- 
6 shop's favorers say what they please, he was one of the 
' chief authors of the troubles that afflicted England ; 1st, 
' by supporting with all his might the principles of that ar- 
' bitrary power which the court strove for several years to 

* establish. Sclly, By using to much strictness and rigid- 
' ness in the observance of trifles in divine service, and 
i iu compelling every body to conform themselves thereto. "f 
To which I would beg leave to add, that since nothing re- 
lating to the doctrine or discipline of the church of Eng- 
land established by law was objected to him at his trial, 
but only certain innovations in the church, without or con- 
trary to law, I cannot conceive with what propriety of lan- 
guage his friends and admirers have canonized him as 
the blessed martyr of the church of England.^ 

into the hands of Frynne. in the search of the archbishop's papers, and 
was published by him during his trial. This his grace complained of, 
as done to abash and disgrace him. The publication of it, certainly, 
did not tend to soften the prejudices against him, or to raise him in the 
opinion of the public. It was done by an order of a committee of the 
house of commons. Ed. 

t Hapin. vol. i. p. 507, folio. 
| Dr. Grey ealls Mr. NeaVs delineation of archbishop Land's char- 
acter. " a long invective," and opposes to it lord Clarendon's charac- 
ter of this prelate. Facts will shew, who has drawn it with truth: 
and by facts we may decide concerning a more recent delineation of it 
by the pen of VSrs Macaulay. " Laud, a superstitions churchman, 
1 who had studied little else than canon law and the doating opinions 

* of the Fathers, was entirely ignorant of the utility, equity, and. 
4 beauty of civil and religious liberty; was himself imposed on before 
'he endeavored to impose on others-; and became a zealous instru- 

* ment of tyranny, even for conscience sake. The principles of reli- 
' gion, on which he uniformly acted, were as noxious to the peace of 
' society, as were the principles of the papists : the same want of char- 
6 ity, the same exercise of cruelty, the same arrogance of dominion, 
4 were common to both. Utterly unacquainted with the simplicity. 
' charity, and meekness of (he gospel, his character was void. of hu - 
c mility and forgiveness; nor had he other rules to judge of men's de- 
*"servings, but as they were more or less attached to the power of the 

* church. Upon the whole, his character serves as an eminent exam- 
4 pie, to shew that extensive learning ami abilities are not incompati- 

* ble with a narrow judgment; and that in all the catalogue of human 


The last, ami most memorable transaction of this year, 
was the treaty of Uxbridge. His majesty had sent the two 
houses sundry propositions for peace last summer, which 
took them up a great deal of time to form into propositions 
for his majesty's assent. The commissioners were two 
lords, four commoners, and those of the Scots commission- 
ers ; they arrived at Oxford Nov. 26, but though the king 
had given them a safe conduct, Mr. Whitlocke observes,they 
met with very rude treatment from the populace, who sa- 
luted them as they passed along the streets with the names 
of traitors, rogues, and rebels, throwing stones and dirt in- 
to their coaches ; when they came to their inn, they were 
insulted by the soldiers, so that they were obliged to shut 
up the doors till the king ordered them a guard. When 
the}' delivered their propositions, his majesty received them 
coldly ;* and because they were only to receive his answer, 
told them, a letter-carrier might have done as well.^ Next 
day his majesty gave them his answer in writing sealed up ; 
and when they desired to see it, he replied with a frown, 
what is it to you, who are but to carry what I send ; if I 
w ill send the song of Robin Hood or Little John, you must 
carry it. But at length they obtained a copy, which was 

* frailties, there are none which more corrupt, the heart, or deprave 
i the understanding, than the follies of religion." History of England. 
vol. iv. p. 134. 142-3. Were it neeessary for the editor of Mr. JV'enl 
to subjoin his ideas of Laud's character, he would be inclined to give 
it in three words; as formed of superstition, tyranny, and intol- 
erance. Ed. 

* This, as Dr. Grey observes, is not expressly said by Whitlocke ; 
whose words are, " The next day they (i. e. the commissioners) had 

* access to his majesty, who used them civilly, and gave to every one 
4 of them his hand to kiss : hut he seemed to shew more disdain to the 

* Scots commissioners than to any others of their company." On the 
evening of the same day, as Mollis and Whitlocke were paying a visit 
to the earl of Lindsey, "the king came into the chamber, and treated 
those gentlemen with extraordinary respect, entered into a free conver- 
sation with them, and asked their advice as friends. Memorials, p. 
108. Rusluvorth says, that " the king received the commissioners 
« very obligingly, but seemed more to slight the Scots commissioners 
1 than any of the rest." vol. v. p. 841. Kven here, though the lan- 
guage of Rushworth is more descriptive of a courteoiis and complaisant 
reception, than is that of Whitlocke, there is yet an intimation of 
something in the king's manner to all the commissioners, that indicat- 
ed coldness and indifference, and it justifies Mr. «AWs representation 
of it. Ed. f Whitlocke, p, 106, 107, 109, 110. 


only to desire a safe conduct for the duke of Lenox' and 
earl of Southampton to come to London with bis majesty's 
answer ; but the letter not being directed to the parliament 
of England, the houses would not consent but upon that 
condition. The king's council advised him to yield, 
which did not prevail, till his majesty had found out an 
evasion, and entered it upon record in the council-books, 
as appears by his letter to the queen, dated Jan. 2, in which 
he says, " That his calling them a parliament did not im- 
6 ply his acknowledging them as such ; upon which cou- 
' struction, and uo other (says he)* I called them, as it is 
'registered in the council-books, and if there had been but 
•two of my opinion (says the king) I would not have done 
'it."]! In another intercepted letter to the queen, he tells 
her, " he could not prevail with his parliament at Oxford 
•to vote those at Westminster no parliament, but assures 

* her he would not make peace without JW approbation, nor 
•go one jot beyond the paper she sent him/^ In another 
the king informs the queen, " that the parliament were 

* sending him propositions for peace, which, if she likes, iie 
6 thinks may be the best way for settlement as things 
i stand :" so that the fate of England was to be determiu- 

* Whitlocke, p. 277. 

|| Dr. Grey aims, here, to impeach not the accuracy only, but the ve- 
racity of Mr. Neal ; whose account of the matter does, indeed, seem to 
imply, that the king was at length prevailed on to direct his answer 
to the parliament at Westminster: whereas Dr Grey shews, frum Ra- 
pin and Rush worth, that his majesty put no direction at all on it, and 
the commissioners accepted it without a direction: and that therefore 
the charge of evasion against the king was without ground But Dr. 
Grey contents himself with a partial account and vie»v of this matter, 
and does not apprise his reader, that Rapin also mentions the expedi- 
ent by which the king reconciled to himself a compliance with the re- 
quisition of the parliament: the fact, in its full extent, was, that the 
commissioners, though they objected to the form and the want of di- 
rection to the king's message: yet did deliver it to the parliament at 
Westminster, and was thanked for their services. But then the like 
exceptions were made by both houses, and it was resolved not to grant 
the safe conduct it asked, nor to receive his majesty's answer, unless he 
slundd send to Hie parliament of England assembled at Westminster. 
The trumpeter went away with a letter to this effect, Dec. 3, aud re- 
turned on the Tth with an answer from the king, acknowledging those 
at Westminster to be the parliament. Rushworth, vol. v. p. 813, 14. 

§ Rnshworth, vol. v. p. 913. 
Vol. III. 33 

£58 THE HISTOfct CHAP. & 

ed by th# qneen and her popish council. Besides, his ma- 
jesty was unhappily elevated at this time by the divisions 
at Westminster, which produced the new modeling the ar- 
my ; and with a false and romantic account of the succes- 
ses of the marquis of Montross in Scotland, which were so 
magnified, that it was expected the Bcots must immediate- 
ly march back into their own country ; whereas, in reality, 
they were not so considerable as to oblige them to draw off 
a single regiment. 

Iu this situation of affairs it was agreed, according to the 
proposals of the king's commissioners, that there should 
be a treaty of peace at Uxbridge, to commence Jan. 30 > 
1645, and to continue twenty days. 

There were sixteen commissioners for the king, (viz.) 
nine lords, six commoners, and one divine ; twelve for the 
parliament, and ten for the Scots, and one divine, (viz.) 
!Mr. Henderson ; the king's divine was Dr. Steward, who 
was assisted by Dr. Sheldon, Laney, Fern, Potter, and 
Hammond. Assistant divines for the parliament were Mr, 
Vines, Marshal, Cheynel, and Chi e sly. These with their 
retinue, to the number of one hundred and eight persons, 
were included in the safe conduct. 

The propositions to be treated of were religion, the 7nil~ 
itia, and Ireland ; each of which were to be debated three 
days successively, till the twenty days were expired. 

The treaty was preceded by a day of fasting and prayer 
on both sides for a blessing, but was interrupted the very 
first day, by a sermon preached occasionally in the 
church of Uxbridge by Mr. Love, then preacher to the gar- 
rison of Windsor, wherein he had said, that they [his ma- 
jesty's commissioners] came thither with hearts full of 
blood, and that there was as great a distance behceen this 
treaty and peace, as between heaven aval hell. The com- 
missioners having complained of him next day, the parlia- 
ment commissioners laid it before the two houses, who sent, 
for him to London, where he gave this account of the af- 
fair ; that the people being under a disappointment at their 
lecture, he was desired unexpectedly to give them a ser- 
mon ; which was the same, he had preached at Windsor 
the day before.* He admits, that he cautioned the people 
not to have top great a dependance upon the treaty, be- 
* Dugdale's Treaty of Uxbridge, p* 764. 


cause li whilst our enemies (says lie) go on in their wick- 
< ed practices, and we keep to our principles, we may as 
* soon make fire aud water to agree ; and I had almost said, 
6 reconcile heaven and hell, as their spirits and ours. They 
4 must grow better, or we must grow worse, before it is 
4 possible for us to agree." He added further, '• That 
'there was a generation of men that carried blood and re- 
4 venge in their hearts against the well-aftected in the na- 
' tion, who hated not only their bodies but their souls, and 
' in their cups would drink an health to their damnation." 
Though there might be some truth in what the preacher 
said, yet these expressions were unbecoming any pri- 
vate man in so nice a conjuncture; he was therefore con- 
fined to his house during the treaty, an I then discharged.* 
It was too evident, that neither party came to the treaty 
with a healing spirit. The king's commissioners were un- 
der snch restraints, that little good was to be expected from 
"them ; and the parliament cotnaiissioners would place no 
Manner of confidence in his majesty's promises, nor abate 
a tittle of the fullest security for themselves and the con- 
stitution. t The king therefore, in his letter to the queen 
of J.m 22, assures her of the utter improbability that this 

* Dr. Grey opposes to the account, which Mr. Neal gives of the pro- 
ceedings against Mr. Love, lord Clarendon's representation, winch 
stales «)«ly ; that the commissioners seemed troubled at the charge a- 
g Mist him, promised to examine it, and engaged that he should be se- 
verely punished ; but afterwards confessed that they had no authority 
to punish aim. but that they had caused him to be sharply reprehend- 
ed and sent out of town : '• This," his lordship adds, '• was all that 
♦could be obtained, so unwilling were they to discountenance any ma?i 

* who was willing to serve them." History of the Rebellion, vol. ii. 
p. 379. Dr. Grey remarks here, " This is lord Clarendon's account, 

* who was himself a commissioner of that treaty." The remark is ev- 
i itly made 10 intimate that Mr. Neal's account is uot true. It is to 
be regretted, that he has not, in this instance, referred to his authority. 
But it is certain, that lord Clarendon does not relate the whole of the 
commissioners' answer or conduct. The former, according to Rush- 
w>rth, vol. v. p. 8(55, and Dugdale, p. TT.5. was a promise " to repre- 

* sent the complaint against Mr. Love to the parliament, who would 
'proceed therein according to justice;" and the latter, it appears by 
Whitlocke, was correspondent to this engagement : " for the parlia- 
' ment. having notice of Mr. Love's sermon from the commissioners, sent 
M'.ir him and referred the business to an exainiuatitn." Memorials, 
p. 123. Ed. 

\ Rapin. vol. ii. p. 5%Q, folio. 


present treaty should produce a peace, u considering the 
6 great and strange difference, if not contrariety of grounds, 
6 that were between the rebels' propositions and his ; and 
' that I cannot alter mine, nor will they ever theirs, but by 
' force." § 

We shall only just mention the propositions relating to 
the militia and Ireland, our principal view being to relig- 
ion. The king's commissioners proposed to put the militia 
into the hands of trustees for three years, half to be named 
by the king, and half by the parliament, and then to revert ab- 
solutely to the crown, on pain of high treason. But the par- 
liament commissioners replied, that by the king's naming 
half the commissioners, the militia would be rendered in- 
active, and that after three years they should be in a worse 
Condition than before the war ; they therefore proposed, that 
the parliament should name the commissioners for seven 
■years, and then to be settled as the king and parliament 
should agree, or else to limit their nomination to three years 
after the king and parliament should declare the kingdom, to 
be in a settled peace. || It had been easy to form this pro- 
position, so as both parties might have complied with hon- 
or and safety, if they had been in earnest for an accom- 
modation ; but his majesty's commissioners could yield no 

As to Ireland, the king's commissioners justified his ma- 
jesty's proceedings in the cessation, and in sending for the 
rebels over to till up his armies ; and when the commission- 
ers on the other side put them in mind of his majesty's sol- 
emn promises to leave that affair to the parliament, and to 
have those rebels punished according to law ; the others 
replied, " they wished it was in his majesty's power to 

§ The quotation from Rapin, as Dr. Grey intimates, is not exact, or 
full. The passage stands thus; "1 cannot alter mine nor will they 
< ever theirs, till they be out of hope to prevail with force, which a lit- 
« tie assistance, hy thy means, will soon make them be; for I am con- 
c fident, if ever I could put them to a defensive, (which a reasonable 
'sum of money would do) they would be easily brought to reason." — 
Rnshworth, vol vii. p. 944. As the passage now appears at its full 
length, though the reader should judge Mr. Neal's manner ef quoting 
it inaccurate, he will perceive that he has truly given the idea and 
meaning of the King : who thought of nothing but of putting the par- 
liament out of hope of prevailing hy force, by carrying against them a 
superior force. Ed: " f| Uapin, p. 513. 


6 punish all rebellion according as it deserved ; but since 
i it was otherwise, he must condescend to treaties and to 
6 all other expedients necessary to reduce his rebellious 
f subjects to their duty and obedience."! Admirable ar- 
guments to heal divisions and induce the parliament to put 
the sword into the king's hands !§> 

The artiele of religion was, in the opinion of lord Clar- 
endon, of less consequence with many in the parliament 
bouse, for if they could have obtained a security for their 
lives and fortunes, he apprehends this might have been ac- 
commodated though, considering the influence of the Scots, 
and the growing strength of the presbyterian and indepen- 
dent parties, it is very macli to be doubted. However, this 
being the first point debated in the treaty, and a church 
controversy, it v. ill be proper to represent the instructions 
on both sides. Wnile this was upon the carpet, Br. Stew- 
ard, clerk of the closet, and a commissioner for the king, 
sat covered without the bar, behind the commissioners ; as 
did Mr. Henderson behind those of the parliament. The 
assistant divines were present in places appointed for 
them, opposite to each other. 

His majesty's instructions to his commissioners on the 
head of religion were these : " Here (says the king) the 
' government of the church will be the chief question^ 
* wherein two things are to be considered, conscience and. 
'policy ; for the first, I must declare, that I cannot yield 

f Clarendon, vol. ii. p. 592. 
§ Bishop Warburton treats this with contempt, calling it "a foolish 
< declamation. The subject here was Ireland, not the militia." So 
Mr. Neal represents it ; but the force of his remark turns on the pro- 
priety of putting the sword into the king's hands; and whether the 
sword was worn by the English militia or the Irish rebels, in either 
case it was an object of fear and jealousy to the parliament. The 
reader will not be displeased to see how the bishop becomes advocate 
for the king on the charge here alledged of breaking his promise to 
leave the Irish war to the parliament. His answer, i. e. the king's, 
says his grace, is to this effect, and I think it very pertinent. " It is 
'true, I made this promise, but it was when the parliament was my 
'friend, not my enemy. They might be then intrusted with my quar- 
' rel ; but it would be madness to think they now can. To prevent, 
' therefore, their making a treaty with the Irish, and in their distresses 
'bringing over their troops against me, 1 have treated with them, and 
'have brought over the troops against them" This was speaking 
like a wise and able prinee. Ed. 


6 to the change of the government by bishops, not only be- 
f eause I fully concur with the most general opinion of 
' christians iu all ages, in episcopacy's being the best gov- 
' eminent, but likewise I hold myself particularly bound 
' by the oath I took at my coronation, not to alter the gov- 
' eminent of this church from what I found it; and as for 
' the church patrimony, I cannot suffrr any diminution or 
' alienation of it, it being, without peradventure, sacrilege, 
' and likewise contrary to my coronation oath ; but w<Kit- 
i soever shall be offered for rectifying abuses, if any have 
'crept in, or for the ease of tender consciences, (provided 
'the foundation be not damaged) I am content to hear, and 
' willing to return a gracious answer. Touching the se. 
' cond, that is the point of policy, as it is the king's duty 
'to protect the church, so the -church is reciprocally bound 
' to assist the king in tlie maintenance of his just authority. 
' Upon these views my predecessors have been always 
'careful (especially since the reformation) to keep the de- 
' pendence of the clergy entirely upon the crown, without 
' which it will scarce set fast on the king's head ; there- 
'fore you must do nothing to change or lessen this natural 
6 dependence."* 

The commissioners from the two houses of parliament 
at Westminster, instead of being instructed to treat about 
a reformation of the hierarchy, were ordered to demand 
the passing of a bill for abolishing and taking away epis- 
copal government ; for confirming the ordinance for the 
calling and sitting of the assembly of divines ; that the di- 
rectory for public worship, and the propositions concern- 
ing church government, hereunto annexed, he confirmed 
as a part of reformation of religion and uniformity ; that 
his majesty take the solemn league and covenant, and that 
an act of parliament be passed, enjoining the taking it by 
all the subjects of the three kingdoms. f 

Thc propositions annexed to these demands were these 
(viz.) *' that the ordinary way of dividing christians into 
' distinct congregations, as most expedient for edification, 
' be by the respective bounds of their dwellings. 

" That the ministers, and other church officers in each 
'particular congregation, shall join in the government of 

* Rushworth, rol. v. p. 945. f Dugdale, p. 766, 


* the church ia such a manner as shall be established by 
' parliament. 

"That many congregations shall be under one presby- 

* terial government. 

*' That the church be governed by congregational, clas- 
sical and synodical assemblies in such manner as shall 
'be established by parliament. 

' ; That synodical assemblies shall consist both of pro- 
vincial and national assemblies."' 

One may easily observe the distance between the instruc- 
lions of the two parties ; one being determined to maintain, 
episcopacy, and the other no less resolute for establishing 
presbytery. After several papers had passed between the 
commissioners, about the bill for taking away episcopacy, 
it was debated by the divines for two days together. 

Mr. Henderson, in a labored speech, endeavored to shew 
the necessity of changing the government of the church, 
for the preservation of the state. '•' That now the ques- 

* tion was not, whether the government of tSie church by 
' bishops was lawful, but whether it was so necessary that. 
'Christianity could not subsist without it; — That this lat- 
' ter position could not be maintained in the affirmative; 
'without condemning all other reformed churches in Eu- 
'rope. — That the parliament of England had found epis- 

* cop-icy a very inconvenient and corrupt government — that 

* the hierarchy had been a public grievance from the refor- 
' mation downwards — that the bishops had always abetted 
' popery, had retained many superstitious rites and customs 
' in their worship and government; and over and above 
' had lately brought in a great many novelties into the 
'church, and made a nearer approach to the Roman com- 
' munion, to the great scandal of the protestant churches of 
' Germany, France, Scotland, and Holland. That the pre- 
Mates had embroiled the British island, and made the two 
' nations of England and Scotland fall foul upon each oth- 
'er. — That the rebellion in Ireland, and tiie civil war in 
'England, may be charged upon them — that for these rea- 
'sons the parliament had resolved to change this iuconvc- 
'nient, mischievous government, and set up another in the 
' room of it, more naturally formed for the advancement of 


i piety — that this alteration was the best expedient to unite 
' all protestant churches, and extinguish the remains of pop- 
'ery — he hoped therefore the king would concur in so 
* commendable and godly an undertaking; and conceived 
'his majesty's conscience could not be urged against such. 
' a compliance, because he had already done it in Scotland; 
'nor could he believe that episcopacy was absolutely nec- 
'essary to the support of the christian religion.''- 

Dr. Steward, clerk of the king's closet, addressing hip-> 
self to the commissioners, replied, " he knew their lord- 
' ships were too well acquainted with the constitution of 
'the church of England, and the basis upon which it stood, 
' to imagine it could be shaken by the force of Mr. Mender- 
'soil's rhetoric — that he was firmly of opinion, that a gov- 
' ernment, which from the planting of Christianity in Eng- 
'land had continued without interruption; that a govern- 
' ment under which Christianity had spread and flourished 
' to a remarkable degree, could have nothing vicious or an- 
' ti-christian in its frame ; that he expected that those who 
' had sworn themselves to an abolition of this primitive 
'constitution, and came hither to persuade their lordships 
'and his majesty to a concurrence, would have endeavored 
'to prove the unlawfulness of that government they press- 
' ed so strongly to remove ; — but though in their sermons 
' and prints they gave episcspacy an anti-christian addition, 
' Mr. Henderson had prudently declined charging so deep, 
'and only argued from the inconveniences of that goveru- 
'meut, and the advantages which would be consequent on 
'an alteration. Forasmuch as an union with the protes- 
' tant churches abroad was the chief reason for this change, 
'the doctor desired to know what foreign church they de- 
' signed for a pattern — that he was sure the model ia the 
' directory had no great resemblance to any foreign re- 
' formed church — and though he would not enter upon a 
'censure of those communions, yet it was well known that 
'the most learned men of those churches had lamented a 
' defect in their reformation ; and that the want of episco- 
'pacy was an unhappy circumstance — that they had always 
'paid a particular reverence to the church of England, 
' and looked on it as the most perfect constitution, upow 

* Clarendon, vol. ii. p. 584. 

*hAp. 3. of the puritans. £65 

i the score of its having retained all that was venerable in 
' antiquity — from hence he proceeded to enlarge upon the 
4 apostolical institution of episcopacy, and endeavored to 
' prove, that without bishops the sacerdotal character could 
' not be conveyed, nor the sacraments administered to any 
' significancy. 

" As to his majesty's consenting to put down episcopacy 
e in Scotland, he would say nothing, though he knew his 
i majesty's present thoughts upon that subject. But he ob- 
' served that the king was further obliged in this kingdom 
'than in the other; that in England he was tied by his cor- 
onation oath to maintain the rights of the church, and that 
•this single engagement was a restraint upon his majesty's 
< conscience, not to consent to the abolition of episcopacy, 
1 or the alienation of church lands." 

Mr. Henderson and Mr. Marshal declared it to be false 
in fact, and a downright imposition upon the commission- 
ers, that the foreign protectants lamented the -want of epis- 
copacy, and esteemed our constitution more perfect than 
their own.* They then ran out into a high commendation 
of presbyterial government, as that which had the only 
claim to a divine right.f Upon which the marquis of Hert- 
ford^ spoke to this effect : 

"My Lords, 

u HERE is much said concerning church government 
i in the general; the reverend doctors on the king's part 
•'affirm, that episcopacy is jure divino; the reverend minis- 
ters on the other part affirm, that presbytery is jure divi- 

* These assertions of Mr. Henderson and Mr. Marshal, are not to he 
found, as Dr. Grey remarks, in the place to which Mr. Neal refers. 
Rushworth says tfiere only in general, -'that Mr Henderson and Mr. 
' Marshal answered the doctor, commending the presbyterian way of 
' government, and (hat episcopacy was not so suitable to the word of God 
'as presbytery, which they argued to be jure divino." .See also Whit- 
locke's Memorials, p. 123. Dr. Grey fills several pa^es with quota- 
tions from Calvin, Beza, and other foreign divines, in favor of episco- 
pacy. Ed. 

f Rushworth, p. S4S. 

§ Rushworth and Whitlocke add, that the earl of Pembroke and many 
of the commissioners, besides these two lords, were of the same judg- 
ment, and wished, passing over this point, to eome to the particulars. 
Rushworth's Coll. vol. v. p. 849. Wlritlocke's Mem. p. 123. Ed. 
Vol. Ill, 84 


i no; for my part, I think neither the one nor the other, [( 
i nor any government whatsoever to he. jure divino ; and I; 
4 desire we may leave this argument, and proceed to debate. 
i on the particular proposals.*'* 

Dr. Steward desired ( hey. might dispute syllogistic ally, as 
became scholars, to which Mr. Henderson readily agreed ; 
in that way they proceeded about two days ; the points ur- 
ged by the king's doctors were strongly opposed by Mr. 
Henderson, Mr. Marshal and Mr. Vines, and very learn- 
edly replied to by his majesty's divines, who severally de- 
clared their judgments upon the apostolical institution of 
episcopacy; but neither party were convinced or satisfied. 

When the debate concerning religion came on a second 
time, his majesty's commissioners delivered in their answer 
to the parliament's demands in writing, with their reasons 
why they could not consent to the bill for abolishing epis- 
copacy, and establishing the directory in the room of the 
common-prayer, nor advise his majesty to take the cove- 
Bant : but for the uniting and reconciling all differences in 
matters of religion, and procuring a blessed peace, they 
were willing to consent, 

(1.) " That freedom be left to all persons, of what opin- 
( ion soever, in matters of ceremony, and that all the pen- 

* allies of the laws and customs which enjoin those cere- 
6 monies be suspended. f 

(2.) "That the bishop shall exercise no act of jurisdic- 
6 tion or ordination, without the consent of the presbyters', 
' who shall be chosen by the clergy of each diocese, out of 
6 the most learned and grave ministers of the diocese. $ 

(3.) " That the bishop keep his constant residence in, 
6 his diocese, except when he shall be required by his maj- 
<esty to attend him on any occasion, and that (if he be not 
6 hindered by the infirmities of old age, or sickness) he 
6 preach every Sunday in some church within his diocese, 

|| "The marquis of Hertford," says bishop Warburton, "seems to 
' have read Hooker to more advantage than the king his master; who 
4 fancied that great men contended for the jus divinum of episcopacy in. 

* his E. P. in which he has been followed by many divines since." Ed. 

* Wkitloeke, p. 123. t Rushwortb, p. 873. 

I Dugdale, p. 780. 


(4.) "That the ordination of ministers shall be always 
4 in a public and solemn manner, and very strict rules ob- 
' served concerning the sufficiency, and other qualifications 
4 of those men who shall be received into holy orders, and 
6 the bishops shall not receive any into holy orders without 

• the approbation and consent of the presbyters, or the 
rf m ijor part of them. 

(5.) " That a competent maintenance and provision be 

• established by act of parliament, to such vicarages as be- 

• long to bishops, deans, and chapters, out of the impro- 
priations, and according to the value of those impropria- 

• tions of the several parishes. 

(6.) "That for time to come no man shall be capable of 
' two personages, or vicarages, with cure of souls. 

(7.) " That towards settling tiie public peace, one hun- 

• dred thousand pounds shall be raised by act of parliament 
■ out of the estates of bishops, deans, and chapters, in such 
1 manner as shall be thought fit by the king and two houses 
4 of parliament, without the alienation of any of the said 
4 lands. 

(8.) "That the jurisdiction in causes testamentary, deci- 
6 mal, matrimonial, be settled in such manner as shall seem 
4 most convenient by the king and two houses of parliament. 

(9) " That one or more act of parliament be passed for 
4 regulating of visitations, and against immoderate fees in 
' ecclesiastical courts, and abuses by frivolous excommuni- 
' cation, and all other abuses in the exercise of ecclesiasti- 
4 cal jurisdiction, in such manner as shall be agreed upon 
'by the king and both houses of parliament. 

" And if your lordships shall insist upon any other thing, 
4 which your lordships shall think necessary for reforma- 
{ tion we shall very willingly apply ourselves to the consid- 

• eration thereof." But they absolutely refused their con- 
sent to the main points, (viz.) the abolishing episcopacy, 
establishing the directory, confirming the assembly of di- 
vines, and taking the covenant. 

Mr. Rapin observes, upon the first of these concessions, 
that since the penal laws were not to be abolished, but on- 
ly suspended, it would be in the king's power to take oft* 
the suspension whensoever he pleased. Upon third, fourth, 


and fifth, that they were so reasonable and necessai'y, that 
it was not for the king's honor to let them be considered as 
a condescension to promote the peace ; and the remainder, 
depending upon the joint consent of king and parliament, 
after a peace, it would always be in the king's breast to 
give or withhold his assent, as he thought fit.* 

The commissioners for the parliament replied to these 
concessions, that they were so many new propositions whol- 
ly different from what they had proposed, that they con- 
tained little or nothing but what they were already in pos- 
session of by the laws of the land ; that they were no way 
satisfactory to their desires, nor consisting with that re- 
formation to which both nations are obliged by the solemn 
league and covenant ; therefore they can give no other an- 
swer to them, but insist to desire their lordships, that the 
bill may be passed, and their other demands concerning 
religion granted. §> The parliament commissioners, in their 
last papers, say, that all objections in favor of thepresen§ 
hierarchy, arising from conscience, law, or reason, being 
fully answered, they must now press for a determinate 
answer to their proposition concerning religion. 

The king's commissioners deny, that their objections a- 
gainst passing the bill for abolishing episcopacy have been 
answered, or that they had received any satisfaction in 
those particulars, and therefore cannot consent to it. 

The parliament commissioners add, that after so many 
days debate, and their making it appear, how great an hin- 
drance episcopal government is, and has been to a perfect 
reformation, and to the growth of religion ; and how pre- 
judicial it has been to the state, they hoped their lordships 
would have been ready to answer their expectations. || 

The king's commissioners replied, " It is evident, and 
c we conceive consented to on all sides, that episcopacy has 
6 continued from the apostles' time, by a continued succes- 
6 sion, in the church of Christ, without intermission or in- 
terruption, and is therefore jure divino" 

The parliament commissioners answer, " So far were we 
I from consenting that episcopacy has continued from the 

* History, vol. ii. p. 512, 13. § Dugdale, p. 783. f) Ibid. p. 787. 


f apostles' time, by a continued succession, tbat the eontra- 
t ry was made evident to your lordships, and the unlawful- 
6 ness of it fully proved.*'! 

The king's commissioners replied, that they conceived 
the succession of episcopacy from the apostles was con- 
sented to on all sides, and did not remember that the un- 
lawfulness of it had been asserted and proved. $ However, 
they apprehend all the inconveniences of that government 
are remedied by the alterations which they had offered. 
Nor had the parliament commissioners given them a view 
in particular of the government they would substitute iu 
place of the present ; if therefore the alterations proposed 
do not satisfy, they desire the matter may be suspeuded 
till after the disbanding the armies, and both king and 
parliament can agree iu calling a national synod. 

The above mentioned concessions would surely have 
been a sufficient foundation for peace, if they had been 
made twelve months sooner, before the Scots had been 
called iu with their solemn league and covenant, and suf- 
ficient security had been given for their performance ; but 
the commissioners hands were now tied ; the parliament ap- 
prehending themselves obliged by the covenant to abolish 
the hierarchy ; and yet if the commissioners could have 
agreed about the militia, and the punishment of evil coun- 
sellors, the affair of religion would not, in the opinion of 
lord Clarendon, have hindered the success of the treaty ; 
his words are these: "The parliament took none of the 
'points of controversy less to heart, or were less united in 
' any thing than iu what concerned the church ;|| the Scots 
{ would have given up every thing into the hands of the 
f king for their beloved presbytery ; but many of the par- 
liament were for peace, provided they might have indent-, 
f nity for what was past, and security for time to come"% 
And were not these reasonable requests? Why then did 
not the commissioners prevail with the king to give them 
security, and divide the parliament, or put an end to the 

The last day of the treaty the parliament continued sit- 
ting till nine of the clock at night, in hopes of hearing 

t Dugdale, p. 7S8. § Ibid. p. 790, 878. 
I! Clarendon, vol. ii. p. 581. \ Ihid. p. 591. 


something from their commissioners, that might encourage 
them to prolong the treaty ; hut when an express brought 
word, that the king's commissioners would not yield to one 
of their propositions, they broke up without doing any thing 
in the business. Each party laid the blame upon the oth- 
er; the king's commissioners complained, that the parlia- 
ment would not consent to prolong the treaty ;§, and the 
others, that after twenty days conference not one proposi- 
tion had been yielded. All sober men, and even some of 
the king's commissioners, were troubled at the event ; but 
considering the state of the king's affairs, and his servile 
attachment to the counsels of a popish queen, it was easy 
to foresee it could not be otherwise. 

Bishop Burnet, in the History of his Life and Times, || 
says, that lord Hollis, who was one of the commissioners, 
told him " that the king's affairs were now at a crisis, 
' for the treaty of Uxbridge gave him an opportunity of 
' making peace with the parliament, but all was undone by 
'the unhappy success of the marquis of Montross at this 
'time in Scotland, which being magnified to the king far 
'beyond what it really was, prevailed with his majesty to 
'put such limitations on his commissioners, as made the 
'whole design miscarry." 

Most of the king's commissioners, who were not except- 
ed out of the article of indemnity, were for accommodating 
matters before they left Uxbridge. The earl of Southamp- 
ton rode post from Uxbridge to Oxford, to intreat the king 
to yield something to the necessity of the times ; several of 
of his council pressed him to it on their knees ; and it is 
said his majesty was at length prevailed with, and appoint- 
ed next morning to sign a warrant to that purpose, but that 
Montross' s romantic letter, of his conquest in Scotland, 
coming in the mean time, made the unhappy king alter his 
resolution. J 

§ See a proof of Hits in Dr. Grey. Ed. 

|i Vol. i. p. 51, Edinburgh edition, 

\ Dr. Grey attempts to convict Mr. Neal of falsehood in eaeh part nf 
this paragraph. For the first part, the doctor says, u that, as far as he 
'could learn, there was not so much as the shadow of an authority."— 
In reply, it may he observed, that though Mr. Neal has not, as it is to 


But there was something more in the affair than this ? 
lord Clarendon^ is of opinion, that if the king had yielded 
some things to the demands of the parliament relating to 
religion, the militia, and Ireland, there were still other 
articles in reserve that would have broken off the treaty ; 
in which I cannot but agree with his lordship ; for not to 
mention the giving up delinquents to the justice of parlia- 
ment, of which himself was one, there had beeu as yet no 
debate about the Roman catholics, whom the parliament 
would not tolerate, and the king was determined not to 
give up, as appears from the correspondence between him- 
self and the queen at this time. In the queen's letter, 
Jan. 6, 1644-5, she desires his majesty " to have a care 
( of his honor, and not to abandon those who had served 

* him — for if you agree upon strictness against Roman 
'catholics, it will discourage them from serving you ; nor 
1 can you expect relief from any Roman catholic prince — "$ 
In her letter of Jan. 27* she adds, " above all have a care 
' not to abandon those who have served you, as well the 
' bishops as the poor catholics.' 9 In answer to which the 

be wished he had, referred to his authority, yet the doctor's assertion is 
not well sup|M»rted. Fur Whitlocke informs us, that "on (he 19th of 

* Feb. the earl of Southampton and others «>f the king's commissioners 
'went from Uxbridge to Oxford, to the king, about the business of the 

* treaty, to receive some furl her directions from his majesty therein." 
Memorials, p. iiT. As the treaty closed on the 22t\, the reader will 
judge, whether Mr. Neal, speaking of the object and expedition of this 
jmirney, had not so much as the shadow of an authority. With res- 
pert to the latter part of the paragraph concerning Moutross. Dr. Grey 
will have it. that bishop Burnet's authority makes directly against Mr. 
Neal ; and then he quotes from him as follows : " Montross wrote to 

* the king, that he had gone over the land from Dan to Beersheba, 
4 and that he prayed the king to come down in these words, Come thou 
4 and take the city, lest I take it. and it he called by my name." This 
letter was written, but never sent, for he was routed, and his papers 
taken before he had dispatched the courier. Of course the doctor 
means to conclude, that I he king could not be influenced to obstruct 
the operation of I he treaty, by a letter which was never received. But 
it escaped Dr. Grey's attention, tbat the letter which he quotes was 
written more than a year after the treaty was broken off: and Mr. 
INeal speaks, on the authority of bishop Burnet, of another letter, or 
expresses received, while the treaty was pending. So that there is ne» 
contradiction in the case. Ed. 

t Vol. ii. p. 384-. t Ripia, vol. ii. p. 511, 512, folio edition. 

*%& faiE HIST ORY CHAP. 5; 

king writes, Jan. 30, " I desire thee to be confident, that 
f I shall never make peace by abandoning ray friends." 
And. Feb. 15, " Be confident, that in making peace I shall 
< ever shew ray confidence in adhering to the bishops, and 

* all bur friends — " March 5, « I give thee power in my 
'name, to declare to whom thou thinkest fit, that I will 

* take away all the penal laws against the Roman catholics 
fin England, as soon as God shall make me able to do it, 
' so as by their means I may have so powerful assistance 
' as in ay deserve so great a favor, and enable me. to do 
4 it — "J A.8 for Ireland, his majesty had already command- 
ed the Duke of Ormond, by his letter of Feb. &7, to make 
peace with the papists, cost what it would. " If the sus- 
4 pending Poyning8 9 8 act will do it, (says he) and taking 
4 away the penal laws, I shall not think it a hard bargain 
4 — When the Irish give me that assistance they have 
4 promised, I will consent to the repeal by law."j- 

It appears from hence, that the peace which the king 
seemed so much to desire was an empty sound. The 
queen was afraid he might be prevailed with to yield too 
far ; but his majesty bids her be confident of the contrary, 
for Ms commissioners would not he disputed from their 
ground, ivhich ivas according to the note she remembers* 
and which he would not alter. When the treaty was en- 
ded, he writes thus to the queen, March 13, i( Now is come 
4 to pass what I foresaw, the fruitless end of this treaty — 
•Now if I do any thing unhandsome to myself or my 
4 friends, it will be my own fault — I was afraid of being 
4 pressed to make some mean overtures to renew the trea- 
ty, but now if it be renewed it shall be to my honor and 
' advantage. "§> Such was the queen's ascendant over the 
king, and his majesty's servile submission to her imperi- 
ous dictates ;* the fate of three kingdoms was at her dis- 

\ Rushworth, vol. v. p. 942, 944, 946, 94?. f Ibid. p. 978, 979. 
§ Kapin, vol. ii. p 512, folio edition. 

* We will leave with our readers bishop Warburrons's remarks on 
this reflect ion of Mr. Neal. " Never was the observation, of the king's 
' unhappy attachment made in a worse place. His honor required him 
' not to give up his friends; and his religion, viz. the true principles 
' of Christianity, to take off the penal laws from peaceable papists; 
*and common humanity called upon him to favor those who had serv- 
' ed him at the hazard of their lives and fortunes."— It may be prop- 


posal ; no place at court or in the army must be disposed 
of without her approbation ; no peace must be made but 
upon her terms ; the Oxford mungrel parliament (as his 
majesty calls it) must be dismissed with disgrace, because 
they voted for peace ; the Irish protestants must be aban- 
doned to destruction ; and a civil war permitted to con- 
tinue its ravages throughout England and Seotlaud, that 
a popish religion and arbitrary government might be en- 
couraged and upheld. || 

As a farther demonstration of this melancholy remark^ 
his majesty authorised the earl of Glamorgan, by a war- 
rant under his royal signet, dated March IS, I64t, to con- 
clude privately a peace with the Irish papists upon the 
best terms he could, though they were such as his lieuten- 
ant the duke of Ormond might not well be seen in, nor his 
majesty himself think fit to own publicly at present, en- 
gaging, upon the word of a king and a christian, to ratify 
and perform whatsoever he should grant under bis hand 
and seal, on condition they would send over into England 
a body of ten thousand men, under the command of the 
said earl.^ The date of this warrant is remarkable, as it 

erly added, that religion, in the liberal sense in which his lordship 
explains the term, required the king to take off the penal laws from 
peaceable puritans as well as papists. But in his majesty's dictiona- 
ry the word does not appear to have borne so generous and just a mean- 
ing. Ed. 

|| Clarendon, vol. ii. p. 361. 
§ Dr. Grey treats this account of the earl of Glamorgan's commission, 
as a fiue piece of slander, furnished by a tribe of republican writers; 
and to confute it he produces a letter from the king to the lord lieu- 
tenant and council of Ireland, one from Col. King in Ireland, and a- 
nother from secretary Nicholas to the marquis of Ormond. There is 
no occasion here to enter into a discussion of the question concerning 
the authority under which the earl of Glamorgan acted. For since 
Mr. Neal and Dr. Grey wrote, the point has been most carefully and 
ably investigated by Dr. Birch, in " An Inquiry into the Share which 
* King Charles I. had in the Transactions of the Earl of Glamorgan,'* 
published in 17-1*7. And the fact has been put out of all doubt by a 
letter of that nobleman to the lord chancellor Hyde, written a few days 
after king Charles IPs restoration, which has appeared in the Claren- 
don State Papers, vol. ii. p. 20 — 203, and has been republished in the 
second edition of the Biographia Brilannica, vol. ii. p. 320, under the 
life of Dr. Birch. The geueral fact having been ascertained beyond 
all contradiction, the question vhich offers is, how far the king acted 
cfrhninally in this transaction. Mrs. Macaulay represents him as vio- 
Vol, III. W 


was at a time when his majesty's affairs were far from be- 
ing desperate ; when he thought the divisions in the par- 
liament-house would quickly be their ruin, and that he had 
little more to do than to sit still and be restored upon his 
own terms, for which reason he was so unyielding at the 
treaty of Uxbridge ; and yet the earl, by his majesty's 
commission, granted every thing to the Irish, even to the 
establishing the Roman catholic religion, and putting it on 
a level with the protectant ; he gave them all the churches 
and revenues they were possessed of since the rebellion, 
and not only exempted them from the jurisdiction of the 
protectant clergy, but allowed them jurisdiction over their 
several flocks, so that the reformed religion in that king- 
dom was in a manner sold for ten thousand Irish papists 
to be transported into England, and maintained for three 
years. Let the reader now judge, what prospect there 
could be of a well-grounded peace by the treaty of Ux- 
bridge ! What security there was for the protestaut reli- 
gion ! How little ground of reliance on the king's promi- 
ses ! and consequently, to whose account the calamities of 
the war, and the misery and confusions which followed af- 
ter this period, ought to be placed. 

The day before the commencement of the treaty of Ux- 
bridge, the members of the house of commons attended the 
f neral of Mr. John White chairman of the grand commit- 
tee of religion, and publisher of the century of scandalous 
ministers*, he was a grave lawyer (says lord Clarendon) 
and made a considerable figure in his profession. He had 

laling every principle of honor and conscience. Mr. Hume, on the 
contrary, speaks of it as a very innocent transaction, in which the king 
was engaged hy the most violent necessity. Dr. Birch considers it 
with temper, though he appears to think it not easily reeoneileable to 
t'*e idea of a good man, a good prince, or a good protestant. Mr. 
Walpole has some candid and lively reflections on it. "It requires," 
he observes, "very primitive resignation in a monarch to sacrifice his 
< crown and his life, when persecuted by subjects of his own sect, rath- 
« er than preserve both by the assistance of others of his subjects who 
* differed from him in ceremonials or articles of belief. — His fault was 
' not in proposing to bring over the Irish, but in having made them ne- 
4 cessary to his affairs. Every body knew, that he wanted to do with- 
« out them, all that he could have done with them." Biographia Bri- 
tannica, 2d edit. vol. ii. p. 3&t, note. Ed. 
See Rushworth, vol. vi. p. 239, &c. Rapin, 330. Hist. Stuarts, 309^ 


been one of the, feoffees for buying in impropriations, for 
which he was censured in the star-chamber. He was rep- 
resentative iu parliament for the borough of Southwark ; 
having been a puritan from his youth, ami, in the opinion 
of Mr. Whitlocke,* an houest, learned, and faithful ser- 
vant of the public, though somewhat severe at the commit- 
tee for plundered ministers. He died Jan. 29, and was 
buried in the Temple church with great fuueral solemnity.^ 

* Memorials, p. 122. 

§Dr. Grey on the authority of Walker, "charges Mr. White with 
f corrupt practices by the way of bribery ; says that Dr. Bruno Ryves 
'called him & fornicating Brownist,&Tu] that the author of Persec Vn- 

* dec. suggests much worse against him ; and, on the testimony of an 
1 anonymous author, represents him as dying distracted crying out, how 

* many clergymen, their wives and children he had undone ; raving and 
( condemning himself at his dying hour, for his undoing so many guiltless 
< ministers." Such representations carry little weight with them against 
the testimony of Clarendon and Whitloeke : especially, when it is 
considered that the obnoxious part, which Mr White acted, would 
necessarily create many enemies ; some of whom would invent and 
others eagerly credit, the most reproachful calumnies against him Dr. 
Calamy and Mr. Withers, whom Dr. Grey never notices, have suffi- 
ciently exposed the partiality and credulity of Dr. Walker, to render 
his assertions suspicious. And it should not be overlooked, as a strong 
presumption at least of the purity of Mr. White's character and the 
integrity of his proceedings, that he appealed to the public by his 
fi Centaries of Scandalous Ministers." Ed. 




The Progress of the War. Debates in the Assembly about 
Ordination. The Power of the Keys. The divine 
Might of Presbyterian Government. Committees for 
Comprehension and Toleration of the Independents. 

THE king's corninissoners had been told at the treaty 
of Uxbridge, that the fate of the English monarchy de- 
pended upon its success ; that if the treaty was broken off 
abruptly, there were a set of men in the house, who would 
remove the earl of Essex, and constitute such an army as 
might force the parliament and king to consent to every 
thing they demanded, or change the government into a 
commonwealth ; whereas, if the king would yield to the 
necessity of the times, they might preserve the general, 
and not only disappoint the designs of the enemies to mon- 
archy, but soon be in circumstances to enable his majesty 
to recover all he should resign. However, the commis- 
sioners looked upon this as the language of despair, and 
made his majesty believe the divisions at Westminster 
would soon replace the sceptre in his own hands.* 

The house of commons had been dissatisfied with the 
conduct of the earls of Essex and Manchester last sum- 
mer, as tending to protract the war, lest one party should 
establish itself upon the ruins of the other; but the warm- 
er spirits in the house, seeing no period of their calamities 
this way, apprehended a decisive battle ought to be fought 
as soon as possible, for which purpose, after a solemn fast, 
it was moved that all the present officers should be dis- 
charged, and the army intrusted in such hands as they 
could confide in. Dec. 9, it was resolved, that no member 
of either house should execute any office civil or military, 
during the present war ; accordingly the ordinance., com- 

* Clarendon, vol. ii. p. 595. 


monly called the self denying ordinance, was brought in, 
and passed the commons ten days after, but was laid aside 
by the lords till after the treaty of Uxbridge, when it was 
revived and carried with some little opposition. The earls 
of Essex, Manchester, Warwick, and Denbigh, the lord 
Roberts, Willoughby, and others, were dismissed by this 
ordinance, § and all members of the house of commons, ex- 
cept lieutenant-general Cromwell, who after a few months 
was dispensed with, at the request of the new general. 
All the regiments were disbanded, and such only listed 
under the new commanders as were determined to conquer 
or die. Sir Thomas Fairfax was appointed general,J and 
Oliver Cromwell, after some time, lieutenant-general ; the 
clause jfar preservation of the king's person was left out of 
sir Thomas's commission ; nor did it run in the name of 
the king and parliament, but of the parliament only. The 
army consisted of twenty-one thousand resolute soldiers, 
and was called in contempt by the royalists the new-model- 
led army; but their courage quickly revenged the contempt. 
Sir TJiomas Fairfax was a gentleman of no quick parts 
or elocution ; but religious, faithful, valiant, and of a grave, 
sober, resolved disposition : neither too great, nor too cun- 
ning to be directed by the parliament.* Oliver Cromwell 
was more bold and aspiring ; and being a soldier of undaunt- 
ed courage and intrepidity, proved at length too powerful for 
bis masters. The army was more at his disposal than at 
Fairfax's, and the wonders they wrought sprung chiefly 
from his counsels. 

§ " Thus almost all those men, by whose interest, power, and author- 
ity, the war witli the king had been undertaken, and without whom 
'no opposition, of any weight, could possibly have been raised, were 

* in a short time deprived of their power and influence over their own 

* army, and obliged, as \ve shall soon see, to truckle before them. So lit— 
< tie can men see into futurity! so different are the turns things take, 
« from what men are apt to expect and depend on." Dr. Harris's Life 
of Oliver Cromwell, p. 118. 

$ Sir Thomas Fairfax's power extended to the execution of martial 
law, and the nomination of the officers under him. The army was put 
solely under the command of one man. " What was this," it has been 
properly asked, " but to put it into his power to give law to the parli- 

* ament, whenever he thought fit." Dr. Harris, ut supra. Ed. 

* Baxter's Life, p. 48. 


When the old regiments were broken, the chaplains, be- 
ing discharged of course, returned to their cures; and as 
new ones were formed, the officers applied to the parlia- 
ment and assembly for a fresh recruit; but the presbyteri- 
an ministers being possessed of warm benefices, were un- 
willing to undergo the fatigues of another campaign, or, it 
may be, to serve with men of such desperate measures. — 
This fatal accident proved the ruin of the cause in w ich 
the parliament were engaged ; for the army being desti- 
tute of chaplains, who might have restrained the irregular- 
ities of their zeal, the officers setup for preachers in their 
several regiments, depending upon a kind of miraculous 
assistance of the divine spirit, without any study or prepar- 
ation ; and when their imaginations were heated, they gave 
vent to the most crude and undigested absurdities; nor 
did the evil rest there, for from preaching at the head of 
their regiments, they took possession of the country pul- 
pits where they were quartered, till at length they spread 
the infection over the whole nation, and brought the regu- 
lar ministry into contempt. Most of the common soldiers 
were religious and orderly, and when released from duty 
spent their time in prayer and religious conferences, like 
men who carried their lives in their hands ; but for want 
of prudent and regular instruction, were swallowed up in 
the depths of enthusiasm. Mr. Baxter therefore observes 
very justly, " It was the ministers that lost all by forsak- 
6 ing the army, and betaking themselves to an easier and 
4 quieter way of life. When the earl of Essex's army 

* went out, each regiment had an able chaplain, but after 

* Edge-Hill fight most of them went home, and left the ar- 
6 my to their own conduct." But, even after the decisive 
battle of Naseby, he admits, great numbers of the officer* 
and soldiers were sober and orthodox ; and from the little 
good which he did whilst among them, concludes, that if 
their ministers would have followed his measures, the 
king, the parliament, and religion, might have been saved. £ 

The new-modelled troops were kept under the severest 
discipline, commissioners being appointed to take care that 
the country was not oppressed ; that no soldiers were quar- 

§ Baxter's Life, p. Si, 5%. 


teied in any place but by appointment of the quarter-mas- 
ter: that ready money be paid for all provisions and ammu- 
nition ; every soldier had six-pence a day for his diet, and 
every trooper eight-pence. No inhabitants were compel- 
led to furnish more provision than they were able and wil- 
ling to spare, under the severest penalties ; whereas the 
royal army, having no regular pay, lived upon the plunder 
of those places that had the misfortune to receive them. 

May 30, the king took the town of Leicester by storm, 
with a very great treasure, which the country people had 
brought thither for security, his soldiers dividing the spoil, 
and treating the inhabitants in a most cruel and unmerciful 
manner: after this conquest, his majesty wrote to the queen, 
that his affairs were never in so hopeful a posture since the 
rebellion. || The parliament army were preparing to lay 
siege to the city of Oxford, but upon news of this disaster, 
.had orders to follow the king, and hazard a battle at all 
eveuts ; whereupon sir Thomas Fairfax petitioned the two 
houses, to dispense with their self-denying ordinance, with 
respect to lieutenant-general Cromwell, whose courage and 
counsels would be of great service in the present crisis ; 
Cromwell was accordingly dispensed with during pleasure, 
and having joined the array with six hundred horse and 
dragoons, they overtook the king, and gave him battle June 
14, at Naseby, about three miles from Harberoagu in Lei- 

The action began about ten in the morning, and ended 
about three or four in the afternoon, in an absolute defeat 
of the king's forces, which was owing, in a great measure, 
to the wise conduct and resolution of lieutenant-general 
Cromwell on the one hand, and to the indiscreet fury and 
violeuce of prince Rupert on the other. The armies were 
pretty equal in number, about twelve or fourteen thousand 
on a side, but the parliament soldiers were better discipli- 
ned, and fought with all the bravery and magnanimity that 
an enthusiastic zeal could inspire. General Fairfax, hav- 
ing his helmet beat off. rode up and down the field bare- 
headed ; major-general Skippon received a wound in the 
beginning of the engagement, upon which being desired. to 

!l Whitlecke's Memoirs, p. 14?, 14-1, 


go off, he answered he would not stir as long as a man 
Would stand. Ireton was run through the thigh with a 
pike, had his horse killed under him, and was made a pris- 
oner, but found means to escape upon the turn of the battle. 
The king shewed himself a courageous commander, Dafc NW 
soldiers were struek with such a panic, that when they 
were once disordered they would never rally, whereas it 
their enemies were beaten from their ground they presentr 
ly returned, and kept their ranks till they received fresh 
instructions.* When prince Jiwpert had routed Ireton 7 $ 
left wing, he lost his advantage, first, by following the chace 
almost three miles, and then by trying to become master of 
the train of artillery, before he knew the success of the 
main body ; whereas, when Cromwell had broke the right 
wing of the enemy, he pursued them only a quarter of a 
mile, and leaving a small party of horse to prevent their 
rallying, returned immediately to the battle, and with his 
victorious troops charged the royal infantry in flank. The 
parliament army took above five thousand prisoners ; all 
the king's train of artillery, bag and baggage, with his cab- 
inet of letters, some of which were afterwards published to 
the world ; not above six or seven hundred of his men be- 
ing killed, with about one hundred and fifty officers. The 
king, with a party of horse, fled into Wales, and prince 
Hubert to Bristol ; but the parliament forces pursued their 
victory with such eagerness, and marched with that rapid- 
ity over the whole west of England, to the very land's end, 
that in a few months all the royal forces were dispersed, 
and his majesty's garrisons surrendered almost before they 
were summoned. || The city of Bristol, into which prince 
Rupert had thrown himself, capitulated before the besieg- 
ers approached the walls, which provoked the king to that 
degree, that he commanded him by letter to depart the land, 
as did also the prince of Wales?, for the security of his per- 
son ; so that by the end of this campaign, the unhappy king 
was exposed to the mercy of his enemies, and shut up all 
the winter little better than a prisoner in his garrison of 

* WhitIocke,p. 145. Clarendon, vol. ii. p. 658. 
(| Rapin, vol. ii. p. 517, 51S, folio. 

tt'HAP. 6. OF THE PURITANS. 98 1 

To return to the affairs of the church. When it is re- 
collected what great number of clergymen had deserted to 
the king, or were otherwise dissatisfied with the new terms 
of conformity, we must conclude it very difficult to sup- 
ply the vacant pulpits in the country with a learned and 
regular clergy ; one of the universities was entirely use- 
less, and the young students who adhered to the parliament 
could not obtain ordination in a legal way, because all the 
bishops were in the opposition, and would ordain none but 
those of their own principles, which was another cause of 
the increase of unqualified preachers. To put some stop 
to the clamors of the royalists, and to the mischiefs of lay- 
preaching, which began to appear in the army, the parlia- 
ment ordained April 26, " That no person shall be permit- 

* ted to preach who is not ordained a minister in this or some 
6 other reformed church, except such as intend the minis- 

* try, who shall be allowed for the trial of their gifts, by 
' those that shall be appointed thereunto by both houses of 
e parliament ; and it is earnestly desired, that sir Thomas 
6 Fairfax take care, that this ordinance be put in execution 
6 in the army. It is further ordered to be sent to the lord- 
4 mayor, and committee of the militia in London ; to the 
6 governors and commanders of all forts, garrisons, forces, 

* cities and towns, with the like injunction ; and the mayor, 
; sheriffs, and justices of the peace, are to commit all of- 

* fenders to safe custody, and give notice to the parliament, 
i who will take a speedy course for their punishment.* 

At the same time the lords sent to the assembly, to pre- 
pare a new directory for the ordination of ministers of the 
church in England, without the presence of a diocesan bi- 
shop. This took them up a great deal of time, by reason 
of the opposition it met with from the erastians and inde- 
pendants, but was at last accomplished, and passed into an 
ordinance, beariug date Nov. 8, 164J, and was to continue 
in force by way of trial for twelve months ; on the 38th of 
August following, it was prolonged for three years, at the 
expiration of which term it was made perpetual. 

The ordinance sets forth, " That whereas the words 
•presbyter and bishop do in scripture siguify the same fuac- 

* Husband's Collections, p. 645. 
Vol. III. 36 


' tion, though the title of bishop has been, by corrupt cus- 
' toai, appropriated to one, who has assumed to himself, in 

* the matter of ordination, that which was not meet ; which 
f ordination, notwithstanding being performed by him, we 
' hold for substance to be valid, and not to be disclaimed by 
' any that have received it ; and whereas it is manifest, that 
' ordination, that is, an outward solemn setting apart of 
{ y per sons for the office of the ministry in the church by preach- 
' ins; presbyters, is an institution of Christ, it is therefore 
' ordained by the lords and commons, with the advice of 
' the assembly of divines at Westminster, that the several 
' and respective classical presbyters within their respective 
'bounds may examine, approve, and ordain presbyters, 

* according to the following directory,"* which I have pla- 
ced in the Appendix,f and is in substance as follows : 

First, " The person to be ordained must apply to the 
'presbytery, with a testimonial of his taking the covenant, 
' of his proficiency in his studies," &c. 

Secondly, (i He is then to pass" under an examination as 
' to his religion and learning, and call to the ministry." 

Then follow rules for examination, as in the appendix. 

" After examination he shall receive a public testimonial 
'from his examiners, which shall be read publicly before 
' the people, and then fixed to the door of the church where 
'he preaches for approbation, with liberty to any person 
' or persons to make exceptions. 

*' Upon the day of ordinatiou a solemn fast shall be kept 
' by the congregation, when, after a sermon, the per- 
' son to be ordained shall make a public confession of 
' his faith, || and declare his resolution to be diligent 
' and constant in the discharge of his pastoral duty. Af- 

* Rushworth, part iv. vol. i. p. 212. f Appendix, No. ix. 

fl It deserves to be noticed here, that the advice and orders of the 
Westminster assembly are. on this point, very general ; namely, f that 
'the person to be ordained be asked of'his faith in Jesus Christ, of his 
' persuasion of the truth of the reformed religion according to the scrip- 

* lures, and of his zeal for the truth of the gospel and unity of the church, 
4 against error and schism." " This, I think, is an evident presumption." 
observes a late writer, " that the majority of the assembly were against 
' imposing human tests, and making subscription to their confession a 
' necessary term of communion, either to miuisters or other christians. 7 * 

<JHAP. 6. <#F THE PURITANS. £88 

* ter which be shall be separated, or set apart to the pasto- 

* ral office with a short prayer, and the laying on of the 
•hands of the ministers present. After the ordination, 
« there is to be an exhortation to minister and people, and 
•' the whole solemnity to conclude with a psalm and a 
' prayer. 

It is further declared, " That all ordinations, according 
J to the former usage of the church of England, as well as 
6 those of Scotland, and other reformed churches, shall be 
I esteemed valid. 

" A register is to be kept by every presbytery of the 
< names of the persons ordained by them, of the ministers 

* concerned, and of the time and place where they were 

* settled. No money or gift whatsoever shall be received 
' from the person ordained, or from any on his behalf, for 
' his ordination, or any thing relating to it, except for the 
'instruments or testimonials, which shall not exceed ten 

* shillings. 

Lastly, It is resolved, " That all persons ordained ac* 

* curding to this directory, shall be for ever reputed and 
' taken to all intents and purposes, for lawfully, and suf- 
' ficieotly authorised ministers of the church of England, 
1 and as capable of any ministerial employment in the 
\ church, as any other presbyter already ordained, or here- 

* after to be ordained." 

To give a short specimen of the debates upon this ordi- 
nance ; when the passage in Timothy, of laying on of the 
hands of the presbytery was voted a full warrant for pres* 
byters ordaining without a bishop, Mr. Selden, Lightfoot? 
and some others, entered their dissent, declaring, that the 
jui position of hands there spoken of was only upon the or- 
dination of an elder; and though elders might ordain el- 
ders, it did not necessarily follow they might ordain bish- 

The independents maintained the right of every partic- 
ular congregation to ordain its own officers; this was de- 
bated ten days ; and the arguments on both sides were af- 
terwards published by consent of the several parties, in a 

" The religious establishment of Scotland examined, &e." printed for 
Cadell, 1771, p. 105 This is the more remarkable, as, in other in- 
staeces, this synod shewed themselves dogmatiqal and intolerant. f§4* 


book, entitled, The grand Debate between Presbytery and 
Independency.* At length the question being put, that it 
is requisite no single congregation, that can conveniently 
associate with others, should assume to itself the sole right 
of ordination, it was carried in the affirmative, the follow- 
ing independent ministers entering their dissent : 

William Bridge, 
William Greenhill, 
William Carter. 

Tho. Goodwin, 

Phil. Nye, 

Jer. Burroughs, 

Sid rack Simpson, 
It was next debated, whether ordination might precede 
election to a particular cure or charge ; Dr. Temple, Mr. 
Merle, Vines, Palmer, Whitaker, and Calamy, argued for 
the affirmative. 1. From the ordination of Timothy, Titus, 
and Apollos, without any particular charge. 2. Because 
it is a different thing to ordain to an office, and to appro- 
priate the exercise of that office to any particular place. 
3. If election must precede ordination, then there must be 
a new ordination upon every new election. 4. It would 
then follow, that a minister was no minister out of his own 
church or congregation. And, 5. Then a minister could 
not gather or plant churches, or baptize new converts, be- 
cause, according to the independents, there must first be a 
church before there can be a minister, f 

Mr. Goodwin, Nye, Bridge, and the rest of the inde- 
pendents, replied to the foregoing reasons, that Timothy 
and Titus were extraordinary officers — that it appeared to 
them absurd, to ordain an officer without a province to ex- 
ercise the office in — that they saw no great inconvenience 
in re -ordinations, though they did not admit the conse- 
quence, that a person regularly ordained to one church, 
must be re-ordained upon every removal ; but they assert- 
ed, that a pastor of one particular church might preserve 
his character in all places ; and if there was extraordinary 
service to be done in planting new churches, or baptizing 
converts, the churches might send out their officers, or cre- 
ate new ones for that purpose. The grand difficulty with 
the independents lay here, that ordination without election 
to a particular charge seemed to imply a conveyance of of- 

* Grand Debate, p. 185. f MS, penes rae. 



fee-power, which, in their opinion, was attended with all 
the difficulties of a lineal succession. The debates upon 
this article continued several days, and issued at last in a 
compromise in these words ; It is agreeable to the word of 
God, and very expedient, that those ivlio are to be ordained 
ministers, be designed to some particular church, or other 
ministerial charge. And with regard to the ceremony of 
imposition of hands, the independents acquiesced in the 
practice, provided it was attended with an open declara- 
tion, that it teas not intended as a conveyance of office-power. 

It may seem absurd to begin the reformation of the 
church, with an ordinance appointing classical presbyters 
to ordain ministers within their several districts, when there 
was not as yet one classical presbytery in all England ; 
but the urgency of affairs required it; the scarcity of min- 
isters would not suffer a delay till the whole fabric of pres- 
bytery was erected ;* therefore, to supply this defect for 
the present, the whole business was entrusted with the as- 
sembly, who voted, Dec. &4, 1645, that a committee for ex- 
amination of ministers should sit every Tuesday and Thurs- 
day in the afternoon at two o'clock, and the members of 
the assembly should attend in their turns, as they shall be 
nominated and appointed by the scribe, according to the 
order of their names in the register book, five at a time, 
and each to attend a week. 

♦While the point of ordination was depending, commit- 
tees were chosen to prepare materials for a new form of dis- 
cipline and church government ; a measure of the greater 
consequence, because the old form was dissolved, and no 
other as yet established in its room.f Here the independ- 
ents agreed with the presbyterians, that there was a cer- 
tain form of church government laid down in the JSTeiv- 
Testamejit, which was of divine institution ; but when 
they came to the question, what that government was ? and, 
whether it urns binding in all ages of the church f both the 
erastiaus and independents divided against them. Ihe 
proposition was this, that the scripture holds forth, that 
many particular congregations may, and by divine insti- 
tution ought, to be under one presbyterial government. 
The debate lasted thirty days ; the erastians did not ex 

* Vide Appendix, No. ix. ilbid. 


cept against the presbyterial government as a political in- 
stitution, proper to be established by the civil magistrate, 
but they were against the claim of a divine right. Upon 
this occasion Bulstrode Whitlocke, Esq. one of the lay- 
commissioners, stood up, and made the following speech :# 

"Mr. Prolocutor, 

'* I MIGHT blush to speak in this reverend assembly, 
' upon the question now in debate before you, had I not, 
i by the honor of being one of your members, seen your 
' candor to others, and observed you to be most capable to 
' give satisfaction to any scruple here, and to enable such 
' as I am to satisfy objections abroad, whereof I have met 
6 with some, your question not being under secrecy, 

" By government all men understand the prudent and 
' well ordering of persons and affairs, that men may live 
' well and happily ; and by the government of the church, 
' the ordering and ruling of persons and matters having re- 
' lation to the worship of God, in spiritual matters. 

" The word presbyter was in great honor among the 
6 Jews, being given to the members of their great sanhe- 
6 drim, and therefore is not now so properly to be attribut- 
ed to the rulers of every small congregation. I am none 
'of those. Mr. Prolocutor, who except against the presby- 
' terian government ; I think it has a good foundation, and 
6 has done much good in the church of Christ. 

" But, sir, whether this form of government be jure di- 

* vino or not, may admit of some dispute ? aud, whether it 
' be now requisite for you to declare, that it is so? 

" If the meaning be, that it is jure divino ecclesiastico, 
6 then the question will be raised, of the magistrates im- 
i posing forms upon men's consciences, for then they will 

* be only the magistrates' imposition. But if the meaning 
' be jure divino absolute, it must then be the precept of 
' God, and they are in a sad condition who are not under 
' this government. 

"But it is objected, that no form of government is jure 
' divino, but that, in general, all things must be done de~ 
' cently, and in order. A government is certainly jure 

* Whitloeke's Memorials, p. 95. 

^HAP. 0. ©F THE PURITANS. $&f 

'divino, but whether presbytery, episcopacy, independent 
i cy, or any other form of government be jure divino, or not; 
' that is, whether there be a prescript, rule or command of 

* scripture, for any of those forms, will not be admitted by 
' many as a clear thing. 

" It may therefore not be unworthy your consideration, 
< whether it be not more prudent at this time to forbear to 
4 declare your judgments in this point; the truth will never- 
theless continue the same. 

"If this government be not jure divino, no opinion of 
# any council can make it so; and if it be jure divino, it 
'continues so still, though you do not declare it to be so. 

" I therefore humbly submit it to your judgments, wheth- 
er it be not better at this time to avoid giving occasion to 
4 disputes of this nature, and only to present your jttdg- 
4 ment to the parliament, that the government of the church 
61 by presbyteries is most agreeable to the word of God, and 

* most jit to be settled in this kingdom ; or, in what other 
i expressions you may think fit to clothe your question; 
' and I hope you may soon have a desired issue." 

Mr. Selden and St. John were of this mind ; and the 
Reverend Mr. Colman was so zealous on this side, that 
he declaimed against the divine right, not only in the as- 
sembly, but in the pulpit, apprehending presbytery would 
prove as arbitrary and tyrannical as prelacy, if it came in 
on the foot of a divine claim. He therefore proposed, that 
the civil magistrate should have the sole power of the keys 
by way of interim, till the nation was settled. 

But tne independents opposed the proposition of the di- 
vine right of presbytery, by advancing a counter divine* 
right ot their own scheme ; fifteen days they took the part 
of opponents, and fifteen days they were upon the defen- 
sive. To give a short specimen of their debates. 

The chief enquiries were concerning the constitution and 
form of the first church of Jerusalem ; the sub-ordination of 
synods, and of lay -elders.-- Upon the first question the in- 
dependents maintained, that the first church at Jerusa- 
lem was not larger than could meet in one place. In sup 

* Grand Debate, p. 13, &c. 


port of which allegation, they produced several passages 
from the New Testament ; as, Acts i. 15. The whole num- 
ber of disciples being about one hundred and twenty met 
together with one accord. And Acts ii. 1. They were all 
with one accord in one place. When they were multipli- 
ed to three thousand, it is still said, they met together with 
one accord, and in one place : Acts ii. 46. When they 
were further increased, multitudes being added to them, 
both men and women, they still met together with one ac- 
cord, and in one place : Acts v. 12, 14. When the number 
of disciples had received yet further additions, so that it be- 
came necessary to choose deacons to take care of the poor, 
the whole multitude w 7 ere called together, and chose out 
seven men from among themselves, and set them before 
the apostles : Acts vi. 2, 5. And even after the general dis- 
persion of the disciples, mentioned Acts viii, it is record- 
ed, that those who remained met together in one place as 
a church. Acts xv. 4, 22. Then pleased it the apostles and 
elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their 
own company to Antioch. They allowed that there was 
mention of a presbytery in scripture, but that it was no 
other than the presbytery or elders of one particular church 
or congregation, it being no where expressed, that God 
has set in the church, distinct sorts of presbyteries, such as 
consistories, classes, provincial, synods, and general as- 
semblies, one above another. They objected also to the 
high powers claimed by the presbyteries, as the right of 
admission and exclusion from the christian church with 
pains and penalties, which, as they had no foundation in 
scripture, were not very consistent with the powers of the 
civil magistrate. 

By way of reply the presbyterians maintained, that the 
church of Jerusalem was made up of more congregations 
than one, as appeared from the multitude of disciples men- 
tioned in divers places ;* — from the many apostles and 
teachers in the church of Jerusalem, who could not exer- 
cise their gifts in one assembly ; — and from the diversity 
of languages mentioned Acts ii. and Acts vi. Now it being 
granted, that the disciples were too numerous to assemble 
in one place, it must follow, that they were under onepresby- 

* Grand Debate, p. 41. 


tevial government, because they are still called one church, 
.fr^s viii. 1, the elders of which are often mentioned in the 
sane history. The ablest critics in the assembly were di- 
vided upon this head, as Dr. Temple, Lightfoot, Selden, 
Colman, Vines, and others ; but it was carried for the 

It was alledged, in favor of the subordination of synods, 
that the scripture speaks of an appeal from one or two 
brethren to the whole church, Matth. xviii. 15; and of the 
appeal of the church at Antioch to the apostles and elders 
at Jerusalem, Acts. xv. 2.* But the independents affirm- 
ed, that a synod of presbyters is no where called a church ; 
and that the appeal of the church of Antioch was only for 
advice, not for a judicial determination : but that, suppo- 
sing the assembly of the apostles at Jerusalem had been a 
synod, it could neither be provincial nor national in res- 
pect of the church at Antioch, and consequently no proof 
of a subordination. The masters of Jewish antiquities dis- 
played all their learning upon this subject, for the Jewish 
sanhedrim being proposed as the model of their christian 
presbytery, it was necessary to enquire, what were the res * 
pective powers of the ecclesiastical and civil courts under 
the law.\ Moses having appointed, that he that would 
not hearken to the priest, or the judge, should die, Dent. 
xvii. 12, it was inferred, in favor of church power, that the 
priest held one court, and the civil magistrate auotherj 
but Mr. Selden observed, that the vulgar Latin till within 
these forty years reads thus, Qui non obediverit sacerdoti 
ex decreto judicis morietur. He that will not obey the 
priest shall die by the sentence of the judge / and Mr. 
Lightfoot added, that when the judges of inferior courts 
went up to Jerusalem by way of appeal, it was only for 
advice and consultation ; but when the question was put, 
Dec. 12, for a sub-ordination of synods with lay-elders, 
as so many courts of judicature, with power to dispense 
church censures, it was carried in the affirmative, and in- 
serted in their humble advice, with this addition ; " so 
■' Christ has furnished some in his church (besides minis- 
i ters of the word) with gifts for government, and with 
* commission to execute the same, when called thereunto^ 

* Grand Debate, p. 115, 128, &c. f Ltent foot's Remarks, p. 17. 

Vol. III. 37 


6 who are to join with the minister in the government of 
'■the church, which officers the reformed churches general- 
ly call ELDERS. 77 * 

Thus the main foundations of the presbyterial govern-' 
mcnt were voted of divine apjwintment by a very great 
majority; but the independents entered their dissent in 
writing, and complained to the world " of the unkind us- 
6 age they met with in the assembly ; that the papers they 
6 offered were not read ; that they were not allowed to state 
' their own questions, being told they set themselves in- 
6 dustriously to puzzle the cause, and render the clearest 
i propositions obscure, rather than argue the truth or false- 
' ness of them — that it was not worth the assembly's while 
( to spend so much time in debating with so inconsiderable 
c a number of men ;J they also declared, that the assembly 
i refused to debate their main proposition, viz. whether a 
i divine right of church government did not remain with 
' every particular congregation." — To all which it was 
replied, that the assembly were not conscious they had 
done them any injustice, and as for the rest, they were the 
proper judges of their own methods of proceeding. 

The erastians, seeing how things were carried, reserved 
themselves for the house of commons, where they were 
sure to be joined by all the patrons of the independents. 
The English and Scots commissioners being no less so- 
licitous about the event, gave their friends notice to be ear- 
ly in their places, hoping to carry the question before the 
house should be full ; but Mr. Glyn, perceiving their in- 
tention, spoke an hour to the point of Jus divinum ; and 
after him Mr. Whitlccke stood up and enlarged upon the 
same argument, till the house was full, when the question 
being put, it was carried in the negative ; and that the pro- 
position of the assembly should stand thus, That it is law- 

* Vide Appendix, No. ix. 

\ This is a specimen of that insolence of spirit, that pride and 
haughtiness in numbers which a conviction of acting with the majority 
begets. These men did not recollect, that the christians themselves at 
the beginning, were an inconsiderable number of men, and the disciples 
of the trne and faithful witness a " little flock." They had forgotten 
the gracious promise made to " two or three" only, gathered together 
in the name of Christ. Ed. 


church be governed by congregational, classical, and sy- 
yiodical assemblies. || 

The disappoinment of the Scots commissioners and their 
friends at the loss of this question in the house, is not to 
be expressed ; they alarmed the citizens with the danger 
of the church, and prevailed with the common-council to 
petition the parliament £Nov. 15] that the presbyterian 
discipline, might be established as the discipline of Jesus 
Christ ; but the commons answered with a frown, that the 
citizens must have been misinformed of the proceedings of 
the house, or else they would not have precipitated the judg- 
ment of parliament. Not discouraged at this rebuke, they 
prevailed with the city ministers to petition, who, when 
they came to the house, where told by the speaker, they 
need not trait for an answer, but go home and look to the 
charges of their several congregations ; and immediately 
appointed a committee to enquire into the rise of these pe- 

The presbyterian ministers, despairing of success with 
the commons, instead of yielding to the times, resolved to 
apply to the house of lords, who received them civilly, and 
promised to take their request into consideration ; but no 
advances being made in two months, they were out of all 
patience, and determined to renew their application ; and 
to give it the greater weight, prevailed with the lord-mayor 
and court of aldermen to join with them in presenting an 
address which they did, Jan. 16, " For a speedy settlc- 
i ment of church-government, according to the covenant, 
f and that no toleration might be given to popery, prelacy, 
' superstition, heresy, profaneness, or any thing contrary 
6 to sound doctrine, and that all private assemblies might 
' be restrained. *'t The lords thanked them for their zeal, 
and recommended it to the city magistrates to suppress all 
such unlawful assemblies ; but the houses were not to be 
moved as yet by such disagreeable importunity ; however, 
this laid the foundation of those jealousies and misunder- 
standings between the city and parliament, which in the 
end proved the ruin of the presbyterian cause. 

But the fiercest contention between the assembly and 
parliament arose upon the power of the keys, which the 

(! Wlutlocke's Memoir?, p. 10Q. f Vol, Pamp. No. 31, p. 3 


former had voted to be in the eldership or presbytery, in 
these words : ki The keys of the kingdom of heaven were 
( committed to the officers of the church, by virtue whereof 
< they have power respectively to retain and remit sins, to 
6 shut the kingdom of heaven against the impenitent both 
i by the word and censures, and to open it to the penitent 
f by absolution ; and to prevent the profanation of the holy 
' sacrament by notorious and obstinate offenders, the said 
6 officers are to proceed by admonition, suspension from the 
' sacrament of the lord's-supper for a season, and by ex- 
4 communication from the church, according to the nature 
' of the crime and demerit of the person ;*" all which pow- 
er they claimed, not by the laws of the land, hut jure divi- 
Tio, or by divine appointment. 

The independents claimed a like power for the brother- 
hood of every particular congregation, but without any civ- 
il sanctions or penalties annexed ; the erastians were for 
laying the communion open, and referring all crimes to the 
civil magistrate. When the question therefore came un- 
der consideration in the house of commons, the learned 
Mr. Selden delivered his opinion against all suspensions 
and excommunications, to this effect, <• that for four thous- 
6 and years there was no law to suspend persons from re-. 
6 ligious exercises. Strangers, indeed, were kept from the 
^passover, but they were pagans, and not of the Jewish 
c religion. The question is not now for keeping away pa- 
€ gans in times of Christianity, but protestants from protest- 
6 ant worship. No divine can shew, that there is any such 
i command as this to suspend from the sacrament. No 
6 man is kept from the sacrament, eo nomine, because he 
4 is guilty of any sin, by the constitution of the reformed 
4 churches, or because he has not made satisfaction. Eve- 
6 ry man is a sinner ; the difference is only, that one is in 
6 private, and the other in public. Die ecclesiw in St. 
6 Matthew were the courts of law which then sat at Jeru- 
6 salem. No man can shew any excommunication till the 
' popes Victor and Zieplwrinus (two hundred years after 
6 Christ) first began to use them upon private quarrels, 

whereby it appears, that excommunication is an human 
6 invention, taken from the heathens. "J 

* Tide Appendix, No. ix. | RushworUi, p. 203. 

9HAP. (5. *F THE PURITANS. 293 

Mr. Whitlocke spake on the same side of the question 
and said, " The assembly of divines have petitioned and 
i advised this house, that in every presbytery, or presbyte- 
» rian congregation, the pastors and ruling elders may have 

* the power of excommunication, and of suspending such as 

* they shall judge ignorant or scandalous.* By pastors, 1 
suppose, they mean themselves, and others who are or 
may be preachers, and would be bishops or overseers of 
their congregations. By ruling ciders they mean a select 
number of such in every congregation as shall be ehoseu 
for the execution of government and discipline therein. 
A pastor is one who is to feed his sheep ; and if so, how 
improper must it be for such to desire to excommunicate 
any, or keep them from food ; to forbid any to eat, or 
whomsoever they shall judge unworthy, when Christ has 
said, Take, eat, and drink, ye all of it, though Judas was 
one of them. But some have said, it is the duty of a 
shepherd, when he sees a sheep feeding upon that which 
will do him hurt, to chase him away from that pasture ; 
and they apply this to suspending those from the sacra- 
ment whom they fear, by eating and drinking unworthily, 
may eat and drink their own damnation. But it ought to 
be observed, that it is not receiving the sacrament, but 
the unworthiness of the receiver, that brings destruction: 
and this cannot be within the judgment of any but the 
person himself, who alone can examine his own heart ; 
nor can any one produce a commission for another to be 
judge thereof. But it is said, that ruling elders are to be 
joined with the pastors ; now, in some country villages 
and congregations, perhaps, they may not be very learn- 
ed, and yet the authority given them is very great : the 
word elders, amongst the Hebrews, signified men of the 
greatest power and dignity ; so it was among the Ro- 
mans, whose senate was so called, from senes, elders. 
The highest title among the French, Spaniards, and Ital- 
ians, seigneur, and seigniori, is but a corruption of the 
Latin word senior, elder. The same may be observed 
in our English corporations, where the best and most sub- 
stantial persons are called aldermen or eldermen. Thiias 
the title of elders may be given to the chief men of every 

* Whitlocke, p. 163, 161. 


4 presbytery ; but if the power of excommunication be giv- 
en them, they may challenge the title of elders in the high- 
est signification. • 

u Power is desired to be given to suspend from the sacra- 
meut two sorts of persons, the ignorant and scandalous : 
now it is possible, that they who are judged to be compe- 
tent in one place may be deemed ignorant iu another ; 
however, to keep them from the ordinances is no way to 
improve their knowledge. Scandalous persons are like- 
wise to be suspended, and this is to be left to the discre- 
tion of the pastors and ruling elders ; but where have 
they such a commission ? Scandalous sinners should be 
admonished to forsake their evil ways, and amend their 
lives ; and how can this be done better, than by allowing 
them to hear good sermons, and partake of the holy ordi- 
nances ? A man may be a good physician, though he nev- 
er cuts off a member from his patient ; and a church may 
be a good church, though no member of it has ever been 
cut off. I have heard many complaints of the jurisdiction 
of the prelates, who were but few ; now in this ordinance 
there will be a great multiplication of spiritual men in 
government, but I am of opinion, that where the tempo- 
ral sword is sufficient for punishment of offences, there 
will be no need of this new discipline." 

Though the parliament did not deem it prudent wholly 
to reject the ordinance for excommunication, because it had 
been the popular complaint in the late times, that pastors 
of churches had not power to keep unworthy communicants 
from the Lord's table ; yet the speeches of these learned 
gentlemen made such an impression, that they resolved to 
render it ineffectual to all the purposes of church tyranny; 
accordingly, they sent to the assembly, to specify, in writ- 
ing, what degrees of knowledge in the christian religion 
were necessary to qualify persons for the communion P and, 
what sorts of scandal deserved suspension or excommuni- 
cation f Which, after much controversy, they presented 
to the houses, who inserted them in the body of their ordi- 
nance for suspension from the Lord's -supper, dated Octo- 
ber 20, 1645, together with certain provisoes of their own. 


The ordinance sets forth, that the several elderships with- 
in their respective limits, shall have power to suspend, 
from the sacrament of the Lord's-supper, all ignorant and 
scaudalous persons, within the rules and directions hereaf- 
ter mentioned, and no others.* 

Rules for suspending from the sacrament in case of 


e( All that do not know and helieve the being of a God. 
4 and the Holy Trinity : — They that are not acquainted 
4 with origiual sin, and the fall of man : — They that do not 
' believe Christ to be God and man, and our only mediator 
6 and redeemer ; — that Christ and his benefits are applied 
£ only by faith ; which faith is the gift of God, and implies 

• a trusting in him, for the remission of sins, and life ever- 
4 lasting ; — the necessity of sincere repentance, and a holy 
' life, in order to salvation ; — the nature and importance 
i of the two sacraments, especially of the Lord's supper ; 
4 — that the souls of the faithful do immediately live with 
' Christ after death ; and the souls of the wicked immedi- 
' ately go to hell ; — the resurrection of the body, and a fi- 
c nal judgment. 

Rules for suspension in case of scandal. 
u The elderships shall have power to suspend from, th® 
4 sacrament all scandalous persons hereafter mentioned, and 

• no others, being duly convicted by the oaths of two wit- 
' nesses, or their own confession ; that is to say, 

44 All blasphemers against God, his holy word or sac- 
4 raments. 

" Incestuous persons ; adulterers ; fornicators ; drunk- 
4 ards ; profane swearers and cursers ; murderers. 

a Worshippers of images, crosses, crucifixes, or relics. 

44 All that make images of the Trinity, or of any person 
i thereof. 

u All religious worshippers of saints, angels, or any mere 
' creature. 

" Such as declare themselves not to be in charity with 
4 their neighbors. 

* Rushworth, part iv. vol. i. p. 211. 


s< Such as shall challenge others to a duel, or that shall 
i accept such challenge. 

" Such as knowingly shall carry a challenge either by 
6 word, message, or writing. 

" Such as profane the Lord's day by dancing, playing at 

• cards or dice, or any other game : or that shall on the 

• Lord's day use masking, wakes, shooting, bowling, play- 
i ing at foot-ball, or stool-ball, wrestling ; or that shall re- 
' sort to plays, interludes, fencing, bull-baiting, or bear-bait- 

• ing ; or, that shall use hawking, hunting, coursing, fista- 
6 ing, or fowling ; or, that shall publicly expose any wares 
'to sale, otherwise than is provided by the ordinance of 
s April 6, 1644 ; or, that shall travel on the Lord's day 
' without reasonable cause. 

" Such as keep known stews, or brothel- houses ; or, that 
"shall solicit the chastity of any person for himself, or 
•' another. 

" Such parents as give their consent to marry their chil- 

• dren to papists ; and such as do themselves marry a papist. 

" Such as consult for advice, witches, wizards, or for- 
4 tune -tellers. 

" Such as assault their parents, or any magistrate, min- 

• ister, or elder, in the execution of his office. 

" Such as shall be legally attainted of barretry, forgery, 
; extortion, or bribery." 

" And the several elderships shall have power to sus- 

• pend all ministers who shall be duly convicted of any of 

• the crimes above-mentioned, from giving or receiving the 

• Lord's supper. 

"Persons suspended by one congregation shall not be 

• admitted to the sacrament by another, without certificate 
{ from that congregation of which he was a member. But 

• in all cases of suspension, if the party suspended shall 
' manifest his repentance before the eldership by whom he 
6 was suspended, he shall be re-admitted to the Lord's sup- 
' per, and the suspension taken off." 

But then follow the provisoes, which stripped the presby- 
teries of that power of the keys which they were reaching at. 


'•Provided always. That if any person find himself ag- 
t grieved with the proceedings of the presbytery to which 
' he belongs, he may appeal to the classical eldership ; 
' from then to the provincial assembly ; from them to the 
i national ; and from them to the parliament. 

It is further provided, "That the cognizance and ex- 
' amination of all capital offences shall be reserved entire 
i to the magistrate appointed by the laws of the kingdom, 
1 who, upon his committing the party to prison, shall 

• make a certificate to the eldership of the congregation to 
'which they belonged, who may thereupon suspend them 
' from the sacrament. 

" The presbytery or eldership shall not have cognizanee 

* of any thing relating to contracts, payments, or deuiands ; 
' or of any matter of conveyance, title, interest, or proper- 
1 ty, in lands or goods. 

" No use shall be made of any confession, or proof made 
' before an eldership, at auy trial at law of any person for 
' any offence. 

" And it is further ordained, that those members of par- 
liament who are members of the assembly of divines, or 
' any seven of them, shall be a standing committee, to con- 
i sider of such other offences or scandals, not mentioned in 
'this ordinance, which may be conceived to be a sufficient 
' cause of suspension from the sacrament, and shall lay 
' them before the parliament." 

By an ordinance of June 5, 16-16, a discretionary power 
was lodged in a committee of lords and commons, not less 
than nine, to adjudge and determine scandalous offences, 
not formerly enumerated, and report them to the two hous- 
es, that if they concurred with the committee they might 
be added to the catalogue. 

By these provisoes it is evident the parliament were de- 
termined not to part with the spiritual sword, or subject 
their civil properties to the power of the church, which 
gave great offence to the Scots commissioners, and to most 
of the English presbyterians, who declaimed against the 
ordinance, as built upon erastian principles, and depriving 
the church of that which it claimed by a divine institution. 
They allowed of appeals from one spiritual court to anolh- 

Yol. III. 38 




er, but declared openly for tbe pulpit and press, that ap- 
peals to the parliament or civil magistrate, as the denier 
resort, were insufferable. The parliament, observing 
their ambition of making the church independent of the 
state, girt the laws closer about them, and subjected their 
determinations more immediately to the civil magistrate, 
an ordinance dated March 1-Mh, 1645-6, which enacts, 
that an appeal shall lie from the decisions of every clas- 
i sis, to the commissioners chosen by parliament out of 
6 every province, and from them to the parliament itself. 
'That if any person commit any scandalous offences not 
f mentioned in the ordinance, the minister may forbear to- 
i administer the sacrament to him for that time ; but then 
' he shall, within eight days, certify the same to the com- 
6 missioners, who shall send up the case, with their opin- 
< ions, to the parliament, by whose determination the el- 
' dership shall abide." 

This ordinance of suspension from the sacrament was 
extorted from the two houses before the time, by the im- 
portunate solicitations of the city clergy ; for as yet there 
were no classes or presbyteries in any part of England, 
which ought to have been erected before they had deter- 
mined their powers. The houses had voted, that there 
should be a choice of lay-elders throughout England and 
Wales, and had laid down some rules for this purpose 
Aug. 19, 1645 ; but it was the 14th of March following, 
before it passed into a law. 

It was then ordained, 1. "That there be forthwith a 

* choice of [ruling] elders throughout the kingdom of En- 
6 gland and dominion of Wales. 

S. " That public notice be given of such election in 
i every parish, by the minister of the church, a fortnight 

* before ; and that on the Lord's day on which the choice 
i is to be made, a sermon be preached suitable to the oc- 
( casion. 

3. " Elections shall be made by the congregation, or the 
c major part of them then assembled, being heads of fatni- 
' lies, and such as have taken the covenant. 

4. " That certain persons be appointed triers in every 
'classis, viz. six ministers and three lay-men, whereof sev- 

* en to be a quorum, to determine the validity of elections^ 


•' All members of parliament, and peers of the realm, to be 

* triers in the parishes wherein they live. 

j. "No man to be a ruling elder but for one congrega- 
tion, aud that in the parish where he lives. 

6. " The qualifications of a ruling elder are, that he be 

* of good understanding in religion, sound in the faith, pru- 
<deut, discreet, grave, of unblameable conversation, wil- 
ling to undergo the office, and in communion with the 

* church. 

7- " All parishes, privilege places, exempt jurisdictions, 
*and all other places whatsoever, shall be brought under 
< the exercise of congregational, classical, provincial, and 
'natioual assemblies, except chapels within any of the 
i king's houses, or the house of peers, which shall continue 

* free for the exercise of religion, accordiug to the Direc- 

* tory, but not otherwise. 

8. " The province of London shall be divided into twelve 
•' classical elderships, each to contain about twelve parish- 
es of the city, and parts adjacent, and these to be the 

* boundaries of the province of London. 

9. " The several counties of England and Wales shall 
be divided into classical presbyteries, by persons to be 
appointed by parliament for this purpose, who shall set- 
tle the boundaries of each classis, and certify the same to 
the parliament for their approbation. 

10. " The presbytery or eldership of every parish shall 
meet once a week ; the classical assemblies of each prov- 
ince once a month, by adjournment, in such places as 
may be most convenient ; provincial assemblies shall 
meet twice a year ; national assemblies as often as they 
shall be summoned by parliament, and shall continue sit- 
ting as long as the parliament shall direct and appoint, 
and not otherwise. 

11. " Every congregational or parochial eldership shall 
send two elders, or more, not exceediug/oitr, and one 
minister, to the classical assembly ; every classical as- 
sembly within the province shall send two ministers, and 
four ruling elders at least, but not to exceed nine, to the 
provincial assembly. Every provincial assembly shall 

' appoint two ministers, and four ruling elders, which shall 


< constitute a national assembly, when such an one shall be 
( summoned by parliament. "f 

When this ordinance had passed the commons, it stuck 
a considerable time with the lords, insomuch that the pres- 
byterian clergy thought it necessary to quicken them by a 
petition, May 2Q, under the hands of three hundred minis- 
ters of Suffolk and Essex, lamenting the decay of religion, 
and the want of church-discipline, and beseeching their 
lordships to put the finishing hand to the bill so long de- 
pending ; which they did accordingly, June 6, 1646. 

Thus the presbyterian form of church-government be- 
came the national establishment, by way of probation, as 
far as an ordinance of parliament could make it ; for the 
preamble sets forth, " that if upon trial it was not found 

* acceptable, it should be reversed or amended. It declares 

< further, that the two houses found it very difficult to make 

* their new settlement agree with the laws and government 
*of the kingdom ; that therefore it could not be expected, 

* that a present rule in every particular should be settled 
'at once, but that there will be need of supplements and 
^additions, and perhaps alterations, as experience shall 
c bring to light the necessity thereof." 

The parliament apprehended they had now established 
the plan of the presbyterian discipline, though it proved 
not to the satisfaction of any one party of christians ; so 
hard is it to make a good settlement when men dig up all 
at once old foundations. The presbyterian hierarchy was 
as narrow as the prelatical ; and as it did not allow a lib- 
erty of conscience, claiming a civil as well as ecclesiasti- 
cal authority over men's persons and properties, it was 
equally, if not more insufferable. Bishop R'ennet observes, 
that the settling presbytery was supported by the fear and 
love of the Scots army, and that when they were gone 
home it was better managed by the English army, who 
were for independency and a principle of toleration ; but as 
things stood nobody was pleased ; the episcopalians and 
independents were excluded ; and because the parliament 
would not give the several presbyteries an absolute power 
over their communicants, but reserved the last appeal to 

t Rushwerth,p. 226. 


themselves, neither the Scots nor English presbyterians 
would accept it. 

When the scheme was laid before the Scots parliament 
and general assembly, as a plan for uniformity between 
the two nations, tiiey insisted upon the following amend- 
ments : 

(1.) "That no godly minister may be excluded from 
' being a member of classical, provincial, or national as- 
' sembiics. 

(2.) " That the ordinary time for the meeting of the 
' national assembly may be fixed ; with a reserve of pow- 
' er to the parliament to convene tbem when they please, 
t and a liberty to the church to meet oftener on necessary 
' occasions. 

(3.) •• That the congregational eldership may have pow- 
t er to judge in cases of scandal not expressed. This they 
' conceive cannot be construed lodging an arbitrary power 
'in tiie church ; whereas on the other hand, the appoiut- 
* ing such provincial commissioners as are settled in the 
t ordinance, will occasion disputes, create a disconformity 
'between this aud other churches, and is a mixture in 
f church-government altogether without precedent. This 
6 busiuess therefore they couceive may be better managed 
'by assemblies of ministers and ruling elders. 

(4.) ? That the ordinance for ordination of ministers 
' may be perpetual. 

(5.) " The manner of subjecting church -assemblies to 
' the control aud decision of parliament, being very liable 
' to mistakes ; the exemption likewise of persons of dis- 
' tinction from ecclesiastical censures ; and the adminis- 
'teiing the sacrament to some persons, against the con- 
' science of the ministry and elderships ; these and some 
' other particulars, being more than they can admit, they 
' desire may be altered to general satisfaction. 

(6.) " As to the articles relating to the perpetual officers 
' of the church, with their respective functions ; the order 
'and power of church-assemblies ; the directions for pub- 
' lie repentance or penance ; the rules for excommunica- 
( tion and absolution ;"* all these they desire may be fix- 

* Ruslnvorth, p, 253. 


ed, and settled pursuant to the covenant, aud with the 
joint adviee of the divines of both kingdoms [i. e. the as- 
sembly at Westminster] long since offered to boih houses. 
After the delivery of these papers by the Scots commis- 
sioners, and before the houses had. returned an answer, 
they were published with a preface by a private hand, 
which provoked the houses to such a degree, that April 
14, they voted it to be burnt by the hands of the common 
hangman, which was done accordingly. April 17, the 
commons published their answer to the commissioners pa- 
pers, in which they declare to the world, " that their real 
4 intentions are to settle religion according to the covenant 
4 and. to maintain the ancient and fundamental government 

< of this kingdom. They think it strange that any sober 
6 and modest men should imagine, they are unwilling to 
4 settle any government in the church, after they have de- 
6 clared so fully for the presbyterian ; have taken so much 

< pains for the settling it ; have passed most of the particu- 
lars brought to them by the assembly of divines, without 
4 any material alteration, save in the point of commission- 
4 ers ; and have published so many ordinances for putting 
4 the same in execution ; only because they cannot consent 
4 to the granting an arbitrary and unlimited power and ju- 
4 risdiction to near ten thousand judicatories to be erected 
4 within this kingdom, and this demanded in such a way as 
'is not consistent with the fundamental laws and gnvern- 
6 ment of the same, and by necessary consequence exclud- 
4 ing the parliament of England from the exercise of all 
4 ecclesiastical jurisdiction. This, say they, has been the 
4 great cause that church -government has not been long 
6 since settled ; and we have the more reason not to part 
4 with this power out of the hands- of the civil magistrate, 
' since the experience of all ages will manifest, that the 

* reformation aud purity of religion, and the preservation 
4 and protection of the people of God in this kingdom, has, 
' under God, been owing to the parliament's exercise of 
'this power. If then the minds of any are disturbed for 

* want of the present settling of church-government, let 
4 them apply to those [ministers] who, having sufficient 
4 power and direction from the houses on that behalf, have 
4 not as yet put the same in execution." 


The English presbyterians, having resolved to stand and 
fall with the Scots, refused peremptorily to comply with 
the ordinance, relying upon the assistance and support of 
that nation. Mr. Marshal stood up in the assembly, 
March 20, and said, that since an ordinance of parliament 
for church government was now published, and speedily 
to be put in execution ; and since there was some things in 
that ordinance which lay very hard upon his conscience, 
and upon the consciences of many of his brethren (though 
he blessed God for the zeal of the two houses in setting the 
government of the church thus far) yet being much pressed 
in spirit with some things contained therein, he moved, that 
a committee might be appointed to examine what things in 
the ordinance were contrary to their consciences, and to 
prepare a petition to present them to the two houses.* 

A petition was accordingly drawn up, and presented 
March 23, by the whole assembly, with Mr. Marshal at 
their head. In this petition they assert the divine right of 
the presbytcrian government, and complain of a clause in 
the late ordiuauce, which establishes an appeal from the 
censures of the church to a committee of parliament. It 
was a sanguine and daring attempt of these divines, who 
were called together only for their advice, to examine and 
censure the ordinances of parliament, and dispute in this 
manner with their superiors ; the commons, alarmed at this 
petition, appointed a committee to take into consideration 
the matter and manner of it, who, after some time, report- 
ed it as their opinion, that the assembly of divines in their 
late petition had broken the privileges of parliament, and 
were guilty of a prcemunire ; and whereas they insisted 
so peremptorily on the jus divinum of the presbyterian gov- 
ernment, the committee had drawn up ccrtian queries, 
which they desired the assembly might resolve for their 
satisfaction ; the house agreed to the report of the commit- 
tee, and on the 30th of April sent sir John Evelin, Mr. 
Nathaniel Fiennes and Mr. Browne, to the assembly, to 
acquaint them with their resolutions. These gentlemen 
set before them their rash and imprudent conduct, and in 
several speeches shewed wherein they had exceeded their 

* MS. peues me, Sess. 60$. 


province, which was, to advise the houses in such points as 
they should lay before them, but not to dictate to those to 
whom they owed their being an assembly. Then they read 
the votes above mentioned, and delivered in the following 
questions, with the orders of the house thereupon : 

Questions propounded to the Assembly of Divines by the 
House of Commons, touching the point of jus diviuum in 
the matters of church government. 

1. ( f Whether the congregational and presbyterial elder- 
ships appointed byordinance of parliament, or any other 
f congregational or presbyterial elderships ore jure divino^ 
' and by the will and appointment of Jesus Christ ? and, 

* whether any particular church government be Jure divino P 
' and, what that government is ?,* 

%. " Whether all the members of the said elderships, as 
' members thereof, or which of them, are jure divino, and 
' by the will and appointment of Jesus Christ ? 

3. " Whether the classical, provincial, and national as- 
{ semblies, all, or any of them, and which of them, are jure 
( divino, and by the will and appointment of Jesus Christ ? 

4. " Whether appeals from congregational elderships to 
c classical, provincial, and national assemblies, or any of 
'them, and to which of them, are jure divino, and by the 
£ will and appointment of Jesus Christ ? and whether their 
' powers upon such appeals are jure divino, and by the 

* will and appointment of Jesus Christ ? 

5. "Whether oecumenical assemblies ave jure divino ? 

< and whether there be appeals from any of the former as- 
e semblies to the said oecumenical jure divino, and by the 
' will and appointment of Jesus Christ? 

6. il Whether by the word of God, the power of judg- 
' ing and declaring what are such notorious and scandalous 

< offences, for which persons guilty thereof are to be kept 
' from the sacrament of the Lord's-supper, and of convening 
' before them, trying, and actually suspending from the sa- 
' crament of the Lord's-supper such offenders, is either in 

* the congregational eldership, presbytery, or in any other 

* Rushworth, p. 260. 


'eldership, congregation, or persons? and, whether such 
' powers are in them only, or any of them, and in which of 

* then jure divino, and by the will and appointment of Je- 
4 sus Christ? 

7. " Whether there be any certain and particular rules 
'expressed in the word of God to direct the elderships, or 
' presbyteries, congregations, or persons, or any of them, 

* in the exercise and execution of the powers aforesaid, and 
1 what are those rules ? 

8. " Is there any thiug contained in the word of God, 
'that the supreme magistracy in a christian state may not 
'judge and determine what are the aforesaid notorious and 
' scandalous offences, and the manner of suspension for the 
' same ; and in what particulars concerning the premises is 
' the said supreme magistracy by the word of God excluded? 

9. u Whether the provision of commissioners to judge 
' of scandals not enumerated (as they are authorized by 
' the ordinance of parliament) be contrary to that way of 
' government which Christ has appointed in his church ? 
' and, wherein are they so contrary ?" 

In the assembly's answer to these propositions the house 
of commons ordered, the proofs from scripture to be set 
down, with the several texts at large, in the express words 
of the same ; and that every minister of the assembly, who 
should be present at the debate of, any of these questions, 
should subscribe his respective name in the affirmative or 
negative, according as he gave his vote : and that those 
who dissented from the major part should set down their 
positive opinions, with the express texts of scripture upon 
which their opinions are grounded. 

It is easy to discover the masterly hands of Mr. Seidell 
and Whitlocke in these questions ; which were sent to the 
assembly not with any prospect of a satisfactory answer, 
but to employ, and, it may be, to divide them, till they saw 
how they were like to settle with the king. The houses 
were afraid of being fettered with the Scots discipline, and 
yet the Scots were not to be disgusted, because they had 
an army in the north, to whom the king had committed the 
custody of his person. 

Yob. III. 39 


As soon as the assembly had heard the resolutions of the 
house of commons above-mentioned, and the questions read, 
first by sir J. Euelin, and then by their scribe, they ad- 
journed in a very great fright till next morning, in order 
to consult their brethren in the city ; and then appointed 
a day of fasting and humiliation for themselves, in refer- 
ence to their present circumstances, and sent letters to all 
the members to give their attendance. TSie fast was ob- 
served within their own walls on Wednesday May 6, from 
nine in the morning till four in the afternoon ; and com- 
mittees were appointed to consider of an answer to the 
questions, whose report we shall consider under the next 

In the mean time. w r e must go back a little, to take a view 
of the attempts which were making to comprehend the in- 
dependents, or dissenting brethren in the assembly within 
the new establishment, or at least to obtain a toleration for 
them ;% the parliament had ordered, September 13, 1644, 
that the "committee of lords and commons appointed to 
6 treat with the Scots commissioners, and the committee of 
( divines, do take into consideration the differences of the 
i opinions of the members of the assembly in point of church 
6 government, and endeavor an union if possible ; and if 
' that cannot be accomplished, endeavor to find out some 
6 way how far tender conscience 3, who cannot in all things 
'submit to the same rule, may be borne with, according to 
i the word of God, and consistent ivith the public peace." 
Tiiis was called the grand committee of accommodation, 
which met the first time, Sept. 20, and chose a sub-commit- 
tee of six divines of the assembly, to consider the points of 
difference, and to prepare materials for the consideration of 
the gravel committee ; the names of these divines were the 
reverend Mr. Marshall, Mr. Herle, Mr. Vines, Dr. Tem- 
ple, Mr. Goodwin, and Mr. Nye, who, after several con- 
sultations among themselves, delivered to the committee 
certain propositions, [Oct. 15, 1644] which were read by 
Mr. Vines, their chairman : the independents would have 
slated the points in variance between the two parties, and 
endeavored a compromise while the discipline of the church 
was depending ; but the presbyterians insisted, that the 

\ Papers for Accommodation, p. 1. 


new form of government should first pass into a law as a 
standard, before the exceptions of the independents be 
considered ; upon which they were adjourned by order of 
the house of commons, till the affair should be determined 
in the assembly, who agreed, April 4, 1615, that the breth- 
ren icho had entered their dissent against the presbyterian 
government should be a committee to bring in the whole 
frame of their government in a body, with their grounds 
and reasons.*' The independents desired liberty to bring 
in their objections by parts, as the presbyterians had done 
their advices ; but this not being admitted, they desired 
time to perfect their pjan before any other scheme passed 
into a law ; but the presbyterians, without any regard to 
the compromise, by the assistance of their Scots friends, 
pushed the affair to a conclusion in parliament; upon which 
the independents laid aside their own model, and publish- 
ed a remonstrance, complaining of the artful conduct of the 
assembly, and that the discipline of the church being fixed, 
it was too late to think any more of a comprehension. The 
house of commons having seen their mistake resumed this 
affair with their own hands, and by an order dated Nov. 
6, 1645, revived the committee of accommodation, which, 
besides the Scots commissioners, consisted of the follow- 
ing peers, viz. 

Earl of Northumberland, Lord Wharton, and 
Earl of Manchester, Lord Howard* 

Lord Vise. Say and Seale, 

These were to be met by the following members of the 

assembly, viz. 

Dr. Surges, Mr. Vines, Mr. Arrowsmith, 

Mr. Marshall, Mr. Hill, Dr. Smith, 

Mr. Herle, Dr. Temple, Mr. Seaman, 

Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Palmer, Mr. JSTewcomen, 

Dr. Hoyle, Mr. Tuckney, Mr. Young, 

Mr. White, 

with the different brethren of the assembly, 

Mr. T. Goodivin, Mr. Nye, Mr. Bridge, 

Mr. Simpson, Mr. Burroughs, Mr. Drury? 

* Remonstrance, p. 3, 


The committee met in the Jerusalem chamber Nov. 17> 
and would have entered upon a scheme for comprehension, 
but the independents moved only for an indulgence or tol- 
p,i'ation, observing, that as they had already moved in the 
assembly and elsewhere, that their scheme of government 
might be debated before the presbyterian had passed into 
a law, and for this purpose had offered to prepare a com- 
plete model, if they might have been indulged a few days,* 
and that having been over-ruled, and another form of gov- 
ernment settled ; they apprehended themselves shut out 
from the establishment, and precluded from any further at- 
tempts towards an union or comprehension ; but still they 
were willing to enter upon the second part of the parlia* 
mentis order, which was to consider, how far tender con* 
sciences, who cannot in all things submit to the established 
rule, may be indulged, consistent with the word of God and 
the public peace. Accordingly in their next meeting, De- 
cember % they offered the following proposals : 

Taking for granted that both sides shall agree in one 
confession of faith, they humbly crave. 

1. That their congregations may have the power of or* 
dination within themselves. 

2. That they may not be brought under the power of 
classes, nor forced to communicate in those parish church- 
es where they dwell, but that they may have liberty to 
join with such congregations as they prefer, and that such 
congregations may have power of all church censures with- 
in themselves, subject only to parliament; and be as so 
many exempt, or privileged places. 

To the preamble the presbyterians replied, that only 
such as agreed to their confession of faith and directory 
should have the benefit of the forbearance to be agreed on, 
with which the committee concurred ; but the independents 
would admit only of the affirmative, that such as agreed 
with them should be tolerated ; and would not consent to 
the negative, so as to set bounds or limits of forbearance to 
tender consciences, nor make such an agreement a necessar 
ry qualification for receiving the sacrament.f 

To the request of the independents, of being exempted 

* Papers for Accommodation, p. |#, 34. t Ibid. p. IS, 19, 26, 27. 


from the jurisdiction of their classes, and having a liberty 
of erecting separate congregations, the presbyterians re- 

1. That this implied a total separation from the estab- 
lished rule. 

S. The lawfulness of gathering churches out of other 
true churches. 

3. That the parliament would then destroy what they 
bad set up. 

4. That the members of independent churches would 
then have greater privilege thau those of the establishment. 

5. That this would countenance a perpetual schism. Aud, 

6. Introduce all manner of confusion in families.* 
They therefore proposed, that such as, after conference 

with their parish minister, were not satisfied with the es- 
tablishment, should not be compelled to communicate in 
the Lord's-supper, nor be liable to censures from classes 
or synods, provided they joined with the parish congrega- 
tion where they lived, and were under the government of 
it in other respects. 

The independents replied, that they did not intend a 
total separation, but should agree with their brethren in 
<the most essential points ; as in worshipping according to 
the directory, in choosing the same officers, pastors, teach- 
ers, ruling elders, with the same qualifications as in the 
rule. That they should require the same qualifications in 
their members as the assembly had advised, that is, visible 
saints, professing faith in Christ, and obedience to him, 
according to the rules of faith and life taught by Christ 
and his apostles ;\ that they should practise the same 
church censures, beins: accountable for their conduct to 
their civil superiors. They would also hold occasional 
communion with the presbyterian churches, in baptism 
and the Lord's-supper, communicating occasionally with 
them, and receiving their members to communion as occa- 
sion required. Their ministers should preach for each 
other, and in cases of difficulty they would call in their as- 
sistance and advice ; and when an ordination falls out, 
they would desire the presence and approbation of their 
ministers with their own. Now surely, say they, this 

* Papers of Accommodation, p. 20, 21, f Ibid. p. 29. SO. 


does not imply a total separation ; but if in some things 
men cannot comply with the established rule without sin, 
we think such persons ought not to live without communi- 
cating in the Lord's-supper all their days, rather than 
gather into churches where they may enjoy all ordinances 
without offence to their consciences — nor ought such sep- 
aration to be accounted schism, which is a name of re- 
proach we desire not to be branded with, when we are wil- 
ling to maintain christian love and communion with oar' 
neighbors, as far as our consciences will permit.* — They 
add further, that if the state is pleased to grant them this 
liberty, they will refer themselves to the wisdom of the 
legislature to consider of limiting their cougregadous to a 
certain number, to be as so many receptacles for pious 
persons of tender consciences.! 

The presbyterians in their next reply. Dec. 23, after 
having blamed the independents for not going upon a com- 
prehension, argue against the lawfulness of a separation 
after this manner : " That if a pretence of conscience be a 
6 sufficient ground of separation, men may gather impure 
' and corrupt churches out of purer, because, upon the dic- 
tate of an erring conscience they may disallow that 
£ which is pure, and set up that which is agreeable to their 
'eiTing consciences ; and we very much doubt (say they) 

* whether tenderness of conscience in doubtful points will 
i justify a separation; it may oblige men to forbear com- 

* munion, but not to set up a contrary practice. If a 
' church impose any thing that is sinful, we must forbear 
' to comply, yet without separation, as was the practice of 
'the puritans iu the late time. 7? | — They then argue, from 
the concessions of the independents, that because they a- 
gree with them in so many material points, therefore they 
should not separate. "If, say they, you can communicate 
' with our church occasionally, once, or a second and third 
' time without sin, we know no reason why you may not 
' do it constantly, and then separation will be needless — 
i as for such a toleration as our brethren desire, we appre- 
' hend it will open a door to all sects ; and though the in- 
dependents now plead for it, their brethren in New-En- 

* gland do not allow it."|| 

* Papers for Accommodation, p. 35, 36. f Ibid. p. 40. 

| Ibid. p. 51. ' || Ibid. p. 56. 


As to the charge of schism, they admit, that differeuee 
in judgment iu some particular points is not schism ; nor 
dues an inconformity to some things enjoined deserve that 
name; but our brethren desire further to set up separate 
communions, which is a manifest rupture of our societies 
inio others, and is therefore a schism in the body.* This 
is setting up altar against altar, allowing our churches (as 
the independents do) to be true churches ; for St. Austin 
says, schismaticos facit non diversa fides, sed communio- 
nis disrupta societas. And we conceive, it is the cause of 
the separation that makes schism, and not the separation 
itself; if then the cause of our brethren's separation be not 
sufficient, by what other name can it be called? To all 
which they add, that this indulgence, if granted, will be the 
mother of all contentions, strifes, heresies, and confusions 
iu the church ; and contrary to their covenant, which oblig- 
es them to endeavor to their utmost an uniformity. 

When the committee met the next time, Feb. %, 1645-6, 
the independents replied chiefly to the point pi uniformity* 
aud argued, that it was not necessary to the peace of the 
churches ; and ought not to extend beyond peoples light 
and measure of understanding, according to the apostolical 
canon, as far as ice have attained let us walk by the same 
rule. Phil. iii. 15. f As for a mere exemption from the cen- 
sures of the classes, they declared frankly they could not 
acquiesce in it, because it would deprive them of the enjoy- 
ment of the Lord's-supper ; and that it was very hard to 
urge, that because they came so near the brethren, therefore 
they should be obliged to a total aud constant conformity. 

The committee met the last time, March 9, when the 
sub-committee of presbyterian divines answered the last 
paper of the independents, maintaining all their former po- 
sitions, and concluding in this strange and wonderful man- 
ner : " That whereas their brethren say, that uniformity 
' ought to be urged no further than is agreeable to all men's 
'consciences, and to their edification ; it seems to them, as 
'if their brethren not only desired liberty of conscience for 
* themselves, but for all men, aud would have us think, 

* Papers for Accommodation, p. 65, 73, 7\. f Ibid. p. 86. 


that we are bound by our covenant to bring the churches 
in the three kingdoms no nearer a conjunction and unifor- 
mity than is consistent with the liberty of all men's con- 
sciences ; which, whether it be the sense of the covenant, 
we leave with the honorable committee."* 
Hereupon the reverend Mr. Jgr. Burroughs, a divine of 
great candor and moderation, declared in the name of the 
ndependents, " that if their congregations might not be 
exempted from that coercive power of the classes; if they 
might not have liberty to govern themselves in their own 
way, as long as they behaved peaceably towards the civil 
magistrate ; they were resolved to suffer, or go to some 
other place of the world, where they might enjoy their 
liberty. But while men think there is no way of peace 
but by forcing all to be of the same mind, (says he) while 
they think the civil sword is an ordinance of (rod to de- 
termine all controversies of divinity, and that it must needs 
be attended with fines and imprisonment to the disobedi- 
ent ; while they apprehend there is no medium between a 
strict uniformity, and a general confusion of ail things ; 
while these sentiments prevail, there must be a base sub- 
jection of men's consciences to slavery, a suppression of 
much truth, and great disturbances in the christian world." 

Thus ended the last committee of lords and commons, 
and assembly of divines, for accomodation, which adjourn- 
ed t9 a certain day, but being then diverted by other affairs 
never met again. Little did the presbyterian divines im- 
aging, that in less than twenty years all their artillery would 
be turned against themselves : that they should be excluded 
the establishment by an act of prelatieal uniformity , that 
they should be reduced to the necessity of pleading for that 
indulgence which they now denied their brethren ; and es- 
teem it their duty to gather churches for separate worship 
out of others, which they allowed to be true ones. If the 
leading presbyterians in the assembly and city had carried 
it with temper towards the independents, on the foot of a 
limited toleration, they had, in all likelihood, prevented the 
disputes between the army and parliament, which were the 

* Papers fur Accommodation, p. 123- 


ruin of both ; ihey might then have saved the constitution, 
and made their own terms with the king, who was now 
their prisoner ; but they were enamored with the charms 
of covenant uniformity, and the divine right of their pres- 
bytery, which after all, the parliament would not admit in 
its full extent. Mr. Baxter, who was no friend of the in- 
dependents, says, " That the presbyterian ministers were 
'so little sensible of their own infirmities, that they would 
f not agree to tolerate those who were not only tolerable, 
'but worthy instruments and members in the churches, pru- 
( dent men, who were for union in things necessary, for 
i liberty in things unnecessary, and for charity in all; but 

* they could not be heard."* 

Great was the resort of the city divines to Sion college 
at this time, where there was a kind of synod every Mon- 
day, to consult proper methods to propagate religion, and 
support the assembly at Westminster in their opposition to 
the toleration of sectaries; for this purpose they wrote them 
a letter, dated Jan. 15, 1615-6, in which they recite the 
arguments of the committee, and beseech them to oppose 
with all their might the great Diana of the independents,-^ 

* Baxter's Life, p. 103. 

t Their Diana was toleration, of which the ministers at Sion college 
expressed their detestation and abhorrence ; and the design of their let- 
ter was to shew the unreasonableness, the sin, and the mischievous con- 
sequences of it. " Not," said they, iS that we can harbor the least jeal- 
{ ousy of your zeal, fidelity, or industry, in the opposing and extirpating 
4 of sueh a root of gall and bitterness as toleration is, and will be both 

* in present and future ages." Another instance of the same bitter spir- 
it appeared in a piece published by the ministers and elders of Loudon, 
met together in a provincial assembly November 2, 1749, entitled " A 
' vindication of the presbyterial government and ministry :" in which 
they represent the doctrine of universal toleration, as contrary to god- 
liness, opening a door to libertinism and profaneness, and a tenet to be 
rejected as soul poison. The ministers of Lancashire published a pa- 
per iu 1G4S, expressing their harmonious consent with their brethren 
in London; and remonstrate against toleration, as putting a cup of poison 
into the hand of a child, and a sword into that of a madman ; as letting 
loose madmen with fire-brands in their hands, and appointing a city of 
refuge in men's consciences, for the devil to fly to ; and instead of pro- 
viding for tender consciences, taking away all conscience. In the same 
year, another paper was published in Warwickshire by 43 ministers, 
breathing the same spirit, and expressing the like sentiments. Crosby's 
history of the English Baptists, vol. i. p. 18S, 192. Ed. 

Vol. III. 40 

'" ''ST 

anil not suffer their new establishment to be strangled in 
the birth by a lawless toleration. 

The whole Boots nation was also commanded into the 
service ; the parliament of that kingdom wrote to the two 
houses at Westminster, Feb. 3, telling them that " it was 
6 expected the honorable houses would add the civil sanction 
' to what the jrious and learned assembly have advised; and 
< I am commanded by the parliament of this kingdom, (says 
6 the president J to demand it, and I do in their names de- 
6 mand it. And the parliament of this kingdom is persuad- 
( ed, that the piety and wisdom of the honorable houses 
'will never admit toleration of any sects or schisms con- 
( trary to our solemn league and covenant."* At the same 
time they appealed to the people, and published a declar- 
ation against toleration of sectaries and liberty of con- 
science ; in which, after having taken notice of their great 
services, they observe, that there is a party in England 
who are endeavoring to supplant the true religion by plead- 
ing for liberty of conscience, which (say they) is the nour- 
isher of all heresies and schisms. They then declare a- 
gainst all such notions as are inconsistent with the truth of 
religion, and against opening a door to licentiousness, which 
to the utmost of their power, they will endeavor to oppose ; 
and as they have all entered iuto one covenant, so to the 
last man in the kingdom they will go on in the preserva- 
tion of it. And however the parliament of England may 
determine in point of toleration and liberty of conscience, 
they are resolved not to make the least start, but to live 
and die, for the glory of God, in the entire preservation of 
the truth. 

Most of the sermons before the house of commons, at 
their monthly fasts, spoke the language of severity, and 
called upon the magistrate to draw his sword against the 
sectaries. The press teemed with pamphlets of the same 
nature ; Mr. Prynne against J. Goodwin says, that if the 
parliament and synod establish presbytery, the independ- 
ents and all others, are bound to submit, under pain of ob- 
stinacy. Another writes, that to let men serve God accord- 
ing to the persuasion of their own conscience, is to cast 
out one devil that seven worse may enter. 

* Rushivotth, p. 234. 

\JHAP. 6. OF THc r^uil'ANS. 315 

But the cause of liberty was not destitute of advocates 
at this time ; the independents pleaded for a toleration so 
far as to include themselves and the sober anabaptists, but 
did not put the controversy on the most generous founda- 
tion ; they were for tolerating all who agreed in the fun- 
damentals of Christianity, but when they came to enume- 
rate fundamentals they were sadly embarrassed, as all 
must be who plead the cause of liberty, and yet do not 
place the religious and civil rights of mankind on a sepa- 
rate basis : a nian may be an orthodox believer, and yet 
deserve death as a traitor to his king and country ; and on 
the other hand, a heretic or errant non-conformist to the 
established religion may be a loyal and dutiful subject, and 
deserve the highest preferment his prince can bestow. 

The letter of the city divines to the assembly received a 
quick reply from a writer of more generous principles, who 
complains, 4i that the presbyterians, not content with their 
'own freedom and liberty, nor with having their form of 
' government made the national establishment, were grasp- 
' iug at as much power as the prelates before them had u- 

< surpeil ; for this purpose they had obtained the privilege 
1 of licensing the press, that nothing might be written a- 
' gainst them but what they should please to approve ;f 
£ they were continually soliciting the parliament to estab- 
lish their church government, which they called the gov- 
' ernment-of Christ, w 7 ith a coercive power ; they were al- 
ways busy in framing petitions, and engaging the magis- 
' trates of the city to present them to the houses ; and not 
' content with this, they were now moving the assembly of 
6 divines, of whom themselves are a considerable part, to 
4 become the patrons of oppression." Our author main- 
tains, that "liberty of conscience is the natural right of 
' every man, though of all parties of men those deserve 
4 least the countenance of the state, who would persecute 
* others if it were in their power, because they are ene- 

< mies of the society in which they live. He that will look 

< back on past times, and examine into the true causes of 
tf the subversion and devastation of states and countries, 
' will find it owing to the tyranny of princes, and the per- 
; sedition of priests. All governments therefore which un* 

t Vol. Pamphlets, No. 52, 

316 Ti&iMMtfgv chap. 6. 

'derstand their true interests, will endeavor to suppress in 
< every sect, or division of men, whether papist, episcopal, 
( presbyterian, independent, or anabaptist, the spirit of do- 
e minion and persecution, which is the disturber of uian- 
f kind, and the offspring of the devil. But the ministers 
c say, if we tolerate one sect we must tolerate all ; which 
'our author admits, and adds, that they have as good a 
' right to the liberty of their consciences as to their clothes 
' or estates ; no opinions or sentiments of religion being 
'cognizable by the magistrate., any farther than they are 
6 inconsistent with the peace of the civil government. The 
{ way to put an end to diversity of opinions is not by fines 
i and imprisonments ; can Bedlam, or the Fleet, open men's 
f understandings, and reduce them from error? No cer- 
tainly, nothing but sound reason and argument can do it, 

* which, it is to be feared, they are not furnished with, who 

* have recourse to any other weapons. Schism and heresy 
s are to be rooted out, not by oppression, but by reason and 
6 debate ; by the sword of the spirit, not of the flesh ,* by 
f argument, not by blows, to which men have recourse 
4 when they are beat out of the other. Schism and heresy 
6 are words of terror thrown upon the adversary by all 
6 parties of men ; and perhaps, there may need an infalli- 
( ble judge to determine where the schism lies, before we 
' venture upon the extraordinary methods to extirpate it." 
He adds, " that persecution will breed more confusion and 
£ disturbance than toleration ; and that their solemn league 
6 and covenant ought to bind them no farther than it is con- 
( sistent with the word of God. Now, that toleration, or 
' liberty of conscience, is the doctrine of scripture, is evi- 
' dent, 1. From the parable of the tares and wheat grow- 
' ing together till the harvest. 2. From the apostle's di- 
6 rection, Let every man be. persuaded in his own mind. 3. 
6 That whatsoever is not of faith is sin. 4*. From our 8a- 
c viour's golden rule, whatsoever ye would that men should 
' do to you, that do ye to iliemP — 

This pamphlet was answered by another, entitled Anti- 
Toleration, in which the author endeavors to vindicate the 
most unbounded licence of persecution ; but neither the 
assembly nor the city divines, nor the whole Scots nation, 
could prevail with the parliament to deliver the sword in- 


to their hands. The high behavior of the presbyterians 
lost them the affections of great numbers of people, who 
began to discover that the contention between them and the 
jjrelates was not for liberty but power, and that all the spir- 
itual advantage they were like to reap from the war was to 
shift hands, and instead of episcopal government to submit 
to the yoke of presbyterial uniformity. 

Lord Clarendon admits,* that the king endeavored to 
make his advantage of these divisions, by courting the in- 
dependents, and promising some of them very valuable 
compensations for auy services they should do him ; inti- 
mating, that it was impossible for them to expect relief in 
their scruples from persons who pretended they were erect- 
ing the kingdom of Christ; but though the independents 
were enemies to the presbyterian discipline, they had no 
confidence in the king's promises. Mr. Whitlocke j| agrees 
with the noble historian, that the kiug was watchful to take 
advantage of these divisions, and commanded one Ogle to 
write to Mr. Tho. Goodwin, and Phil. Nye, two of the in- 
dependent ministers, and make them large overtures, if 
they would oppose the presbyterian government intended to 
be imposed upon England by the Scots ; but these two 
gentleman very honestly acquainted their friends with the 
proposal, which put an end to the correspondence; all 
which might have convinced the presbyterians of the neces- 
sity of coming to some terms with the dissenters ; but the 
king's affairs were so low, that they were under no appre- 
hensions of disturbance from that quarter at present. 

The assembly perfected nothiug further this year ; how- 
ever, complaint being made of the obsolete version of the 
psalms by Sternhold and Hopkins, the parliament desired 
them to recommend some other to be used in churches ; 
accordingly they read over Mr. Rouse's version, and after 
several amendments, sent it up to the house Nov. 14, 1645, 
with the following recommendation : " Whereas the hon- 

* orable house of commons, by au order bearing date Nov. 

< SO, 1643, have recommended the psalms published by 

< Mr. Rouse to the consideration of the assembly of divines, 
6 the assembly has caused them to be carefully perused, and 

* as they are now altered and amended do approve them, 

*Vol. ii. p. Me UP. re 


6 and humbly conceive they may be useful and profitable to 
i the church, if they be permitted to be publicly sung;"$ 
accordingly they were authorised by the two houses. Care 
was also taken to prevent the importation of incorrect bibles 
printed in Holland, f 

To return to the proceedings of parliament. The com- 
mittee for plundered ministers having reported to the house 
of commons, Jan. 28, 1645, certain blasphemies of Paul 
Best, who denied the Holy Trinity ; the house ordered an 
ordinance to be brought in [March 28,] to punish him with 
death;J but several divines being appointed to confer with 
him, in order to convince him of his error, he confessed his 
belief of that doctrine in general terms before he was brought 
to his trial, and that he hoped to be saved thereby, but per- 
sisted in denying the personality, as a Jesuitical tenet ; 
upon this confession his trial was put off, and he was at 
length discharged. 

The government of the church being now changed into 
a presbyterian form, and the war almost at end, the parlia- 
ment resolved to apply the revenues of the cathedrals to 
other public uses, and accordingly, Nov. 18, it was ordain- 
ed, u That whereas the present dean and prebendaries of 
' Westminster had deserted their charge, and were become 
6 delinquents to the parlaiment, they did therefore ordain, 
' that the earl of Northumberland, with about ten other 
' lords, and twenty -two commoners, should be a committee ; 
( and that any person, or more of them, should have au- 
' thority to order, direct, and dispose of the rents, issues, 
< and profits, belonging to the college, or collegiate church, 
' and to do and execute all other acts that did any way 
( concern either of them."|| They ordained further, " that 
c the dean, prebendaries, and all other officers belonging 
c - either to the college or church, who had absented them- 
6 selves, and were become delinquents, or had not taken 
' the covenant, should be suspended from their several of- 
^fices and places, and from all manner of benefit and profit 
6 arising from them, or from the arrears of them, Mr. Os- 
f baldeston only excepted. 

When the cathedral of Hereford fell into the parliament'* 

* MS. Sess. 535. t Pari. Chr. p. 319. 

£ Whitloeke, p. 196. ft Husband's Collections, p. 75$. 


bauds, the dignitaries of that church were dispossessed, 
and their lands and revenues seized into the hands of the 
committee of that county. The dignitaries of the cathe- 
dral churches of Winchester and Carlisle were served in 
the same manner the latter end of this year, when the whole 
frame of the hierarchy was dissolved. 

The parliament, at the request of the assembly of divines, 
gave some marks of their favor to the university of Cam- 
bridge, which was reduced to such necessitous circumstan- 
ces, by reason of the failure of their college rents, that they 
could not support their students ; it was therefore ordain- 
ed, April 11, 1645, "That nothing contained in any ordi- 

* nance of parliament concerning levying or paying of tax- 
( es should extend to the university of Cambridge, or any 
' of the colleges or halls within the said university, nor to 
£ any of the rents or revenues belonging to the said univer- 
sity or colleges, or any of them, nor to charge any master, 

* fellow, or scholar of any of the said colleges, nor any 
' reader, officer, or minister of the said university or eolle- 
*ges, for any stipend, wages, or profit arising, or growing 
< due to them, in respect of their places and employments 
'hi the said university. 7? §> They likewise confirmed all 
their ancient rights and privileges, and ordered the differ- 
ences between the university and town to be determined 
according to law. On the same day the ordinance for reg- 
ulating the university, and removing scandalous ministers 
in the associated counties by the earl of Manchester, men- 
tioned in the beginning of the last year, was revived and 

On the 17th of April this year died Dr. Ban. Featly ; he 
was born at Charlton in Oxfordshire, 1581, and educated 
at Corpus Christi college, of which he was fellow ; upon 
bis leaving the university he went chaplain to sir Thomas 
Symmonds, the king's ambassador to the French court, 
where he gained reputation by his sermons and disputa- 
tious with the papists, (j When he returned home he became 

§ Husband's Collcetions, p. 636, 637\ 

|| There was also a celebrated piece from his pen, levelled against the 
baptists. It originated from a disputation which he held with four of 
that persuasion in Southwark, in the month of October 1641. About 
two years afterwards he published an account of this debaVe in a beok, 


domestic chaplain to archbishop Abbot, and was presented 
by him to the rectory of Lambeth, and in the year 16^7, 
to that of Acton. In 1613, he was nominated of the as- 
sembly of divines, and sat among them till his correspon- 
dence with the court was discovered, by an intercepted let- 
ter to archbishop Usher relating to their proceedings ; up- 
on which he was committed to lord Peter's house for a spy, 
both his livings were sequestered, and himself expelled the 
assembly.* The doctor was a thorough calvinist, but very 
zealous for the hierarchy of the church ; so that when in 
prison he published the following challenge ; 

" WHEREAS I am certainly informed, that divers 
< lecturers and preachers in London do in their pulpits, in 
' a most insolent manner, demand where they are now, that 
i dare stand up in defence of the church hierarchy, or book 
( of common prayer, or any ways oppose or impugn the 
6 new-intended reformation both in doctrine and discipline 
i of the church of England ; I do, and will maintain, by 

entitled, u The Dippers Dipt ; or, the Anabaptists duckt, and plunged 

* over head and ears, at a disputation in Seuthwark." This title sa- 
vored of the taste and spirit of the times, and is no favorable omen of 
the strain of the work. In his dedication, he tells the reader, " that 

* he could hardly dip his pen in any thing but gall." The doctor wrote 
indeed under an irritation of spirits from being deprived of two liv- 
ings, which he enjoyed before the unhappy differences between the 
king and parliament. lie had the character, however, of an acute as 
well as vehement disputant. He had for his fellow prisoner Mr. Hen- 
ry Denhe, educated at the university of Cambridge, and ordained in 
1630, by the bishop of St. David, who signalized himself by his preach- 
ing, writing, disputing, and suffering for the baptistical opinion. As 
soon as he came into prison, Dr. Featly's book was laid before him in 
his apartment ; when he had read it, he offered to dispute with the au- 
thor on the arguments of it. The challenge was accepted, and they de- 
bated ort the first ten arguments, when the doctor declined proceeding, 
urging that it was not safe for them to dispute on the subject without 
licence from government; but he bid Mr. Denne write, and said he 
would defend his own arguments. Mr. Denne, on this, drew up a 
learned and ingenious answer; but it does not appear that the doctor 
ever replied. He was esteemed one of the greatest ornaments of the Cor- 
pus Christi College : and acquitted himself with great applause in a 
funeral oration on the death of its celebrated master Dr. Rainolds.; and 
in a public exercise with which he entertained the archbishop of Spal- 
ato. Unwholsome air, bad diet, and worse treatment, hastened his 
death. Crosby's history of the English Baptists, vol. i, p. 152, and 
403, and Granger's History of England, vol. ii. p. 176, 7. 8vo. Ed. 

*.See before Chap, U. 

CHAP. 6. of the puritans. 321 

6 disputation or writing, against any of them, these three 
' conclusions : 

1. "That the articles of religion agreed upon in the 
c year 15G£, by both houses of convocation, and ratified 
' by Queen Elizabeth, need no alteration at all, but only 
c an orthodox explication of some ambiguous phrases, and 
4 a vindication against false aspersions. 

2. " That the discipline of the church of England, es- 
f tablished by many laws, and acts of parliament, that is, 

* the government by bishops (removing all innovations and 

< abuses in the execution thereof) is agreeable to God's 
1 word, and a truly ancient and apostolical institution. 

3. " That there ought to be a set form of public prayer ; 
'and that the book of common prayer (the kalendar being 
i reformed in point of apocryphal saints and chapters, some 
i rubrics explained, and some expressions revised, and 
( the whole correctly printed with the psalms, chapters, 

* and allegations, out of the Old and New Testament, ac- 
i cording to the last translation) is the most complete, per- 
i feet, and exact liturgy now extant in the christian world." 

The doctor was a little man, of warm passions, and ex- 
ceedingly inflamed against the parliament for his imprison- 
ment, as appears by his last prayer a few hours before his 
death, which happened at Chelsea, whither he had beeu 
removed for the benefit of the air, in the sixty-fifth year of 
his age. His prayer had these words in it, — " Lord, 
' strike through the reins of them that rise against the 
6 church and king, and let them be as chaff before the 
' wind, and as stubble before the fire ; let them be scatter- 
ed as partridges on the mountains, and let the breath of 

< the Lord consume them ; but upon our gracious sovereign 

< aud his posterity let the crown flourish." — A prayer not 
formed after the model of St. Stephen's, or that of our 
blessed Saviour upon the cross. 

The Writer of the life of archbishop Usher says, the 
doctor was both orthodox and loyal ; but lord Clarendon 
and Dr. Heyliu cannot forgive his sitting in the assembly, 
and being a witness against archbishop Laud at his trial. 

* Whether he sat in the assembly (says Heylin) to shew 
£ his parts, or to head a party, or out of his old love to cal- 

* vinism, may best be gathered from some speeches which 

Vol. III. 41 


{ he made aud printed ; but he was there in heart before, 
' and therefore might afford them his body now, though 
' possibly he might be excused from taking the covenant 
' as others did."* 

Soon after died famous old Mr. John Dod, whose pious 
and remarkable sayiugs are remembered to this day ; he 
was born at Shotlidge in Cheshire in the year 1550, and 
educated in Jesus college, Cambridge, of which he was 
fellow. | At thirty years of age he removed to Hanwell 
in Oxfordshire, where he continued preaching twice on the 
Lord's-day, and once on the week days for above twenty 
years ; at the end of which he was suspended for non-con- 
formity by Dr. Bridges, bishop of the diocese. Being 
driven from Hanwell he removed to Canons-Ashby in 
Northamptonshire, and lived quietly several years, till 
upon complaint made by bishop JVeal to King James, ha 
commanded archbishop Abbot to silence him. After the 
death of King James, Mr. Dod was allowed to preach 
publicly again, and settled atFaustly in the same county, 
where he remained till his death. He was a most hum- 
ble, pious, and devout man and universally beloved ; an 
excellent Hebrician, a plain, practical, fervent preacher, 
a noted casuist, and charitable almost to a fault ; his con- 
versation was heavenly ; but being a noted puritan, though 
lie never meddled with state affairs, he was severely used 
by the king's cavaliers, who plundered his house, and 
would have taken away his very sheets, if the good old 
man, hardly able to rise out o*f his chair, had not put them 
under him for a cushion ; all which he endured patiently, 
calling to mind one of his own maxims,:}: sanctified afflic- 
tions are spiritual promotions. || He died of the strangury 
in the i)6tli year of his age, and lies buried in his parish 
church at Faustly. 

* Hist. Presb. p. 4-64?. 
t Clark's Martyrol, p. 168, of the annexed lives. 
| His name has derived celebrity from his maxims, usually called 
Dodd's Sayings: they having been printed in various forms; many of 
them, on two sheets of paper, are still to be seen pasted on the walls of 
cottages. An old woman in my neighhorhoed told me, sa\s Mr. Gran- 
ger, "that she should have gone distracted for the loss of her husband, 
* if she had been without Mr. Dodd's Sayings in the house." History 
ef England, vol. i. p. 37o, 8vo. Ed. 

H Fuller's Ch. Hist. p. 320. 



\TIie Conclusion of the First Civil War, by the Ring's sur- 
rendering his Royal Person to the Scots. Petitions of 
the Assembly and City Divines against toleration, and 
for the divine right of the Presbyterial Government, 
which is erected in London. Debates between the King, 
Mr. Henderson, and the Scots Commissioners. His 
•Majesty is removed from Newcastle to Holmby- House, 
Farther account of the Sectaries. 

THE king being returned to Oxford, Nov. 6, 1646, af- 
ter an unfortunate campaign, in which all his armies were 
beaten out of the field, and dispersed, had no other reme- 
dy left but to make peace with his subjects, which his 
friends in London encouraged him to expect he migbtbe able 
to accomplish, by the help of some advantage from the grow- 
ing divisions among the members, the majority of whom 
were inclined to an accommodation, provided the king 
would consent to abolish episcopacy, and offer sufficient as- 
surances to govern for the future according to law. J But 
though his majesty was willing to yield a little to the times, 
with regard to the security of the civil government, nothing 
could prevail with him to give up the church. Besides, as 
the king's circumstances obliged him to recede, the parlia- 
ment as conquerors advanced in their demands. In the 
month of December, his majesty sent several messages to 
the parliament, to obtain a personal treaty at London, up- 
on the public faith for himself and a certain number of his 
friends, residing there with safety and honor forty days ; 
but the parliament would by no means trust their enemies 
within their own bowels, and therefore insisted prerempto- 
rily upon his signing the bills they were preparing to send 
him, as a preliminary to a well-grounded settlement. 

The king made some concessions on his part, relating to 
the militia and liberty of conscience, but very far short of 

t Iiapin, p. 320. 


the demand of the two houses, who were so persuaded of 
his art aud afolility in the choice of ambiguous expressions, 
capable of a different sense from what appeared at first sight, 
that they durst not venture to make use of them as the ba- 
sis of a treaty. § Thus the winter was wasted in fruitless 
messages between London and Oxford, while the unfor- 
tunate king spent his time musing over his papers in a most 
disconsolate maimer, forsaken by some of fiis best friends, 
and rudely treated by others. Mr. Locke says, the usage 
the king met with from his followers at Oxford made it an 
hard, but almost an even choice, to be the, parliament's pris- 
oner, or their slave. In his majesty's letter to the queen 
he writes, " If thou knew what a life I lead in point of 
6 conversation, I dare say thou wouldst pity me." The 
chief officers quarrelled, and became insupportably insolent 
in the royal presence ; nor was the king himself without 
blame ; for being deprived of his oracle the queen, he was 
like a ship in a storm without sails or rudder. Lord Clar- 
endon^ therefore draws a veil over his majesty's conduct 
in these words : " It is not possible to discourse of partic- 
f ulars with the clearness that is necessary to subject 
'them to common understandings, without opening a door 

* for such reflections upon the king himself, as seem to call 

* both his wisdom and steadiness in question ; as if he 

* wanted the one to apprehend and discover, and the other 
( to prevent the mischiefs that were evident and impend- 
< ing." And yet nothing could prevail with him to submit 
to the times, or deal frankly with those who alone were 
capable of retrieving his affairs. 

The king having neither money nor forces, and the 
queen's resources from abroad failing, his majesty could 
not take the field in the spring, which gave the parliament 
army an easy conquest over his remaining forts and garri- 
sons. All the West was reduced pefore Midsummer, by 
the victorious army of sir Tho. Fairfax ; the city of Exe- 
ter surrendered April 9> in which one of the king's daugh- 
ters, princess Henrietta, was made prisoner, but her gov- 
erness the countess of Dalkeith found means afterwards to 

II Rtishworth, vol. \i. p. 215, 216. f Vol. iv. p. 626. 


convey her privately into France. Dennington-Castle sur- 
rendered April 1, Barnstaple the 12th, and Woodstock 
the 26th ; upon which it was resolved to strike the finish- 
ing hlow, by besieging the king in his head -quarters at Ox- 
ford ; upon the news of which, like a man in a fright, he 
left the city by night x\pril 27* and travelled as a servant 
to Dr. Hudson and Mr. Jlshbnrham, with his hair cut round 
to his ears, and a eioke-bag behind him to the Scots army 
before Newark :$ His majesty surrendered himself to gen- 
eral Levan, May 5, who received him with respect, but 
sent an express immediately to the two houses, who were 
displeased at his majesty's conduct, apprehending it calcu- 
lated to prolong the war, and occasion a difference between 
the two nations ; which was certainly intended, as appears 
by the king's letter from Oxford to the duke of Ormond. 
in which he says, he had good security, that he and all his 
adherents should be safe in their persons, honors, and con- 
sciences in the Scots army, and that they would join iviih 
him, aud employ their forces to obtain a happy and well- 
grounded peace ; whereas the Scots commissioners, in their 
letter to the house of peers, aver, a They had given no as- 
f surance, nor made any capitulation for joining forces with 
6 the king, or combining against the two houses, or any 
? other private or public agreement whatsoever, between 
c the king on one part, aud the kingdom of Scotland, their 
1 army, or any in their names, and having power from them, 
i on the other part ; ?? aud they called the contrary asser- 
tion a damnable untruth ; and add, " that they never ex- 
' pect a blessing from God any louger than they continue 
( faithful to their covenant."^ So that this must be the ar- 

$ Rapin, vol. ii. p. 523. Rushworth, vol. vi. p. 268, 273, 271, 303, 304. 
§ Dr. Grey, lo confute these declarations, which Mr. Neal has brought 
forward, qnotes several affidavits and assertions of Dr. Hudson: the 
substance of which is, that the S«ots agreed to secure the person and 
honor of the king: to press him to nothing contrary to his conscience: 
to protect Mr. Ashburnham and himself: and, if the parliament refus- 
ed to restore the king, upon a message from him, to his rights aud pre- 
rogatives, to declare for him, and take all his friends into their protec- 
tion. But the doctor omits to observe, that Hudson spoke en the au- 
thority of the French agent, oue Montrsville, who negociated the bus- 
iness between the king and the Scots : and who, it appears, promised 
to the king more than he was empowered ; and was recalled and dii- 


tifice of Montreville, the French ambassador, who under- 
took to negociate between the two parties, and drew the 
credulous and distressed king into that snare, out of which 
he could never escape. 

His majesty surrendering his person to the Scots, and 
sending orders to the governors of Newark, Oxford, and 
all his other garrisons and forces to surrender and disband, 
concluded the first civil war ; upon which most of the offi- 
cers, with prince Rupert and Maurice, retired beyond sea; 
so that by the middle of August all the king's forces and 
castles were in the parliament's hands ; Ragland-castle be- 
ing the last ; which was four years wanting three days, 
from the setting up the royal standard at Nottingham. 

Some time before the king left Oxford he had commis- 
sioned the marquis of Ormond to conclude a peace with 
the Irish papists, in hopes of receiving succours from thence, 
which gave great offence to the parliament ; but though 
his majesty upon surrendering himself to the Scots wrote 
to the marquis June 11,* not to proceed; he ventured to 
put the finishing hand to the treaty, July 28, 1646, upon 
the following scandalous articles, f among others which 
surely the marquis durst not have consented to, without' 
some private instructions from the king and queen. 

1. 6 f That the Roman catholics of that kingdom shall be 
i discharged from taking the oath of supremacy. 

%. u That all acts of parliament made against them shall 
* be repealed ; that they be allowed the freedom of their 
' religion, and not be debarred from any of his majesty's 
' graces or favors. 

graced. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 523-4*. It is more easy to conceive, that 
Moutreville exceeded his commission, as according to Hudson's confes- 
sion, quoted by Dr. Grey, the Scots would not give any thing under 
their hands. Ed. 

*Lord Digby wished to have it understood, that this letter was sur- 
reptitious, or a forged one from his majesty, and most contrary to what 
he knew to be his free resolution and unconstrained will and pleasure. 
Dr. Grey. Ed. 

t Mr. Neal, as Dr. Grey observes, gives only a very concise abridg- 
ment of these articles ; whieh were thirty in number, and, as they 
stand in Rushworth, take up almost twelve pages in folio. But Mr. 
Neal's view of some of them, though the doctor calls it curtailing them, 
is sufficient to shew the tenor and spirit of the whole. Ed. 


3. " That all acts reflecting on the honor of the Roman 
' catholic religion since Aug. 7? 1611, be repealed. 

4. <•' That all indictments, attainders, outlawries, &c. 
( against them, or any of them, be vacated and made void. 

5. " That all impediments that may hinder their sitting 
{ in parliament, or being chosen burgesses, or knights of 
' the shire, be removed. 

6. " That all incapacities imposed upon the nation be 
6 taken away, and that they have power to erect one or 
i more inns of court in or near the city of Dublin ; and 

* that all catholics educated there be capable of taking 
( their degrees without the oath of supremacy. 

7. " That the Roman catholics shall be empowered to 
i erect one or more universities, and keep free-schools for 
•' the education of their youth, any law or statute to the 

* contrary notwithstanding. 

8. "That places of command, honor, profit, and trust, 
; shall be conferred on the Roman catholics, without mak- 
\ ing any difference between them and protestants, both in 

* the army and in the civil government. 

9. "That an act of oblivion shall be passed in the next 

* parliament, to extend to all the Roman catholics, and 
6 their heirs, absolving them of all treasons and offences 
'whatsoever, and particularly of the massacre of 1641, \ 
' so that no persons shall be impeached, troubled, or mo- 
6 lested, for any thing done on one side or the other. 

10. »' That the Roman catholics shall continue in pos- 
4 session of all those cities, forts, garrisons, and towns that 
' they are possessed of, till things are come to a full settle- 

|| Rushworlh, part iv. vol. 1. p. 402. 

t But it was provided, that such barbarities, as should be agreed on 
by the lord lieutenant, and the lord viscount Mountgarret, or any five 
or more of them, should be tried by such indifferent commissioners as 
they sbould appoint. Dr. Grey. Ed. 

* Our author having called the preeeeding propositions "scandalous 
articles," Dr. Grey appeals from his sentence to the remonstrance of 
the protestant archbishops, bishops, and inferior clergy of the kingdom 
of Ireland to the lord lieutenant, on the lith and 13th of August, 1648, 
in which they express a strong and grateful sense of obligation for the 
peace established among them. But it will still remain a question, 
whether the sentiments of these prelates and clergy were disinterested 1 
aad judicious. Ed. 


Was this the way to establish a good understanding be- 
tween the king and his two houses ? or could they believe, 
that his majesty meant the security of the protectant reli- 
gion, and the extirpation of popery in England, when his 
general consented to such a peace in Ireland, without any 
marks of his sovereign's displeasure? nay, when, after a 
long treaty with the parliament commissioners, he refused 
to deliver up the forts and garrisons into their hands, inso- 
much that after six weeks attendance, they were obliged 
to return to their ships, and carry back the supplies they 
had brought for the garrisons,* having only published a 
declaration, that the parliament of England would take all 
the protcstants of Ireland into their protection, and send over 
an army to carry on the war against the papists with vigor* 

The king being now in the hands of the Scots, the En- 
glish presbyterians at London resumed their courage, con- 
cluding they could not fail of a full establishment of their 
discipline, and of bringing the parliament at Westminster 
to their terms of uniformity ; for this purpose they framed 
a bold remonstrance in the name of the lord-mayor, alder- 
men, and common-council, and presented it to the house 
May 26, complaining,^ " that the reins of discipline were 
< let loose ; that particular congregations were allowed to' 

* Our author incurs here the censure of Dr. Grey for not " affortl- 
1 ing us any authority in proof of this assertion." The editor confess- 
es, that he cannot supply the omission. Dr. Grey confronts Mr. Neal 
with large quotations from Lord Clarendon's History of the Rebellion 
in Ireland, p. 53, 54, 65, 66, 73, 74, 75. But they appear not to the 
point for which they are produced. The purport of them is : " That 
4 the marquis of Ormond resolved not to proceed to any conjunction 
' with the commissioners without his majesty's express directions, for 
6 which he privately dispatched several expresses : that, in conse- 
' quence of this, Ihe commissioners, not obtaining possession of the gar- 
4 risons, returned with all their supplies to their ships: that the mar- 
*qnis received his majesty's order not to deliver up the garrisons, if it 
' were possible to keep them under the same entire obedience to his ma- 
'jesly : but should there be a necessity, to put them into the hands of 
' the English, rather than of the Irish." The rest of the quotation de- 
scribes the difficulties and distresses under which the marquis labored, 
which drove him at last to make a disadvantageous agreement with 
the commissioners. The reader will judge, whether by these referen- 
ces Mr. Neal's assertions are not, instead of being confuted, establish- 
ed. See also Mrs. Maeaulay, vol. iv. p. 250. Note (f). Ed. 

\ VqI. Pamp. No. 34. 


4 take up what form of divine service they pleased, and that 
' sectaries began to swarm by virtue of a toleration granted 
•to tender consciences. They put the parliament in mind 
4 of their covenant, which obliged them to endeavor the ex- 
' tirpation of popery, prelacy, superstition, heresy, schism, 
4 profaneness, and whatsoever else was found contrary to 
c sound doctrine ; and at the same time to preserve and de- 
4 fend the person and authority of the king ; they there 
4 fore desired, since the whole kingdom was now in a man- 
4 ner reduced to the obedience of the parliament, that all 
4 separate congregations may be suppressed ; that all such 
4 separatists who conform not to the public discipline may 
'be declared against, that no person disaffected to the pres- 
4 byterial government set forth by parliament, may be em- 
4 ployed in any place of public trust ;§> that the house will 
4 endeavor to remove all jealousies between them and the 
4 Scots, and hasten their propositions to the king, for a 
4 safe and well grounded peace."* 

This remonstrance was supported by the whole Scots 
nation, who acted in concert VrL-th their English brethren, 
as appears by a letter of thanks to the lord-mayor, alder- 
men, and common-council, from the general assembly, dat- 
ed June 10, 1646, within a month after the delivery of the 
remonstrance :J the letter commends their courageous ap- 
pearance against sects and sectaries ; their lirm adherence 
to the coveuaut, and their maintaining the presbyterial gov- 
ernment to be the government of Jesus Christ. It beseech- 
es them to go on boldly in the work they had begun, till 
the three kingdoms were united in one faith aud worship. 
At the same time they directed letters to the parliament, 
beseeching them also, in the bowels of Jesus Christ, to give 
to him the glory that is due to his name, by an immediate 
establishing of all his ordinances in their full integrity aud 

§ Presbyteriauism thus displayed the same intolerance as episcopacy 
had done. '• Religious tyranny," observes Mr. Robinson, "subsists in 
* various degrees, as all civil tyrannies do. Popery is the consumma- 
tion of it, aud presbyterianism a weak decree of it. But the latter 
' has in it the essence of the former : aud differs from it only as a kept 
' mistress differs from a street-walker ; or, as a musket differs from a 
"canon." Plan of Lectures, 5th edition, p. 3S. Ed. 

* Whitloeke's Memorials, p. 212. \ Rushworth, p, 306. 

Vol. III. 43 


power, according to the covenant. Nor did they forget to 
encourage the assembly at Westminster to proceed in their 
zeal against sectaries, and to stand boldly for the sceptre 
of Jesus Christ against the encroachments of earthly pow- 
ers. These letters were printed and dispersed over the 
whole kingdom. 

The wise parliament received the lord-mayor and his 
brethren, with marks of great respect and civility ; for 
neither the Scots nor English presbyterians were to be 
disgusted, while the prize was in their hands, for which 
both had been contending; but the majority of the commons 
were displeased with the remonstrance and the high man- 
ner of enforcing it, as aiming, by an united force, to estab- 
lish a sovereign despotic power in the church, with an 
uniformity, to which themselves, and many of their friends^ 
were unwilling to submit ; however, they dismissed the 
petitioners with a promise to take the particulars into con- 

But the independents and sectarians in the army, being 
alarmed at the impending storm, procured a counter peti- 
tion from the city with great numbers of hands, " applaud- 
f ing the labors and successes of the parliament, in the cause 
6 of liberty, and praying them to go on with managing 
'the affairs of the kingdom according to their wisdoms, 
6 and uot suffer the free-born people of England to be en- 
6 slaved upon any pretence whatsoever ; nor to suffer any 
e set of people to prescribe to them in matters of government 
'or conscience, and the petitioners will stand by them with 
f their lives and fortunes." Mr. Whitlocke says, the hands 
of the royalists were in this affair, who, being beaten out of 
the field, resolved now to attempt the ruin of the parlia- 
ment, by sowing discord among their friends.*" 

The houses were embarrassed between the contenders 
for liberty and uniformity, and endeavored to avoid a deci- 
sion, till they saw the effect of their treaty with the king. 
They kept the presbyterians in suspence, by pressing the 
assembly for their answer to the questions relating to the 
jus divinum of presbytery already mentioned, insinuating 
that they themselves were the obstacles to a full settlement, 
and assuring them, when this point was agreed, they would 

* Oldinixon's History of the Stuarts, p. 30S. Memorials, p. 213, 

£HAP. 7 



concur in such an ordinance as they desired. Upon this 
the asse v mbly appointed three committees to take the ques- 
tions iuto consideration ; but the independents took this 
opportunity to withdraw, refusing absolutely to be con- 
cerned in the affair. 

The first committee was appointed to determine, whether 
any jmrticular church government trasjure divino, and to 
bring their proofs from scripture. But here they stumbled 
at the very threshold, for the erastians divided them, and 
entered their dissent, so that when the answer was laid be- 
fore the assembly, it was not called the answer of the com- 
mittee, but of some brethren of the committee ; and when 
the question was put, they withdrew from the assembly, 
and left the high presbyterians to themselves, who agreed., 
with only one dissenting voice, that Jesus Christ, as king 
of the church, hath himself appointed a church government 
distinct from the civil magistrate. The names of those 
who subscribed this proposition were, 

Rev. Mr. Wbite 

The Rev. Dr. 

Mr. Palmer 


Dr. Wincop 
Mr. Ley 
Dr. Gouge 


Mr. Walker 


Mr. Sedgwick 
Mr. Marshall 


Mr. Whitaker 


Mr. Newcomen 


Mr. Spurstow 


Mr. Delmy 


Mr. Calamy 
Mr. Proffet 


Mr. Perne 


Mr. Scuddir 


Mr. Carter, sen. 


Mr. Caryl 


Mr. Woodcocke 


Mr. Carter, jun. 


Mr. Goodwin 


Mr. Nye 
Mr. Greenhill 


Mr. Valentine 


Mr. Price 


Dr. Smith 


Caw drey 

De La March 

De La Place 


The divine who entered his dissent was Mr. Lightfoot, 
with whom Mr. Colman would have joined, if he had not 
fallen sick at this juncture, and died. 

The discussing the remaining questions engaged the as- 
sembly from May till the latter end of July, and even then 
they thought it not safe to present their determinations to 
parliament for fear of a praemunire ; upon which the city 
divines at Sion college took up the controversy, in a treatise 
entitled, The divine right of Church Government, by the 
loxdon ministers. Wherein they give a distinct answer 
to the several queries of the house of commons, and under- 
take to prove every branch of the presbyterial discipline to 
he jure divino, and that the civil magistrate had no right to 
intermeddle with the censures of the church. 

And to shew the parliament they were in earnest, they 
resolved to stand by each other, and not comply with the 
present establishment, till it was delivered from the yoke 
of the civil magistrate ; for which purpose they drew up a 
paver of reasons, and presented it to the lord-mayor, who, 
having advised with the common-council, sent a deputation 
to Sion college, offering to concur in a petition for redress; 
which they did accordingly, though without effect ; for the 
parliament, taking notice of the combination of the city min- 
isters, published an order June 9, requiring those of the 
province of London to observe the ordinance relating to 
church government, enjoining the members for the city to 
send copies thereof to their several parishes, and to take ef- 
fectual care that they were immediately put in execution. 
Upon this the ministers of London and Westminster met 
again at Sion college June 19, and being a little more sub- 
missive, published certain considerations and cautions, ac- 
cording to which they agree to put the presbyterial govern- 
ment in practice according to the present establishment. 
Here they declare, "that the power of church censures 
6 ought to be in church officers, by the will and appointment 
e of Jesus Christ, but then they are pleased to admit, 
e that the magistracy ought to be satisfied in the truth of 
' the government they authorize ; and though it be not right 
6 in every particular, yet church officers may act under that 
* rule, provided they do not acknowledge the rule to be 


' right in all points. Therefore though they conceive the 
'ordinances of parliament already published, are not a 
' complete rule, nor in all points satisfactory to their con- 
' sciences, yet because in many things they are so, and 
' provision being made to enable the elderships, by their 
' authority, to keep away from the Lord's-supper all ig- 
' norant and scandalous persons ; and a further declara- 
tion' beiug made, that there shall be an addition to the 
' scandalous offences formerly enumerated, therefore they 
'conceive it their duty to put in practice the present settle- 
I ment, as far as they conceive it correspondent with the 
'word of God; hoping that the parliament will in due 
' time supply what is lacking, to make the government en- 
' tire, and rectify what shall appear to be amiss.' 7 Thus 
reluctantly did these gentlemen bend to the authority of 
the parliament ! 

The kingdom of England, instead of so many dioceses, 
was now divided into a certain number of provinces, made 
up of representatives from the several classes within their 
respective boundaries ; every parish had a congregational, 
or parochial presbytery for the affairs of the parish ; the 
parochial presbyteries were combined into classes ; these 
returned representatives to the provincial assembly, as the 
provincial did to the national ; for example, the province 
of London being composed of twelve classes, according to 
the following division, each classis chose two ministers, 
and four lay-elders, to represent them in a provincial as- 
sembly, which received general appeals from the parochial 
and classical presbyteries, as the national assembly did 
from the provincial. 


The first Classis to contain the following parishes. 

1 Allhallows, Breadstreet 

2 Andrew's, Wardrope 
S Bennet, Paul's Wharf 

4 Faith's 

5 St. Gregory 

6 St. John Evangelist 
y Margaret Moses 

8 St. Martin. Ludgate 

9 St. Anne, Black-Friars 

10 St. Austin's Parish 

11 St. Mary, Alderraary 

12 St. Mary le Bow 

13 St. Matthew, Friday-street 

14 Milbred. Bread-street, St. 

13 St. Peter'*, Paul's Wharf. 



The second Class is. 

chap. 7. 

1 St. Antholine 

2 Bennet Sheerhog 

3 St. James, Garlickhithe 

4 St. John Baptist 

5 Martin the Vintry 

6 St. Mary Magdalene, Old 


7 St. Mary Somerset 

8 St. Mary Mounthaw 

9 St. Michael, Queenhithe 

10 St. Michael Royal 

11 St. Nicholas, Old Abby 

12 St. Nicholas Olives 

13 Pancras, Sopers Lane 

14 St. Thomas Apostle 

15 Trinity Parish. 

The third Classis. 

1 Allhallows the greater 

2 Allhallows the less 

3 Allhallows, Lombard-street 

4 St. Edmund, Lombard-street 

5 Lawrence Pountney 

6 St. Mary, Abchurch 

7 St. Mary, Bothaw 

8 St. Mary, Woolchurch 

9 St. Mary, Weolnoth 

10 St. Nicholas Aaron 

11 St. Stephen's Wallbrook 

12 St. Swithin's. 

The fourth Classis. 

1 St. Andrews, Hubbert 

2 St. Bennet, Gracechurch 

3 St. Buttolph, Billingsgate 

4 St. Clement, East-cheap 
8 St. Dionis, Back-church 

6 St. George, Buttolph-lane 

7 St. Leonard, East-cheap 

8 St. Magnus 

9 St. Margaret, New Fishstreet 

10 St. Martin Orgars 

11 St. Mary Hill 

12 St. Michael, Crooked-lane 

13 St. Michael, Conihiil 

14 St. Peter, Cornhill. 

The fifth Classis, 

1 St. Anne, Aldersgate 

2 St. Buttolph, Aldersgate 

3 St. Brides 

4 Bridewell 

5 Christ Church 

6 St. Johu Zachary 

7 St. Leonard, Foster-lane 

8 St. Mary Staynings 

9 St. Michael in the Corn s vulgo 

in the Querne 

10 St. Olave, Silver street 

11 St. Peter, Cheap 

12 St. Foster, alias Vedast. 

The sixth Classis. 

1 St. Alban, Wood-street 

2 Allhallows, Honey-lane 

3 St. Alphage 

4 St. Giles's, Cripplegate 

5 St. James's Chapel 

6 St. Lawrence, Jewry 

7 St Martia, Ironmonger-lane 

8 St. Mary, Aldermanbury 

9 St. Mary Magdalen, Milk. 


10 St. Mary, Colechurcb 

11 St. Michael, Wood-street 

12 St. Mildred, Poultry 

13 St. Olave, Jewry. 

CHAP. 7* 


Tlie seventh Classis. 


Allhallows in the Wall 

St. Bartholomew, Exchange 

St. Bennet Finek 

St. Buttolph, Bishopsgate 

St. Christopher's 

6 St. Margaret, Lothbury 

7 St. Michael, Bassishaw 

8 St. Peter Poor 

9 St. Stephen, Coleman-street, 

The eighth Classis. 

1 St. Andrew Undershaft 

2 St. Buttolph, Aldgate 

3 St. Ethelburga 

4 St John, Hackney 

5 St. Helleus 

6 St. James, Duke-Place 

7 St. Katherine, Creechurch 

8 St. Leonard, Shoreditch 

9 St. Martin, Outwich 

10 St. Mary, Stoke-Newington. 

The ninth Classis. 

1 AJIhallows Barkiu 

2 Allhallows Steying 

3 St. Dunstan in the East 

4 St. Gabriel, Fenchurch 

5 St. Katherine, Coleman 

6 St. Katherine, Tower 

7 St. Margaret, Pattoons 

8 St. Olive, Hartstreet 

9 St. Peter in the Tower 

10 Stepney 

11 Trinity, Minories 

12 Wapping 

13 Whitechapel. 

The tenth Classis. 

1 St. George, Southwark 

2 Lambeth 

3 St. Mary Magdalen, Ber- 


4 St. Marv Overies 

5 Newington Butts 

6 St. Olave, Southwark 

7 Rotherhithe 

8 St. Thomas's Hospital 

9 St. Thomas's, Southwark. 

The eleventh Classis. 

1 St. Clement Danes 

2 St. Giles's in the Fields 

3 Knightbridge 

4 St. Margaret, Westminster 

5 St. Martin in the Fields 

6 New Church 

7 St. Peter, Westminster 

8 St, Paul, Covent-Garden 

The twelfth Classis. 

1 St. Andrew, Holborn 

2 St. Bartholomew the greater 

3 St. Bartholomew the less 

4 Charter-house 

5 St. Dunstan in the West 

6 St. James's, Clerkenwell 

7 St. Mary, Islington 

8 St. Sepulchres. 

$36 TUt HISTORY GHAP. ?.• 

Thus the presbyterian ecclesiastical government began 
to appear in its proper form ; but new obstructions being 
raised by the ministers to the choice of representatives, the 
provincial assembly did not meet till next year., nor did it 
ever obtain except in London and Lancashire. The par- 
liament never heartily approved it, and the interest that 
supported it being quickly disabled, Mr. Eachard says, 
the presbyterians never saw their dear presbytery settled 
in any one part of England. §> But Mr. Baxter who is a 
much better authority says, the ordiuance was executed in 
London and Lancashire, though it remained unexecuted in 
almost all other ports. However, the presbyterian minis- 
ters had their voluntary associations for church affairs in 
most counties, though without any authoritative jurisdiction. 

To return to the king, who marched with the Scots ar- 
my from Newark to Newcastle, where he continued about 
eight months, being treated with some respect, but not with 
all the duty of subjects to a sovereign. The first sermon 
that was preached before him gave hopes,* that they would 
be mediators between him and the parliament ; it was from 
% Sam. xix. 41, 42, 43. And behold, all the men of Israel 
came to the king, and said to the king, Why have the men 
of Judah stolen thee away f — And all the men of Judah an- 
swered the men of Israel, Because the king is near of kin 
to us ; ivherefore then be ye angry for this matter, have we 
eaten at all of the king's cost P or hath he given us any 
gift? — And the men of Israel answered the men of Judah, 
and said, We have ten farts in the king ; and we have al- 
so more right in David than ye; why then did ye despise 
us, that our advice should not be first had, in bringing 

§ Eachard, p. 634. 

* Mr. Whitlocke informs us, Memorials, p. 234, " that a Scotch min- 
« ister preached boldly before the king, December 16, 1646, atNewcas- 
' tie," and after his sermon called for the 52d psalm, which begins, 
" Why dost thou, tyrant, boast thyself, 
" Thy wicked works to praise ?" 
His majesty thereupon stood up, and called for the 56lh psalm, which 

"Have mercy, Lord, on me, I pray, 
" For men would me devour." 
The people waved the minister's psalm, and sung that which tht 
king called for. Ed. 


back our king? And the words of the men of Judah were 
fiercer than the words of the men of Israel. But it quick- 
ly appeared, that nothiug would be done except upon con- 
dition of the king's taking the covenant, and establishing 
the presbyterial government in both kingdoms. When the 
king was pressed upon these heads,, he pleaded his con- 
science, and declared that though he was content the Scots 
should enjoy their own discipline, he apprehended his 
honor and conscience were concerned to support episcopacy 
in England, because it had been established from the re- 
formation, and that he was bound to uphold it by his cor- 
onation oath ; however, he was willingtoenterinto a confer- 
ence with any person whom they should appoint, protesting 
be was not ashamed to change his judgment, or alter his 
resolution, provided they could satisfy him in two points. 

1st. That the episcopacy he contended for was uot of 
divine institution. — 2dly. That his coronation oath did 
not bind him to support and defend the church of England 
as it was then established. 

To satisfy the king in these points the Scots sent for 
Mr. Alexander Henderson from Edinburgh, pastor of a 
church in that city, rector of the University, and one of 
the king's chaplains, a divine of great learning and abili- 
ties, as well as discretion and prudence. Mr. Rushworth 
says, that he had more moderation than most of his way. 
Aud Collier adds, that he was a person of learning, elocu- 
tion, and judgment, and seems to have been the top of his 
party. || The debate was managed in writing : the king 
drew up his own papers, and gave them sir Robert Mur- 
ray to transcribe, and deliver to Mr. Henderson ;* and 
Mr. Henderson's hand not being so legible as his, sir 
Robert, by the king's appointment, transcribed Mr. Hen- 
derson's papers for his majesty's use.f 

|| Collier, p. 818. * Duke of Hamilton's M. p. 277. 

f Dr. Grey blames Mr. Neal here for omitting bishop Burnet's ac- 
count of t lie king's superiority in this controversy. " Had his inajes- 
' ty's arms," says the bishop, '• been as strong as his reason was. he 
' had been every way unconquerable, since none have the disingenuity 
4 to deny the great advantage his majesty had in all these ivritings : and 
'this was when the help of his chaplains could not be suspected, they 
' being so far from him ; and that the king drew with his own hand all 
'his papers without the help of any, is averred by the person who 
' alone was privy to the interchanging of them, that worthy and accom- 
Vob. III. 13 

338 the histout Chap. 7". 

The R'ing, in his first paper of May £9? declares his 
esteem for the English reformation, because it was effected 
without tumult: and was directed by those who ought to 
have the conduct of such an affair.* He apprehends they 
kept close to apostolical appointment, and the universal 
custom of the primitive church ; that therefore the adher- 
ing to episcopacy must be of the last importance, as with- 
out it the priesthood must sink, and the sacraments be ad- 
ministered without effect; for these reasons he conceives 
episcopacy necessary to the being of a church, and also^ 
that he is bound to support it by his coronation oath. Last- 
ly, His Majesty desires to know of Mr. Henderson, what 
warrant there is in the word of God for subjects to endeav- 
or to force their king's conscience, or to make him alter 
laws against his will? 

Mr. Henderson, in his first paper of June 3, after an 
introduction of modesty and respect, wishes, when occa- 
sion requires, that religion might always be reformed by 
the civil magistrate, and not left either to the prelates or 
the people; but when princes or magistrates are negligent 
of their duty, God may stir up the subject to perform this 
work. || He observes, that the reformation of King Henry 
VIII. was very defective in the essentials of doctrine, 
worship, and government; that it proceeded with a Lao- 
dicean lukewarmness ; that the supremacy was transferred 
from one wrong head to another, and the limbs of the anti- 
christian hierarchy were visible in the body. He adds, 
that the imperfection of the English reformation had been 
the complaint of many religious and godly persons ; that 
it had occasioned more schism and separation than had 
been heard of elsewhere, and had been matter of unspeak- 
able grief to other churches. As to the king's argument, 
that the validity of the priesthood, and the efficacy of the 
sacraments, depended upon episcopacy, he replies, that 
episcopacy cannot make out its claim to apostolical ap- 

1 plished gentleman Robert Murray." The bishop's opinion may be 
justly admitted, as a testimony to the ability with which the king han- 
dled the question : and yet some allowance should be made for the bi- 
as with which this preiate would naturally review arguments in fa- 
vor of his own sentiments and rank. Ed. 

* Bibl. Reg. p. 296. || Ibid. p. 312, &c. 


f ointment ; that when the apostles Mere living, there was 
no difference hetween a hishop and a presbyter; no ine- 
quality in power or degree, but an exact parity in every 
branch of their character : That there is no mention in 
scripture of a pastor or bishop superior to other pastors. 
There is a beautiful subordination in the ministry of the 
New Testament ; one kind of ministers being placed in de- 
gree and dignity above another, as first apostles, then evan- 
gelists, then pastors and teachers, but in offices of the same 
rank and kind we do not find any preference; no apostle 
is constituted superior to other apostles ; no evangelist is 
raised above other evangelists ; nor has any pastor or dea- 
con a superiority above others of their order. 

Farther, Mr. Henderson humbly desires his majesty to 
take notice, that arguing from the practice of the primitive 
church, and the consent of the fathers, is fallacious and un- 
certain, and that the law and testimony of the word of God 
is the only rule. The practice of the primitive church, in 
many things, cannot certainly be known, as Eusebius con- 
fesses, that even in the apostles' time Biotrephes moved 
for the pre-eminence, and the mystery of iniquity began to 
work ; and that afterwards ambition and weakness quickly 
made way for a change in church government. 

Mr. Henderson hopes his majesty will not deny the law- 
fulness of the ministry, and due administration of the sa- 
craments, in those reformed churches where there are no 
diocesan bishops ; that it is evident from seripture, and 
coufessed by many champions for episcopacy, that presby- 
ters may ordain presbyters ; and to disengage his majesty 
from his coronation oath, as far as relates to the church, he 
conceives, when the formal reason of an oath ceases, the 
obligation is discharged ; when an oath has a special re- 
gard to the benefit of those to whom the engagement is 
made, if the parties interested relax upon the point, dis- 
pense with the promise, and give up their advantage, the 
obligation is at an end. Thus when the parliaments of 
both kingdoms have agreed to the repealing of a law, the 
king's conscience is not tied against signing the bill, for 
then the altering any law would be impracticable. — lie 
concludes with observing, that King James never admitted 
episcopacy upon divine right ; and that could his ghost now 


speak, he would not advise your majesty to run such haz- 
ards, for men [prelates] who would pull down your throne 
with their own, rather than that they perish alone. 

The king, in his second paper* of June 6, avers, no re- 
formation is lawful, unless under the conduct of the royal 
authority ; that King Henry the eighth's reformation being 
imperfect, is no proof of defects in that of King Edward 
YI. and Queen Elizabeth ; that Mr. Henderson can never 
prove, God has given the multitude leave to reform the neg- 
ligence of princes ; that his comparing our reformation to 
the Laodicean lukewarmuess, was an unhandsome way of 
begging the question, for he should have first made out, 
that those men [the puritans] had reason to complain, and 
that the schism was chargeable upon the conformists. His 
majesty is so far from allowing the presbyterian government 
to be practised in the primitive times, that he affirms, it was 
never set up before Calvin; and admits, that it was his 
province to shew the lawfulness, and uninterrupted succes- 
sion, and by consequence the necessity of episcopacy, but 
that he had not then the convenience of books, nor the as- 
sistance of such learned men as he could trust, and there- 
fore proposes a conference with his divines. And where- 
as Mr. Henderson excepts to his reasoning from the prim- 
itive church, and consent of the fathers ; his majesty con- 
ceives his exception indefensible, for if the sense of a doubt- 
ful place of scripture is not to be governed by such an au- 
thority, the interpretation of the inspired writings must be 
left to the direction of every private spirit, which is contra- 
ry to St. Peter's doctrine, % Pet. i. SO. JVo prophecy of 
scripture is of private interpretation ; it is likewise the 
source of all sects, and without prevention will bring these 
kingdoms into confusion. His majesty adds, that it is Mr. 
Henderson's part to prove, that presbyters without a bish- 
op may ordain other presbyters. As to the administration 
of the sacraments, Mr. Henderson himself will not deny, 
a lawfully ordained presbyter's being necessary to that of- 
fice ; so that the determination of this latter question will 
depend in some measure on the former. With regard to 
oaths, his majesty allows Mr. Henderson's general rule, 

* Bib. Reg. p. 320, 322, &c. 


bat thinks he is mistaken in the application ; for the clause 
touching religion in the coronation oath was made only for 
the benefit of the church of England ; that therefore it is 
not in the power of the two houses of parliament to dis- 
charge the obligation of this oath, without their consent. — 
That this church never made any submission to the two 
houses, nor owned herself subordinate to them ; that the 
reformation was managed by the king and clergy, and the 
parliament assisted only in giving a civil sanction to the 
ecclesiastical establishment. These points being clear to 
his majesty, it follows by necessary consequence, that it is 
only the church of England, in whose favor he took this 
oath, that can release him from it, and that therefore, when 
the church of England, lawfully assembled, shall declare 
bis majesty discharged, he shall then, and not till then, 
reckon himself at liberty. 

Mr. Henderson, in his reply to this second paper of June 
17? agrees with the king, that the prime reforming power 
is in kings and princes, but adds, that in case they fail of 
their duty, this authority devolves upon the inferior magis- 
trate, and upon their failure, to the body of the people, up- 
on supposition that a reformation is necessary, and that 
people's superiors will by no means give way to it ; he al- 
lows that such a reformation is more imperfect with respect 
to the manner, but commonly more perfect and refined in 
the product and issue. He adds, that the government of 
the church of England is not supposed to be built on the 
foundation of Christ and his apostles, by those who confess 
that church government is mutable and ambulatory, as was 
formerly the opinion of most of the English bishops ; that 
the divine right was not pleaded till of late by some few ; 
that the English reformation has not perfectly purged out 
the Roman leaven, but rather depraved the discipline of 
the church by conforming to the civil polity, and adding 
many supplemental officers to those instituted by the Son 
of God. To his majesty's objection, that the presbyterian 
government was never practised before Calvin's time, he 
answers, that it is to be found in scripture ; and the assem- 
bly of divines at Westminster had made it evident, that the 

* Bib. Rc». p. 323. 


primitive church at Jerusalem was governed by a presby- 
tery ; that tiie church at Jerusalem consisted of more con- 
gregations than one : that all these congregations were com- 
bined under one presbyterial government, and made but 
one church ; that this church was governed by elders of the 
same body, and met together for functions of authority, and 
that the apostles acted not in quality of apostles, but only 
as elders, Jjctsxw ; that the same government was settled 
in the churches of Ephesus, Corinth, Thessalonlca, and 
continued many years after; and at last, when one of the 
presbytery presided over the rest with the stile of bishop, 
even then, as St. Jerom says, churches were governed with 
the joint consent of the presbytery, and it was custom, rath- 
er than divine appointment, which raised a bishop above 
a presbyter. To his majesty's argument, that where the 
meaning of scripture is doubtful, we must have recourse to 
the fathers, Mr. Henderson replies, that notwithstanding 
the decrees of councils, and the resolutions of the fathers, 
a liberty must be left for a judgment of discretion, as had 
been sufficiently shewn by bishop Davenant and others. 
To prove presbyters may ordain other presbyters without 
a bishop, he cites St. PauVs advice to Timothy, 1 Tim. 
iv. 14, not to neglect the gift that was given him by the 
laying on of the hands of the presbytery ; but granting bi- 
shops and presbyters to be distinct functions, it will not 
follow, that the authority and force of the presbyter's char- 
acter was derived from the bishop ; for though the evan- 
gelists and seventy disciples were inferior to the apostles, 
they received not their commission from the apostles, but 
from Christ himself. 

Concerning the king's coronation oath, Mr. Henderson 
apprehends nothing need be added. As to the supremacy, 
lie thinks such an headship as the kings of England claim, 
or such an one as the two bouses of parliament now insist 
on, that is, an authority to receive appeals from the su- 
preme ecclesiastical judicatures, in things purely spiritual, 
is not to be justified; nor does he apprehend the consent 
of the clergy to be absolutely necessary to church reforma- 
tion, for if so, what reformation can be expected in France, 
in Spain, or in Rome itself; it is not to be imagined, that 
the pope or prelates will consent to their own ruin. His 


majesty had said, that if his father King James had been 
consulted upon the question of resistance, he would have 
answered, that prayers and tears are the church's weapons. 
To which Mr. Henderson replies, that he could never hear 
a good reason to prove a necessary defensive war, a war 
against unjust violence, unlawful; and that bishop Jewel 
and Bilsoa were of this mind. To the question, what war- 
rant there was in scripture for subjects to endeavor to force 
their king's conscience ? he replies, that when a man's con- 
science is mistaken, it lies under a necessity of doing 
amiss ; the way therefore to disentangle himself is to get 
his conscience better iuformed, and not to move till he has 
struck a light and made further discoveries. 

The king, in his answer of June 8S to Mr. Henderson's 
second paper, still insists, that inferior magistrates and peo- 
ple have no authority to reform religion. If this point can 
be proved by scripture, his majesty is ready to submit ; but 
the sacred history in the book of Numbers, chap. xvi. is an 
evidence of God's disapproving such methods. Private 
men's opinions disjoined from the general consent of the 
church signify little, for rebels, says his majesty, never 
want writers to maintain their revolt. Though his majes- 
ty has a regard for bishop JeweVs and BUson's memories, 
he never thought them infallible ; as for episcopal govern- 
ment, he is ready to prove it an apostolical institution, 
and that it has been handed down through all ages and coun- 
tries till Calvin's time, as soon as he is furnished with books, 
or such divines as he shall make choice of; he does not 
think that Mr. Henderson's arguments to prove the church 
of England not built on the foundation of Christ and his 
apostles are valid, nor will he admit that most of the pre- 
lates, about the time of the reformation, did not insist upon 
the divine right. The king adds, Mr. Henderson would 
do well to shew where our Savior has prohibited the addi- 
tion of more church officers than those named by him; and 
yet the church of England has not so much as oiiered at this, 
for an archijishop is not a new officer, but only a distinction 
in the order of government, like tiie moderator of assemblies 
la Scotland. His majesty denies that bishops and presby- 

* Bib. Reg. p. 337, &c. 


ters always import the same thing in scripture, and when 
they do, it only respects the apostles' times, for it may be 
proved, that the order of bishops succeeded that of the 
apostles, and that the title was altered in regard to those 
who were immediately chosen by our Savior. As for the 
several congregations in Jerusalem, united in one church, 
his majesty replies, Are there not many parishes in one di- 
ocese ? And do not the deans and chapters, and sometimes 
the inferior clergy, assist the bishop? So that unless some 
positive and direct proof can be brought of an equality be- 
tween the apostles and other presbyters, all arguments are 
with him inconclusive. The king confesses, that in case 
he cannot prove from antiquity that ordination and juris- 
diction are peculiar branches of authority belonging to bish- 
ops, he shall begin to suspect the truth of his principles. 
As for bishop I)avenant J s testimony, he refuses to be gov- 
erned by that ; nor will he admit of Mr. Henderson's ex- 
ception against the fathers, till he can find out a better rule 
of interpreting scripture. And whereas Mr. Henderson 
urged the precedent of foreign reformed churches in favor 
of presbytery, his majesty does not undertake to censure 
them, bnt supposes necessity may excuse many things 
which would otherwise be unlawful; the church of Eng- 
land, in his majesty's judgment, has this advantage, that 
it comes nearest the primitive doctrine and discipline ; and 
that Mr. Henderson has failed in proving presbyters may 
ordtiiu without a bishop, for it is evident St. Paul had a 
share in Timothy's ordination, % Tim. i. 6. As to the ob- 
ligation of the coronation oath, the king is still of opinion, 
none but the representative body of the clergy can absolve 
him ; and as for the impracticableness of reformation upon 
the king's principles, lie cannot answer for that, but thinks 
it sufficient to let him know, that incommodum non solvit ar- 
gnmentum. His majesty then declares, that as it is a 
great sin for a prince to oppress the church ; so on the oth- 
er hand, he holds it absolutely unlawful for subjects to make 
war ( though defensively J against their laivful sovereign? 
upon any pretence whatsoever. 

Mr. Henderson, in his third paper of July 2, considers 
chiefly the rules his majesty had laid down for determining 


the controversy of church government, which are the prac- 
tice of the primitive church, and the universal consent of 
the fathers; ami affirms, there t is no such primitive testi- 
mony, no such universal consent in favor of modern epis- 
copacy ; the fathers very often contradicting one another, 
or at least not concurring in their testimony. But to shew 
the uncertainty of his majesty's rule for determining con- 
troversies of faith, Mr. Henderson observes, 

1. That some critics join the word of God and antiqui- 
ty together ; others make scripture the only rule, and an- 
tiquity the authentic interpreter. Now he thinks the lat- 
ter a greater mistake than the former, for the papists bring 
tradition no farther than to an equality of regard with the 
inspired writings, but the others make antiquity the very 
ground of their belief of the sense of scripture, and by that 
means exalt it above the scripture ; for the interpretation of 
the lathers is made the very formal reason why I believe 
the scripture interpretable in such a sense ; and thus.) con- 
trary to the apostle's doctrine, Our faith must stand in the 
wisdom of man, and not in the power of God. 

%. He observes, that scripture can only be authentically 
interpreted by seripture itself. Thus the Levites had re- 
course only to one part of seripture for the interpreting 
another, JVeh. viii. 8. So likewise our Savior interprets 
the Old Testament, by comparing scripture with scripture, 
and not having recourse to the rabbies. This was like- 
wise the apostles' method. Besides, when persons insist 
so much upon the necessity of the fathers, they are in dau- 
ger of charging the scriptures with obscurity or imperfec- 

3. The fathers themselves say, that scripture is not to 
be interpreted but by scripture. 

4. Many errors have passed under the shelter of anti- 
quity and tradition ; Mr. Henderson cites a great many 
examples under this head. 

And lastly, He insists, that the universal consent and 
practice of the primitive church is impossible to be known ; 
that many of the fathers were no authors ; that many of 
their tracts are lost ; that many performances which go un- 
der their names are spurious, especially upon the subject of 
episcopacy, and that therefore thev are an uncertain rule. 

Vol. III. 44 


The king, in his papers* of July 3d and 16th, says, no 
man ean reverence scripture more than himself; hut when 
Mr. Henderson and he differ about the interpretation of a 
text, there must be some judge or umpire, otherwise the 
dispute can never be ended ; and when there are no par- 
allel texts, the surest guide must be the fathers. In an- 
swer to Mr. Henderson's particulars, his majesty answers, 
that if some people over-rule tradition, that can be no ar- 
gument against the servieeableness of it ; but to charge the 
primitive church with error, and to call the eustoms and 
practices of it unlawful, unless the charge can be support- 
ed from scripture, is an unpardonable presumption. Those 
who object to the ancient rites and usages of the church 
must prove them unlawful, otherwise the practise of th« 
church is sufficient to warrant them. His majesty denies 
it is impossible to discover the universal consent, and un- 
derstand the practice of the primitive church ; and con- 
cludes with this maxim, that though he never esteemed any 
authority equal to the scriptures, yet he believes the unan- 
imous consent of the fathers, and the universal practice of 
the primitive church, the best and most authentic inter- 
preters, and by consequence the best qualified judges be- 
tween himself and Mr. Henderson. 

One may learn, from this controversy, some of the prin- 
ciples in which King Charles I. was instructed ; as, 

(1.) The divine right of diocesan episcopacy. 

(3.) The uninterrupted succession of bishops, rightly or- 
dained, from the time of the apostles ; upon which the 
whole validity of the administration of the christian sacra- 
ments depends. 

* Bihl. Reg. p. 351, 333. 
* In addition to the encomium bestowed by bishop Burnet on the 
king's papers, which we have already quoted, it may be subjoined : 
that Sir Philip Warwick also extolled them, as shewing his majesty's 
' ajreat ability and knowledge, when he was destitute of all aids." Yet 
it is remarkable, as observes Dr. Harris, who had turned over Stilling- 
fleet's Ireuicum, and Unreasonableness of Separation, Hoadley's Defence 
of Episcopal Ordination, and many other volumes, these royal " papers 
' have been little read, and are seldom or never quoted on the subject 
i of episcopacy." So that it is possible, these learned churehmen had 
' not so great an opinion of the arguments made use of by Charles in 
' these papers, as the historians, (viz. Burnet and Sir P. Warwick) I 
'have quoted." Life of Charles I. p. 101. Ed. 

<^1AP. 7« 0F THE PURITANS. 34/ 

(3.) The necessity of a judge of controversies, which his 
majesty lodges with the fathers of the christian church, and 
by that means leaves little or no room for private judgment. 

(4.) The independency of the church upon the state. 

(j.) That no reformation of religion is lawful but what 
arises from the prince or legislature ; and this only in cases 
of necessity, when a general council cannot be obtained. 

(6.) That the multitude or common people may not in 
any case take upon them to reform the negligence of prin- 
ces. Neither, 

(7.) May they take up arms against their prince, even 
for self-defence, iu cases of extreme, necessity. 

How far these principles are defensible in themselves, 
or consistent with the English constitution, I leave with 
the reader ; but it is very surprising th*t + his majesty should 
be so much entangled with that part of his coronation oath 
which relates to the church, when for fifteen years together 
he broke through all the bounds of it with relation to the 
civil liberties of his subjects, without the least remorse. 

Upon the close of this debate, and the death of Mr. 
Henderson, which followed within six weeks ; the king's 
friends gave out, that his majesty had broke his adversary's 
heart.* Bishop Rennet and Mr. Eachard nave published 
the following recantation, which they would have the world 
believe this divine dictated, or signed upon his death-bed : 

"I DO declare before God and the world, that since 
i I had the honor aud happiness to converse and confer 
( with his majesty with all sorts of freedom, especially in 
i matters of religion, whether in relation to the kirk or 
' state, that I found him the most intelligent man that I ever 
' spoke with, as far beyond my expression as expectation. 
6 1 profess, that I was oftentimes astonished with the solidity 

* This effect was ascribed to his majesty's arguments by bishop Ren- 
net and lord Clarendon; who certainly were a little too hasty in this 
judgment. For as it is well observed by Dr. Harris, " Disputants, vet- 
• eran ones, as Henderson was, have generally too good a conceit of their 
i own abilities, to think themselves overcome; and though the awe of 
' majesty may silence, it seldom persuades them." 

The Life of Charles T. p. 99, 100. 
Some said Mr. Henderson died of grief, because he could not persuade 
the king to sign the propositions. Whitlcekc's Memorials, p. 225. Ed, 


i and quickness of his reasons and replies ; and wondered 

* how he, spending his time so much in sports and recrea- 
6 tions, could have attained to so great knowledge ; and 
i must confess ingenuously, that I was convinced m eon- 

* science, and knew not how to give him any reasonable 
' satisfaction ) yet the sweetness of his disposition is such, 
i that whatsoever I said was well taken. I must say, I nev* 
' er met with any disputant of that mild and calm temper, 
c which convinced me the more, and made me think, thai 
( such wisdom and moderation could not be, without an ex- 
' traordinary measure of divine grace. I had heard much 
( of his carriage towards the priests in Spain, and that 

* King James told the duke of Buckingham, upon his going 
'thither, that he durst venture his son Charles with all the 
'Jesuits in the world, he knew him to be so well grounded 
' in the protestant religion, but could never believe it be- 

* fore. I observed all his actions, more particularly those 

* of devotion, which I must truly say are more than ordi- 

' nary. If I should speak of his justice, magnanimity, 

' charity, sobriety, chastity, patience, humility, and of all 

* his other christian and moral virtues, I should run myself 
! into a panegyric : no man can say there is conspicuously 
6 any predominant vice in him ; never man saw him pas- 

* sionately angry ; never man heard him curse, or given to 

* swearing ; or heard him complain in the greatest durance 

e of war, or confinement. 'But I should seem to flatter 

'him, to such as do not know him, if the present condition 
' that I lie in, did not exempt me from any suspicion of 
' worldly ends, when I expect every hour to be called from 
£ all transitory vanities to eternal felicity, and the discharg- 

* ing of my conscience before God and man, did not oblige 
' me to declare the truth simply and nakedly, in satisfac- 
' tion of that which I have dtftie ignorantly, though not al- 
6 together innocently. "J The declaration adds, that he 
was heartily sorry for the share he had had in the war ; 
that the parliament and synod of England had been abused 
with false aspersions of his majesty ; and that they ought 
to restore him to his just rights, and his crown and digni- 
ty, lest an indelible character of ingratitude lie upon him. 

\ Compl. Hist. p. 190. Bennet's Dcf. of liis Mem. p. 13Q. 


Mr. Eachard confesses! lie had been informed, that this 
declaration was spurious,* but could find no authority suf- 
ficient to support such an assertion. It will be proper there- 
fore to~trace the history of this imposture, aud set it in a 
clear and convincing light, from a memorial seut me from 
one of the principal Scots divines, professor Hamilton of 
Edinburgh. The story was invented by one of the Scots 
episcopal writers, who had fled to London, and was first 
published in the beginning of the year 1618, in a small 
pamphlet in quarto, about two years after Mr. Henderson's 
death. From this pamphlet Dr. Heylin published it as a 
credible report. Between 30 and 40 years after Heylin had 
published it, viz. 1693, Dr. Hollingworth in his character 
of king Charles I. republished the paper above-mentioned, 
entitled the Declaration of Mr. Alexander Henderson, 
principal minister of the word of God at Edinburgh, and 
chief commissioner of the kirk of Scotland to the jiarliament 
and synod of England ; which paper the doctor says he had 
from Mr. Lamplugh, son to the late archbishop of York of 
that name, from whom the historians above mentioned, 
and some others, have copied it ; but (says my memorial) 
upon publishing the aforesaid story to the world, the as- 
sembly of the kirk of Scotland appointed a committee to 

f Eachard, p. 626, esl. 3d. 

* Dr. Grey sneers here at Mr. Neal, for uot referring to the place, 
where Mr. Eachard makes this confession : and for keeping out of view 
the name of the Memorialist on whose authority he speaks. He then 
spends nearly five pages in cavilling at this authority, and in strictures 
on that of Mr. Burnet; through these 1 am not properly qualified to 
follow the doctor, as I have not Mr. Beunel's Defence of his Memorial : 
And it is unnecessary, for the question concerning the spuriousness of 
this piece had been discussed, in 1693, ere Neal or Burnet had written, 
by Lieut. General Ludlow, in a tract against Dr. Hollingworth. entit- 
led, " Troth brought to Light." Ludlow argues against its authentici- 
ty on these grounds : that archbishop Lamplugh. the great advocate for 
the king, had it not been a forgery, would not have failed to publish it : 
that it is not found in "King Charles's Works," though all that pas- 
sed between the king and Mr. Henderson is there recited : lhat Mr. 
Henderson was a Scotchman, whereas the words stile, and mutter, are 
plainly and elegantly English, and not Scotish : but the great stress 
is laid on the inscription on his monument, and on the Assembly's de- 
claration, to which Mr. Neal refers, and which Dr. Grey treats as spu- 
rious. These papers, as Ludlow's Tract is scarce, shall be.given in the 
Appendix, No. x. Ed. 


examine into the affair, who, after a full enquiry, by 
their act of August 7? 1648, declared *the whole to be a 
forgery, as may be seen in the printed acts of the general 
assembly for that year, quarto page 4S0, &c. in which they 
signify their satisfaction and assurance, that Mr. Hender- 
son persisted in his former sentiments to his death ;* that 
when he left the king at Newcastle he was greatly decay- 
ed in his natural strength ; that he came from thence by 
sea in a languishing condition, and died within eight days 
after his arrival at Edinburgh ;f that he was not able to 
frame such a fleclaration as is palmed upon him ; and that 
all he spoke upon his death-bed shewed his judgment was 
the same as it ever had been about church reformation. 
This was attested before the assembly by several ministers 
who visited him upon his death-bed, and particularly by 
two who constantly attended him from the time he came 
home till the time he expired. After this and a great deal 
more to the same purpose, "they declare the above-men- 

* tioned paper, entitled, A Declaration of Mr. Alexander 

* Henderson's &c. to be forged, scandalous, and false, §> and 
' the author and contriver of the same to be void of charity 
6 and a good conscience ; a gross lyar and a calumniator, 
'and led by the spirit of the accuser of the brethren. "|| 

While the king was debating the cause of episcopacy, 
the parliament were preparing their propositions for a 
peace, which were ready for the royal assent by the 11th 
of July. The Scots commissioners demurred to them for 
some time, as not coming up fully to their standard, but at 
length acquiescing, they were engrossed, and carried to the 
king by the earl of Pembroke and Montgomery and the 
earl of Suffolk, of the house of peers ; and by Sir Walter 
Erie, Sir John Hippisly, Robert Goodwin, and Luke Rob- 
ertson, esq; of the house of commons; earls oiArgyle and 
Loudon were commissioners for Scotland, and the reverend 
Mr. Marshall, was ordered to attend as their chaplain.! 

* Appendix, No. X. t Hist, of Stuarts, p. 310. 

§ If this character of Charles, ascribed to Mr. Henderson, were gen- 
uine, " it would," as Ludlow observes, " avail very little ; being th« 
'single sentiment of a stranger, that could not have had much experi- 
1 ence of him." Truth brought to Light, p. fi. Ed. 

|| Vide Bennet.s Def. of his Mem. p. 134. 
jRushwortk, vol. vi. p. 309, 311. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 521, fob edit 


The commissioners arrived at Newcastle July 23, next 
clay they waited upon his majesty, and having kissed his 
hand, Mr. Goodwin delivered the following propositions. 

Those relating to the civil government were, 

(1.) That the king should call in all his declarations 
against the parliament. 

(2.) That he should put the militia into their hands for 
twenty years, with a power to raise money for their main- 

(3.) That all peerages since May SI, 1642, should be 
made void. 

(4.) That the delinquents therein mentioned should un- 
dergo the penalties assigned in the bill. And, 

(5.) That the cessation with the Irish be disannulled; 
and the management of the war left to the parliament. 

The propositions relating to religion were, 

1. '* That his majesty, according to the laudable exam- 
' pie of his father, would be pleased to swear aud sign the 
' late solemn league and covenant, and give his consent to 
'an act of parliament, enjoining the taking it throughout 
' the three kingdoms, under certain penalties, to be agreed 
i upon in parliament. 

2. " That a bill be passed for the utter abolishing, and 
i taking away all archbishops, bishops, their chancellors, 

* commissaries, deans, sub-deans, deans and chapters, 

* arch- deacons, canons and prebendaries, and all chaunt- 
' ers, chancellors, treasurers, sub-treasurers, succentors, sa- 
i crists ; and all vicars and choristers, old vicars and new 
' vicars of any cathedral or collegiate church, and all oth- 
6 er under officers, out of the church of England, and out 
6 of the church of Ireland, with such alterations as shall 
' agree with the articles of the late treaty of Edinburgh, 
'Nov. 21), 1643, and the joint declaration of both king- 
' doms. 

3. " That the ordinance for the calling and sitting of 
i the assembly of divines be confirmed. 

4. " That reformation of religion, according to the cove- 
1 nant, be settled by act of parliament in such manner as 

* both houses have agreed, or shall agree, after consulta- 
tion with the assembly of divines. 

&5& THE HISTORY * GHAF-. 7- 

5. i( For as much as both kingdoms are obliged by cove- 
nant to endeavor such an uniformity of religion as shall 
be agreed upon by both houses of parliament in England, 
and by the church and kingdom of Scotland, after con- 
sultation bad with the divines of both kingdoms assem- 
bled, that this be confirmed by acts of parliament of both 
kingdoms respectively. 

6. " That for the more effectual disablingjesuits, priests, 
papists, and popish rescusants, from disturbing the state, 
and eluding the laws, an oath be established by act of 
parliament, wherein they shall abjure and renounce the 
pope's supremacy, the doctrine of transubstantiation, pur- 
gatory, worshipping of the consecrated host, crucifixes 
and images, and all other popish superstitions and er- 
rors ; and the refusal of the said oath, legally tendered; 
shall be a sufficient conviction of recusancy. 

7- u That an act of parliament be passed, for educating 
of the children of papists by protestants, in the protes- 
tant religion. 

8. « That an act be passed for the better levying the pen- 
alties against papists ; and another for the better pre- 
venting their plotting against the state ; and that a strict- 
er course may be taken to prevent saying, or hearing of 
mass in the court, or any other part of the kingdom : the 
like for Scotland, if the parliament of that kingdom shall 
think fit. 

9. " That his majesty give his royal assent to an act for 
the due observation of the Lord's day; to the bill for the 
suppression of innovations in churches and chapels in 
and about the worship of God ; to an act for the better 
advancement of the preaching of God's holy word in all 
parts of the kingdom ; to the bill against pluralities of 
benefices and non-residency ; and, to an act to be framed 
for the reforming and regulating both universities, and 
the colleges of Westminster, Winchester, and Eaton." 

About sixty persons were by name excepted out of the 
general pardon ;f besides 

(1.) All papists that had been in the army. 

t Remonstrance, vol. vi. p. 315. 

CtiAl'. 7« 0F TH E PURITANS. 933 

(2>.) All persons that had been concerned in the Irish 

(3.) Such as had deserted the two houses at Westmin- 
ster aud went to Oxford. 

(4.) Such members of parliament as had deserted their 
places, and bore arms against the two houses. And, 

(5.) Sucb bishops or clergymen, masters, or fellows of 
colleges, or masters of schools or hospitals, or any ecclesi- 
astical living, who had deserted the parliament, and adher- 
ed to the enemies thereof, were deciared incapable of any 
preferment or employment in church or commonwealth, all 
their places, preferments and promotions, were to be utter- 
ly void, as if they were naturally dead ; nor might they be 
permitted to use their function of the ministry, without ad- 
vice and consent of both houses of parliament ; provided 
that no lapse shall incur by this vacancy till six months 
after notice thereof. 

When Mr. Goodwin had done, the king asked the com- 
missioners if they had power to treat, to which they replied^ 
that they were only to receive his majesty's answer ; then 
said the king, saving the honor of the business, a trumpet- 
er might have done as well ,•* the very same language as 
at the treaty of Oxford ; but the earl of Pembroke told his 
majesty, they must receive his peremptory answer in ten 
days, or return without it. 

Great intercessions were made with the king to comply 
with these proposals, §> particularly in the point of religion, 
for without full satisfaction in that, nothing would please 
the Scots nation, nor the city of London, by whom alone 
his majesty could hope to be preserved ; but if this was 
yielded they would interpose for the moderating other de- 
mands ; the Scots general, at the head of one hundred offi- 
cers, presented a petition upon their knees, beseeching his 
majesty to give them satisfaction in the point of religion, 
and to take the covenant. Duke Hamilton, and the rest 
of the Scots commissioners, pressed his majesty in the most 
earnest manner, to make use of the present opportunity for 

* Whitloeke's Memorials, p. 223. 
§ The commissioners of both kingdoms on their knees begged of him 
to do it. Whitloeke's Memoirs, p. 223. Ed. 

Vol. III. 45 

g5"i THE Hf STORY CHfAP. 7- 

peace. || The lord chancellor for that kingdom spoke to 
this effect : " The differences between your majesty and 
' your parliament are grown to such an height, that after 
' many bloody battles they have your majesty, with all your 
6 garrisons and strong holds in their hands, and the whole 
' kingdom at their disposal ; they are now in a capacity to 
i do what they will in church and state ; and some are so 

* afraid, and others so unwilling, to submit to your inajes- 
6 ty's government, that they desire not you, nor any of your 

< race, longer to reign over them ; but they are unwilling 
6 to proceed ta extremities, till they know your majesty's 
Hast resolutions. — Now, Sir, if your majesty shall refuse 

* to assent to the propositions, you will lose all your friends 
6 in the houses, and in the city, and all England will join 
' against you as one man ; they will depose you, and set 
( up another government ; they will charge us to deliver 
'your majesty to them, and remove our armies out of Eng- 
land ; and upon your refusal, we shall be constrained to 

< settle religion and peace without you, which will ruin 

* your majesty and your posterity. We own the proposi- 

* tions are higher in some things than we approve of, but- 

< the only way to establish your majesty's throne is to con- 

* sent to them at present, and your majesty may recover, in 

* a time of peace, all that you have lost in this time of tera- 
<pest and trouble."* 

This was plain-dealing : the king's best friends prayed 
his majesty to consider his present circumstances, and not 
hazard his crown for a form of church government ; or if 
he had no regard to himself, to cousider his royal posteri- 
ty ; but the king replied, his conscience was dearer to him 
than his crown; that till he had received better satisfaction 
about the divine right of episcopacy, and the obligation of 
his coronation oath, no considerations should prevail with 
him ;J he told the officers of the army, he neither could 
nor would take the covenant, till he had heard from the 
queen.\ Which was only an excuse to gain time to divide 

|| Hamilton's Memoirs, p. 281-5. 
*Rapin, vol. ii p. 524. ami Rushworth, vol. vi. p. 319. 
\ Duke of Hamilton's Memoirs, p. 281. 
t This clause is not in the Memoirs of the Duke ; and as Mr. Neal 
Jias Mot. particularly, referred to his authority for it, Dr. Grey expres- 
ses his fears, that it is an interpolation. Ed. 


his enemies, for the king had then actually heard from his 
queen by Monsieur Bellievre, the French ambassador, who 
pressed his majesty, pursuant to positive instructions given 
him tor that purpose, as the advice of the king of France, 
of the queen, and of his own party, to give the presbyteri- 
ans satisfaction about the church.* Bellievre, not being 
able to prevail, despatched an express to France, with a 
desire, that some person of more weight with the king might 
be sent. Upon which Sir William Davenant came over, 
with a letter of credit from the queen, beseeching him to 
part with the church for his peace and security. When 
Sir William had delivered the letter, he ventured to sup- 
port it with some arguments of his own, and told his maj- 
esty, in a most humble manner, that it was the advice of 
lord Culpepper, Jenny n, and of all his friends ; upon which 
the king was so transported with iudignation, that he for- 
bid him his presence. When therefore the ten days for 
considering the propositions were expired, instead of con- 
senting, his majesty gave the commissioners his answer, in 
a paper, directed to the speaker of the house of peers, to 
this effect, " that the propositions contained so great alter- 
* ations both in church and state, that his majesty could not 
' give a particular and positive answer to them ;" but after 
some few concessions hereafter to be mentioned, " he pro- 
i poses to come to London, or auy of his houses thereabouts, 
' and enter upon a personal treaty with both houses ; and 
f he conjures them, as christians and subjects, and as men 
i that desire to leave a good name behind them, to accept 
{ of this proposal, that the unhappy distractions of the na- 
' tion may be peaceably settled. "f 

When this answer was reported to the house, August 13, 
it was resolved, to settle accounts with the Scots, and to 
receive the kiug into their own custody ; but in the mean 
time his majesty attempted to bring that nation over to his 
interest, by playing the independents agaiust them, and tel- 
ling them, the only way to destroy the sectarians was to 
join with the episcopalians, and admit of the establishment 

* Clarendon, vol. iii. p. 29, 31, 32. 

t Dr. Grey gives the king's answer at length from MS. collections of 
Dr. Phillip Williams, president of St. John's college, Cambridge. Ed 


of both religions. J u I do by no means persuade you (says 
the king) to do any thing contrary to your covenant, but 
I desire you to consider whether it be not a great step tow- 
ards your reformation, (which I take to be the chief end 
of your covenant) that the presbyterial government be le- 
gally settled. It is true I desire that the liberty of my 
own conscience, and those who are of the same opinion 
with myself, may be preserved, which I confess, does not 
as yet totally take away episcopal government. But then 
consider withal, that this will take aivay all the supersti- 
tious sects and heresies of the papists and independents, 
to which you are no less obliged by your covenant, than to 
the taking away of episcopacy. And this that I demand 
is likely to be but temporary ; for if it be so clear as you 
believe, that episcopacy is unlawful, I doubt not but God 
will so enlighten my eyes that I shall soon perceive it, 
and then I promise to concur with you fully in matters of 
religion ; but I am sure you cannot imagine, that there is 
any hopes of converting or silencing the independent par- 
ty , which undoubtedly will get a toleration in religion 

from the parliament of England, unless you join with me 
in that way that I have proposed for the establishing of 
my crown ; or at least, that you do not press me to do this 
(which is yet against my conscience) till I may do it with- 
out sinning, which, as I am confident none of you will per- 
suade me to do, so I hope you have so much charity as 
not to put things to such a desperate issue as to hazard 
the loss of all, because for the present you cannot have 
full satisfaction from me in point of religion, not consid- 
ering, that besides the other mischiefs that may happen, 
it will infallibly set up the innumerable sects of the in- 
dependents, nothing being more against your covenant 
than the suffering those schisms to increase."* His ma- 
esty then added, " that he should be content to restrain 
episcopal government to the dioceses of Oxford, Win- 
chester, Bath and Wells, and Exeter, leaving all the rest 
of England fully to the presbyterial discipline, with the 

6 strictest clauses that could be thought of in an act of par - 

c liament against the papists and independents." But the 

% Duke of Hamilton's Memoirs, p. 286, 7. 
* Ruslworth, p. 32S. 


Scots would abate nothing in the articles of religion ; even 
for the overthrow of the sectaries. Duke Hamilton left 
no methods unattempted to persuade his majesty to com- 
ply, but without effect.^ 

When the king could not gain the commissioners, he 
applied by his friends to the kirk, who laid his proposals 
before the general assembly, with his offer to make any 
declaration they should desire against the independents, 
and that really, without any reserve or equivocation ; but 
the kirk were as peremptory as the commissioners ; they 
said the king's heart was not with them, nor could they 
depend upon his promises, any longer than it was not in 
his power to set them aside.* 

In the mean time the English parliament were debating 
with the Scots commissioners at London, the right of dis- 
posing of the king's person, the latter claiming an equal 
right to him with the former ; and the parliament voted 
that the kingdom of Scotland had no joint right to dispose 
of the person of the king, in the kingdom of England. To 
which the Scots would hardly have submitted, had it not 
been for fear of engaging in a new war, and losing all their 
arrears. His majesty would willingly have retired into 
Scotland, but the clergy of that nation would not receive 
him, as appears by their solemn learning to all estates and 
degrees of persons throughout the land, dated Dec. 17> 
1646, in which they say, " so long as his majesty does not 
f approve in his heart, and seal with his hand, the league 
6 and covenant, we cannot but apprehend, that according 
1 to his former principles he will walk contrary to it, and 
i study to draw us into the violation of it. Besides, our 
6 receiving his majesty into Scotland at this time, will con- 
i firm the suspicion of the English nation, of our underhand 
* dealing with him before he came into our army. Nor do 
f we see how it is consistent with our covenant and trea- 
' ties, but on the contrary, it would involve us in the guilt 
i of perjury, and expose us to the hazard of a bloody war. 
i We are bound by our covenant to defend the king's per- 
i son and authority, in the defence and preservation of the 
f true religion, and the liberties of the kingdom, and so far 

\ Duke of Hamilton's Memoirs, p. 288. 
* Hamilton's Memoirs, p. 298. Rushworth, p. 380. 


* as his majesty is for these we will be for bim ; but if his 
6 majesty will not satisfy the just desires of his people, 
i both nations are engaged to pursue the ends thereof, 
' against all lets and impediments ; we therefore desire 

< that those who are intrusted with the public affairs of this 

< kingdom, would still insist upon his majesty's settling 
v religion according to the covenant, as the only means of 

* preserving himself, his crown, and posterity." Upon 
reading this admonition of the kirk, the Scots parliament 
resolved, that his majesty be desired to grant the whole 
propositions ; that in case of refusal, the kingdom should 
be secured without him. They declared further, that the 
kingdom of Scotland could not lawfully engage for the 
king, as long as he refused to take the covenant, and give 
them satisfaction in point of religion.* Nor would they 
admit him to come into Scotland, unless he gave a satis- 
factory answer to the propositions lately presented to him 
in the name of both kingdoms. 

The resolutions above-mentioned were not communica- 
ted in form to the king, till the beginning of January, 
when the Scots commissioners pressing him again in the 
most humble and importunate manner to give them satis- 
faction, at least, in the point of religion, his majesty re- 
mained immoveable ; which being reported back to Edin- 
burgh, the question was put in that parliament, whether 
they should leave the king in England, to his two houses of 
parliament P and it was carried in the affirmative. Jan. 
16, a declaration was published in the name of the whole 
kingdom of Scotland, whereiu they say, " that when his 

< majesty came to their army before Newark, he professed 

* that he absolutely resolved to comply with his parlia- 

* ments in every thing, for settling of truth and peace ; in 

* confidence whereof the committees of the kingdom of 
' Scotland declared to himself, and to the kingdom of En- 
4 gland, that they received him into their protection only 
'upon these terms, since which time propositions of peace 
' have been presented to his majesty for the royal assent, 
6 with earnest supplications to the same purpose, but with- 
6 out effect. The parliament of Scotland therefore being 
i now to recal their army out of England, considering that 

* Rushworth, p. 392. 

CHAP. 7« op THB PURITANS. 359 

his majesty in several messages has desired to be near his 
two houses of parliament, and that the parliament has ap- 
vointed his majesty to reside at Holmby- House with safety 
to his royal person; and in regard of his ma ; eshfs not 
giving a satisfactory answer to the propositions for peace 
and from a desire to preserve a right understanding be- 
tween the two kingdoms, and for preventing new troubles, 
the states of parliament of the kingdom of Scotland do 
declare their concurrence for the king's majesty's going 
to Holmby-House, to remain there till he give satisfaction 
about the propositions for peace ; and that, in the mean 
time, there be no harm, prejudice, injury or violence done 
to his royal person ; that there be no change of govern- 
ment; and, that his posterity be no way prejudiced in their 
lawful succession to the crown and government of these* 
kingdoms.' '^- 

While the parliament and kirk of Scotland were debat- 
ng the king's proposals, his majesty wrote to the parlia- 
ment of England in the most pressing terms, for a person- 
al treaty at London : " It is your king (says he in his let- 
ter of Dec. 10) that desires to be heard, the which, if re- 
fused to a subject by a king, he would be thought a ty- 
rant, wherefore I conjure you, as you would shew youf- 
selves really what you profess, good christians and good 
subjects, that you accept this offer." But the houses were 
afraid to trust his majesty in London, and therefore ap- 
pointed commissioners to receive him from the Scots, f and 
convoy him to Holmby-house in Northamptonshire, where 
be arrived Feb. 6, 1646-7. r ^ ne sum of two hundred 
thousand pound, being half the arrears due to the Scots 
army, having been paid them by agreement before they 

* Rushworth, p. 396. 

fThe king happened to be playing at chess, when he was informed 
of the resolution of the Scots nation to deliver him up : but. such com- 
mand of temper did he enjoy, he continued bis game without interrup- 
tion, and none of the bye-standers could perceive tbat the letter, which 
he perused, had brought him news of any consequence. He admitted the 
Euglish commissioners, who, some days after, came to take him into 
custody, to kiss his hands : and received them with the same grace 
and cheerfulness, as if they had travelled on no other errand but te 
pay court to him, Hume'sHistorv of England, vol. vii. 8vo. 1763. p.. 
81, 82. Ed. 


marched out of Newcastle, it has been commonly said, 
They sold their' king. An unjust aud malicious aspersion I 
It ought to be considered, that the money was their due be- 
fore the king delivered himself into their hands ; for that 
in settling the accounts between the two nations his maj- 
esty's name was not mentioned ;f that it was impossible to 
detain him without a war with England and that the offi- 
cers of the army durst not carry the king to Edinburgh, 
because both parliament and kirk had declared against re- 
ceiving him.* 

But how amazing was his majesty's conduct ! What cross 

f Vide Rapin, vol. ii. p. 325, folio edit. 

* Mr. Neal is supported in his account of this transaction by Gener" 
al Ludlow, who, further says, that the condition on which the money 
was paid, was to deliver up (not the king, hut) Berwick, Newcastle, 
and Carlisle, to the parliament : that it was far from truth, that this; 
was the price of the king, for the parliament freely granted to the Scots 
that they might carry him (if they pleased) to Edinburgh, but they re- 
fused it : and that it was the kings desire to be removed into the south- 
ern parts of England. The Scots nation, however, underwent, and still 
undergo the reproach of selling their king, and bargaining their prince 
f>>r money. It has heen argued, that the parliament would never have 
parted with so considerable a sum, had they not been previously assur- 
ed of receiving the king. It is a very evident fact, that while the Scots 
were demanding the arrears due to them, another point of treaty be- 
tween them and the parliament, if it were not the explicit and avowed 
condition of complying with that requisition, was the delivering up the 
king. The unhappy monarch was considered and treated as the pris- 
oner of those to whom he fled for protection. Instead of declining to 
receive him, or afterwards permitting him to take his own steps, they 
retained him, and disposed of him as a captive, as their interest or pol- 
icy dictated. Were honor or justice, in this case, consulted? Alas! 
They are seldom consnlted by political parties. A letter from gener- 
al Ludlow to Dr. Hollingworth, 4to. 1662, p. 67. Mrs. Macaulay's 
History, vol. iv. p. 271. Svo. Hume's History of England, vol. vii. 8vo. 

1763. p. 79-81, and Whitlocke's Memorials, p. 240. Dr. Grey has 

bestowed thirteen pages on this point, chiefly to shew, that 400,0001. 
could not be due as arrears to the Scots, and to advance against thein 
the charge of selling the king. He informs us that the 200,0001. im- 
mediately paid to them was borrowed of the Goldsmiths' Company. To 
Mr NeaPs reflection on the imputation cast on the Scots of selling 
their king, that it is an unjust and malicious aspersion ; Bishop War- 
burton retorts, "The historian, before he said this, should have seen 

1 whether he could answer these two questions in the affirmative : 

{ Would the English have paid the arrears without the person of the 
'king? — Would the Scots have given up the king if they could have 
' had the arrears without ?" Ed. 


and inconsistent proposals did he make at this time ! While 
he was treating with the Scots, and offering to concur in 
the severest measures agaiust the independents, he was lis- 
tening to the offers of those very independents to set him 
upon the throne, without taking the covenant, or renounc- 
ing the liturgy of the church, provided they might secure a 
toleration for themselves. This agreeing with the king's 
inclinations, had too great a hearing from him, (says bishop 
Burnet) till Lauderdale wrote from London, u that he was 
* infallibly sure, they designed the destruction of monarchy, 
1 and the ruin of the king and his posterity ; but that if he 
1 would consent to the propositions, all would be well, in 
' spight of the devil and the independents too."* If his ma- 
jesty had in good earnest fallen in with the overtures of the 
army at this time, I am of opinion they would have set him 
upon the throne, without the shackles of the Scots covenant. 

While the kiug was at Holmby-house, he was attended 
with great respect,! an( i suffered to divert himself at bowls 
with gentlemen in the neighboring villages, under a proper 
guard. The parliament appointed two of their clergy, viz. 
Mr. Caryl and Air. Marshall, to preach in the chapel, 
morning and afternoon on the Lord ? s-day, and perform tha 
devotions of the chapel on week days, but his majesty nev- 
er gave his attendance.;}; He spent his Sundays in pri- 
vate ; and though they waited at table, he would not so 
much as admit them to ask a blessing. 

Before the king removed from Newcastle, the parliament 
put the finishing hand to the destruction of the hierarchy, 
by abolishing the very names and titles of archbishops, 
bishops, &c. and alienating their revenues for payment of 
the public debts. This was done by two ordinances, bear- 
ing date Oct. 9, and % Nov. 16, 16-16, entitled, Ordinances 
for abolishing archbishops and bishops, and providing for 
the payment of the just and necessary debts of the kingdom, 

* Hamilton's Memoirs, p. 2SS. 

t But his situation here, independently of confinement, was made un- 
pleasant to him, as his old servants were dismissed, and he was not 
allowed the attendance of his own chaplains. His majesty remonstrat- 
ed on this last circumstance in a letter to the house of peers, but with- 
eut effect. Clarendon, vol. iii. p. 39. Ed. 

t Clarendon, vol. iii. p. 38. 

Vol. III. 46 

362 The hi'stohv chap. 7. 

into which the same has been drawn by a w&r, mainly 'pro- 
moted by, and in favor of the said archbishops, bishops, and 
other their adherents and dependents. The ordinance ap- 
points, " that the name, title, stile, and dignity of archbish- 
c op of Canterbury, archbishop of York, bishop of Winches- 
ter, bishop of Durham, and all other bishops of any bish- 
' oprics within the kingdom of England, and dominion of 
< Wales, be, from and after Sept. 5, 1646, wholly abolish- 
ed and taken away ; and all and every person and per- 
c sons are to be thenceforth disabled to hold the place, func- 
6 tion, stile of archbishop, or bishop of any church, see, or 
& diocese, now established or erected, or hereafter to be es- 
tablished or erected within the kingdom of England, do- 
' minion of Wales, or town of Berwick on Tweed ; or to 
^use, or put in use any archiepiscopal, or episcopal juris- 
& diction or authority, by force of any letters patent from 
' the crown, made, or to be made, or by any other authori- 
ty whatsoever, any law, statute, usage or custom to the 
' contrary notwithstanding." 

By the ordinance of Nov. 16, it is further ordained, " that 
*all counties palatine, honors, manors, lordships, stiles, 
6 circuits, precincts, castles, granges, messuages, mills, 
( lands, tenements, meadows, pastures, parsonages, appro- 
6 priate tithes, oblations, obventions, pensions, portions of 
6 tithes, vicarages, churches, chapels, advowsons, donations, 
'nominations, rights of patronage and presentations, parks ? 
£ woods, rents, reversions, services, annuities, franchises,, 

* liberties, privileges, immunities, rights of action, and of 
'entry, interests, titles of entry, conditions, commons, 

* court-leets, and court-barons, and all other possessions 
' and hereditaments whatsoever, which now are, or within 
' ten years before the beginning of the present parliament, 

* were belonging to the said archbishops and bishops, areh- 
' bishoprics or bishporics, or any of them, together with all 
' chatties, deeds, books, accompts, rolls, and other writ- 
ings and evidences whatsoever, concerning the premises, 
' which did belong to any of the said archbishops, bishops, 
' &c. are vested and settled, adjudged and deemed to be in 

* the real and actual possession and seizin of the twenty - 

* Husband's Collections, p. 9<22. t Rtishworth, p. 377. 


four trustees mentioned in the ordinance, their heirs and 
assigns, upon trust that they shall dispose of the same, 
and the rents and profits thereof, as hoth houses of parlia- 
ment shall order and appoint, i. e. for payment of the 
puhlic dehts, and other necessary charges occasioned by 
the war, promoted chiefly by, and in favor of the said 
hierarchy, saving and excepting all tithes appropriate, 
oblations, obventions. and portions of tithes, &c. belong- 
ing to the said archbishops, bishops, and others of the 
said hierarchy ; all which, together with thirty thousand 
pounds yearly rent belonging to the crown, they reserve 
for the maintenance of preaching ministers. The trus- 
tees are not to avoid any lease made for three lives, 01 
twenty-one years, provided the said lease or leases were 
not obtained since the mouth of December 1641. They 
are empowered to appoint proper officers to survey, and 
take a particular estimate of all the bishops lauds, to re- 
ceive the rents and profits of them, and to make a suffi- 
cient title to such as shall purchase them, by order of par- 
6 liameut." By virtue of this ordinance the trustees were 
empowered to pay, or cause to be paid to the assembly tif 
divines, their constant salary allowed them by a former or- 
der of parliament, with all their arrears, out of the rents, 
revenues, and profits belonging to the late archbishop of 
Canterbury, till such time as the said lands and revenues 
-shall happen to be sold. These church lands were at 
first mortgaged as a security for several large sums of mon- 
ey, which the parliament borrowed at eight percent, inter- 
est. Several members of parliament, and officers of the 
army, afterwards purchased them at low rates, but the 
bargain proved dear enough in the end. And surely it 
was wrong to set them to sale ; the lands having been 
originally given for the service of religion, ought to have 
been continued for such uses, and the substance of the do- 
nors' intentious pursued ; unless it appeared that too great 
a proportion of the national property had been settled in 
mortmain. But herein they followed the ill examples of 
the kings and queens of England at the reformation. 
The presbi/terians were now in the height of their pow- 

* Scobel, p. 100, 103, 103. 


er, the hierarchy being destroyed, the king their prisoner^ 
and the best, if not all the livings in the kingdom distrib- 
uted among them ; yet still they were dissatisfied for want 
of the top-stone to their new building, which was church 
power; the pulpits, and conversation of the city, were fill- 
ed with invectives against the men in power, because they 
would not leave the church independent on the state ; the 
presbyterian ministers were very troublesome, the parlia- 
ment being teazed every week with church grievances of 
one kind or another ; Dec. 19, the lord-mayor and his 
brethren went up to Westminster with a representation of 
some of them, and a petition for redress. The grievances 

1. u The contempt that began to be put upon the cove- 
i nant, some refusing to take it, and others declaiming 
f loudly against it ; they therefore pray, that it may be im- 
6 posed upon the whole nation, under such penalties as the 
6 houses shall think tit ; and that sueh as refuse it be dis- 
c qualified from all places of profit and trust. 

2. u The growth of heresy and schism ; the pulpits hav- 

< ing been often usurped by preaching soldiers, who in- 
6 fected all places where they came with dangerous errors ; 
* they therefore pray, that all such persons may be forbid 

< to preach as have not taken the covenant, and been re- 
'gularly ordained, and that all separate congregations, the 
i very nurseries of damnable heretics, may be suppressed ; 
*that an ordinance be made for the exemplary punishment 
' of heretics and schismatics, and that all godly and ortho- 
6 dox ministers may have a competent maintenance, many 
6 pulpits being vacant of a settled minister for want of it ; 
' and here (say they) we would lay the stress of our de- 
f sires, and the urgency of our affections." They com- 
plain further, of the u undue "practices of country com- 
6 mittees, of the threatening power of the army, and of 
' some breaches in the constitution ; all which they desire 
6 may be redressed, and that his majesty's royal person and 
£ authority may be preserved and defended, together with 
4 the liberties of the kingdom, according to the covenant." 

To satisfy the petitioners, the house of commons publish- 
ed a declaration Dec. 31, " wherein they express their 


' dislike of lay -pre ackers, and their resolutions to proceed 
( against all such as shall take upon them to preach, or ex- 
f pound the scriptures in any church or chapel, or any oth- 
t er public place, except they be ordained either here, or in 
' some other reformed churches ; likewise against all such 
e ministers, and others, as shall publish, or maintain by 
i preaching, writing, printing, or any other way, any thing 
* against, or in derogation of the church government which 
'is now established by authority of parliament; and also 
i against all and every person or persons who shall willing- 
' ly or purposely interrupt or disturb a preacher in the pub- 
'lic exercise of his function ; and they command all offi- 
4 cers of the peace, and officers of the army, to take notice 
' of this declaration, and by all lawful means to prevent of- 
' fences of this kind, to apprehend offenders, that a course 
< may be speedily taken for a due punishment to be inflicted 
'upon them." The house of lords published an order, 
bearing date Dec. S3, requiring the headboroughs and con- 
stables, in the several parishes of England and Wales, to 
arrest the bodies of such persons as shall disturb any min- 
ister in holy orders, in the exercise of his public calling, 
by speech or action, and carry them before some justice of 
peace, who is required to put the laws in execution against 
them. Feb. 4, they published an ordinance to prevent the 
growth and spreading of errors, heresies, and blasphemies; 
but these orders not coming up to their covenant uniformi- 
ty, the lord-mayor and common-council presented another 
petition to the two houses March 17? and appointed a com- 
mittee to attend the parliament from day to day, till their 
grievances were redressed, of which we shall hear more 
under the next year. 

We have already accounted for the unhappy rise of the 
sectarians in the army when it was new modelled, who were 
now grown so extravagant as to call for some proper re- 
straint, the mischief being spread not only over the whole 
country, but into the city of London itself; it was first plead- 
ed in excuse for this practice, that a gifted brother had bet- 
ter preach and pray to the people than nobody ; but now 
learning, good sense, and the rational interpretation of 
scripture, began to be cried down, and every bold pretend- 
er to inspiration was preferred to the most grave and sober 


divines of the age ; some advanced themselves into the 
rank of prophets, and others uttered all such crude and 
undigested absurdites as came first into their minds, call- 
ing them the dictates of the spirit within them ; by which 
the public peace was frequently disturbed, and great num- 
bers of ignorant people led into the belief of the most dan- 
gerous errors. The assembly of divines did what they 
could to stand in the gap, by writing against them, and 
publishing a Detestation of the Errors of the Times. The 
parliament also appointed a fast on that account, Feb. % 
1645-6, and many books were published against the anti- 
Tiomians, anabaptists, seekers, &c. not forgetting the inde- 
pendents, whose insisting upon a toleration was reckoned 
the inlet to all the rest. 

The most furious writer against the sectaries was Mr. 
Thomas Edwards,* minister of Christ-Church, London, a 
zealous presbyterian, who became remarkable by a book 
entitled Gangrc&na, or a catalogue of many of the errors, 
heresies, blasphemies, and pernicious practices of this time ; 
in the epistle dedicatory he calls upon the higher powers 
to rain down all their vengeance upon these deluded peo- 
ple, in the following language : " You have done worthily 
4 against papists, prelates, and scandalous ministers, in 
4 casting down images, altars, crucifixes, throwing out cer- 

* emonies, &c. but what have you done (says he) against 

* heresy, schism, disorder, against seekers, anabaptists, an- 
4 tinomians, brownists, libertines, and other sects; you 
' have made a reformation, but with the reformation have 
4 we not worse things come upon us than we had before, 
4 as denying the scriptures, pleading for toleration of all re- 
ligions and worships ; yea, for blasphemy, and denying 
4 there is a God. You have put down the common-prayer, 
4 and there are many among us that are for putting down 
( the scriptures. You have broken down the images of the 
i Trinity, and we have those who oppose the Trinity. You 

* He was originally of the university of Cambridge, but in 1623 was 
incorporated at Oxford. At the beginning of the civil wars he joined 
the parliament, embarked all that was dear to him in the cause of the 
people, whom he excited to prosecute the war by the strain of his 
prayers and sermons, and advanced money to carry it on. Wood*? 
Athense Oxonienses, voK i. p. 846. Ed, 


' have cast out bishops and their officers, and we have 
»' many that cast down to the ground all ministers. You 
have cast out ceremonies in the sacraments, as the cross, 
kneeling at the Lord's supper, and many cast out the sa- 
craments themselves. You have put down saints days, 
and many make nothing of the Lord's day. You have 
taken away the superfluous maintenance of bishops and 
deans, aud we have many that cry down the necessary 
maintenance of ministers. In the bishops' days we had 
singing of psalms taken away in some places, conceived 
prayer, preaching, and in their room anthems, stinted 
forms and reading brought in, and now singing of psalms 
is spoken against, public prayer questioned, and all min- 
isterial preaching denied. In the bishops' time popish 
innovations were introduced, as bowing at altars, &c. and 
now we have anointing the sick with oil ; then we had 
bishoping of children, now we have bishoping of men and 
women, by laying on of hands. In the bishops' days we 
had the fourth commandment taken away, and now all 
ten are taken away by the antinomians. The worst of 
tne prelates held many sound doctrines, and had many 
commendable practices, but many of our sectaries deny 
all principles of religion, are enemies to all holy duties, 
order, learning, overthrowing all, being whirligig spirits, 
aud the great opinion of an universal toleration tends to* 
the laying all ivaste, and dissolution of all religion and 
good manners. Now (says our author) a connivance at r 
and suffering without punishment, such false doctrines 
and disorders, provokes God to send judgments. A tol- 
eration doth eclipse the glory of the most excellent refor- 
mation, and makes these sins to be the sins of the legis- 
lature that countenances them. A magistrate should use 
coercive power to punish and suppress evils, as appears 
from the example of Eli. Now, right honorable, though 
you do not own these heresies, but have put out several 
orders against them, yet there is a strange unheard-of 
suffering of them, such an one as there hardly ever was 
the like, under any orthodox christian magistrate and 
state. Many sectaries are countenanced, and employed 
in places of trust ; there has not been any exemplary re- 
straint of the sectaries, by virtue of any of your ordinan- 


< ces, but they are slighted and scorned ; preaching of lay- 
6 men was never more in request than since your ordinance 

* against it ; presbyterial government never more pneach- 
i ed and printed against, than since it was established. 
i Our dear brethren of Scotland stand amazed, and are as- 
tonished at these things ; the orthodox ministers andpeo- 
i pie both in city and country are grieved and discourag- 

* ed, and the common enemy scorns and blasphemes ; it is 
i high time therefore for your honors to suffer no longer 
i these sects and schisms, but to do something worthy of a 

< parliament against them, and Grod will be with you." 

After this dedication there are 176 erroneous passages 
collected from sundry pamphlets printed about this time, 
and from the reports of friends in all parts of the kingdom, 
to whom he sent for materials to fill up his book ; howev- 
er the heretics are at length reduced under sixteen gene- 
ral heads. 





1 12. 












J 14. 










1 11. 






The industrious writer might have enlarged his cata- 
logue with papists and prelates, deists, beheminists, &c. 
&c. or if he had pleased, a less number might have served 
his turn, for very few of these sectaries were collected in- 
to societies ; but his business was to blacken the adversa- 
ries of presbyterian uniformity, that the parliament might 
crush them by sanguinary methods. Among his heresies 
there, are some which do not deserve that name ; and a- 
mong his errors, some that never grew into a sect, but fell 
occasionally from the pen or lips of some wild enthusiast, 
and died with the author. The independents are put at 
the head of the sectaries, because they were for toleration 
of all christians who agreed in the fundamentals of reli- 
gion ; to prove this, which they never denied, he has col- 
lected several passages out of their public prayers ; one 
independent minister (says he) prayed that presbytery 


might be removed, and the kingdom of Christ set up ; an- 
other prayed two or three times, that the 'parliament mi*ht 
give liberty to tender consciences j another thanked God 
for the liberty of conscience granted in America ; and s-iid, 
why. Lord, not in England P Another prayed, since God 
had delivered both presbyterians and independants from 
prelatical bondage, that the former might not be guilty of 
bringing their brethren into bondage. The reader will 
judge of the spirit of this writer, by the foregoing specimen 
of his performance, which 1 should not have thought worth, 
remembering, if our church- writers had not reported the 
state of religion from his writings. " I knew Mr* Ed- 
'wards very well, (says Fuller*) my contemporary in 
< Queen's college, who often was transported beyond due 
; bouuds with the keenness and eagerness of his spirit, and 
b therefore I have just cause in some things to suspect him." 
He adds farther, " I am most credibly informed, by such 
; who I am confident will not abuse me and posterity tbere- 

• in, that Mr. Herbert Palmer (an anti- independent to 
6 the height) being convinced that Air. Edwards had print- 
' ed some falsehoods in one sheet of his G a ngrcen a. proffer - 

• ed to have a sheet reprinted at his own charge, but some 
' accident obstructed it." However, our author went on 
publishing a second and third Gangriena, full of most 
bitter invectives and reproaches, till his own friends were 
nauseated with his performances. 

The reverend Mr. Baxter, who attended the victorious 
army, mentions the independents, anabaptist, and antino- 
mians, as the chief separatists, to whom he adds some 
other names, as seekers, ranters, behemenists, vanists, all 
which died in their infancy, or united in the people af- 
terwards known by the name of Quakers ; but when he 
went into the army he found (i almost one half of the religious 

• party among them orthodox, or but very lightly touched 

• with the above-mentioned mistakes, and almost another 
1 half honest men, that had stepped further into the con- 
f tending way than they ought, but with a little help might 

• be recovered ; a few fiery, self conceited men among them, 

• kindled the rest, and made all the noise and bustle ; for 

• the greatest part of the common soldiers were ignorant 

* Appeal, p. 58. 

V OL. ITT. 47 


' men, and of little religion ; these would do any thing to 
' please their officers, and were instruments for the seduc- 
' ers in their great work, which was to cry down the cov- 
enant , to vilify parish ministers, and especially the Scots 
' and the presbyteriansP Mr. Baxter observes,* that 
i these fiery hot men were hatched among the old separa- 
' lists ; that they were fierce with pride, and conceit, and 
6 uncharitableness, but many of the honest soldiers, who 
'were only tainted with some doubts about liberty of con- 
' science, and independency, would discourse of the points 
'of sanctification and christian experience very savourily ; 
'the seducers above-mentioned were great preachers, and 
'fierce disputants, but of no settled principles of religion ; 
' some were of levelling principles as to the state, but all 
' were agreed, that the civil magistrate had nothing to do 
6 in matters of religion, any further than to keep the peace. 
' and protect the church liberties." The same writer adds, 
'To speak impartially, some of the presbyterian ministers 
' frightened the sectaries into this fury, by the unpeacea- 
' bleness and impatience of their minds ; they ran from 
' libertinism into the other extreme, and were so little sen- 
' sible of their own infirmity, that they would not have them 
' tolerated, who were not only tolerable, but worthy instru- 
6 ments and members in the churches. " Lord Clarendon 
says, that Cromwell and his officers preached and prayed 
publicly with their troops, and admitted few or no chap- 
lains in the army, except such as bitterly inveighed against 
the presbyterian government, as more tyrannical than epis- 
copacy ; and that the common soldiers, as well as the of- 
ficers, did not only pray and preach themselves, but went 
up into the pulpits in all churches, and preached to the 
people, who quickly became inspired with the same spirit ; 
women as well as men taking upon them to pray and 
preach ; which made as great a noise and confusion in all 
opinions concerning religion, as there was in the civil gov- 
ernment of the state. 

Bishop Bramhall,m one of his letters to arcbbishop Usher, 
writes, that " the papists took advantage of these confu- 
i sums, and sent over above one hundred of their clergy, 
' tjtoat had been educated in France, Italy, and Spain, 

* Baxter's Life, p. 58. 

CHAP. *?. OF THE PCRtTANS, *$71 

* by order from Rome. In these nurseries the scholars were 
i taught several handicraft trades and callings, according to 
( their ingenuities, besides their functions in the church ; 
4 they have many yet at Paris (says the bishop) fitting up to 

* be sent over, who twice in the week oppose one the other; 
i one pretending presbytery, the other iudependency, some 
i anabaptism, and others contrary tenets. The hundred 
'that went over this year (according to the bishop) were 

* most of them soldiers in the parliament army."f But Mr. 
Baxter,*} after a most diligent enquiry, declares, "that he 
6 could not find them out;" which renders the bishop's ac- 
count suspected. " The most that I could suspect for papists 
' among Cromwell's soldiers (says he) were but a few that 
< began as strangers among the common soldiers, and by de- 
( grees rose up to some inferior officers, but none of the su- 
( perior officers seemed such." The body of the army had 
a vast aversion to the papists, and the parliament took all 
occasions of treating them with rigor ; for June 30, Mar- 
gan, a priest, was drawn, hanged, and quartered, for go- 
ing out of the kingdom to receive orders from Rome, aud 
then returning again. However, without all question, both 
church aud state were in the utmost disorder and confu- 
sion at the close of this year, [1616.] 

Among the illustrious men of the parliament's side who 
died about this time, was Robert D'Evereux earl of Essex, 
son of the famous favorite of queen Elizabeth ; be was ed- 
ucated to arms in the Netherlands, and afterwards served 
the king and queen of Bohemia for the recovery of the Pal- 
atinate. King Charles I. made him lieutenant of his army 
in his expedition against the Scots, and lord chamberlain 
of the household ; but the earl, being unwilling to go into 
the arbitrary measures of the court in favor of popery and 
slavery, engaged on the side of the parliament, and accept- 
ed of the commission of captain-general of their forces, for 
which the king proclaimed him a traitor. He was a per- 
son of great houor, and served the parliament with fidelity ; 
but being of opinion, that the war should be ended rather 
by treaty than couquest, did not always push his success- 

t Parr's Life of Usher, p, 61 1 § Life, p. ?§. 


es as far as he might. Upon the new modelling of the 
army, the cautious general was dismissed with an honora- 
ble pension for his past services ; after which he retired to 
his house at Eltham in Kent, where he died of a lethargy, 
occasioned by over- heating himself in the chace of a stag 
in Windsor-Forest, Sept. 1% 1646, in the fifty -fifth year of 
his age. || He was buried with great funeral solemnity in 
Westminster- Abby, October 22, at the public expenc* 1 both 
houses of parliament attending the procession. His efiBgies 
was afterwards erected in Westminster-hall, but some of 
the king's party found means in the night to cut off' the head, 
and break the sword, arms and escutcheons. Mr. Vines 
preached his funeral sermon, and gave him a very high en- 
comium, though lord Clarendon has stained his character 
for taking part with the parliament, which he says was ow- 
ing to his pride and vanity. The earl's countenance ap- 
peared stern and solemn, but to his familiar acquaintance 
his behavior was mild and affable. Upon the whole, he 
was a truly great and excellent person ; his death was an 
unspeakable loss to the king, for he was the only noble- 
man, perhaps, in the kingdom, who had interest enough with 
both parties, to have put an end to the civil war, at the very 
time when Providence called him out of the world. 

Among the remarkable divines may be reckoned the re- 
verend and learned Mr. Thomas Colman, rector of St. Pe- 
ter's church in Cornhill ; he was born at Oxford, and en- 
tered in Magdalen-college in the seventeeth year of his age; 
he afterwards became so perfect a master of the Hebrew 
language, that he was commonly called Rabbi Colman. 
In the beginning of the civil war he left his rectory of Bly- 
ton in Lincolnshire, being persecuted from thence by the 
cavaliers. Upon his coming to London, he was preferred 
to the rectory of St. Peter's Cornhill, and made one of the 
assembly of divines. Mr. Wood says, he behaved mod- 
estly and learnedly in the assembly ; and Mr. Fuller gives 
him the character of a modest and learned divine ; he was 
equally an enemy to presbytery and prelacy, being of eras- 

|| Ludlow, p. 186, or 4to. edition 1771, p. 79. 


tian principles ; he fell sick while the assembly was debat- 
ing the jus divinum of presbytery ; and when they seut 
some of their members to visit him, he desired they would 
not come to an absolute determination till they heard what 
he had to offer upon the question ; bat his distemper in- 
creasing, he died in a fe^v days, and the whole assembly 
did him the honor to attend his funeral in a body, March 
30, i 648.* 

About the middle of July died the learned doctor Wil- 
liam Tivisse, vicar of Newbury, aud prolocutor of the as- 
sembly of divines; he was born at Speenham-Land, near 
Newbury in Berkshire; his father was a substantial cloth- 
ier in that lown, and educated his son at Winchester school, 
from whence he was translated to New-college in Oxford, 
of which he was fellow ; here he employed himself in the 
study of divinity with the closest application, for sixteen 
years together. In the year 1604, he proceeded master 
of arts ; about the same time he entered into holy orders, 
and became a diligent and frequent preacher ; he was ad- 
mired by the university for his subtle wit, exact judgment, 
exemplary life and conversation, and many other valuable 
qualities which became a man of his function. In the year 
1614, he proceeded doctor of divinity, after which he trav- 
elled into Germany, and became chaplain to the princess 
Palatine, daughter of King James I. After his return to 
England, he was made vicar of Newbury, where he gain- 
ed a vast reputation by his useful preaching and exemplary 
living. His most able adversaries have confessed, that 
there was uothing then extant more accurate and full, 
touching the arminian controversy, than what he publish- 
ed : aud hardly any who have written upon this argument 
since the publishing Dr. Tivisse's works, but have made 
an honorable mention of him. The doctor was offered the 
prebend of Winchester, and several preferments in the 
church of England ; the states of Friesland invited him to 
the professorship of divinity in their university of Franc* 
ker, but he refused all. In the beginning of the civil war, 
he was forced from his living at Newbury by the cavaliers, 

* Church History, b. ix. p. 213, Wood's Allien. Oxon. vol. ii. p. 02. 
|| Athene. Oxon. vol. ii. p. 40, 41. 

374» THE HISTORY CHAfr. 7. 

and upon convening the assembly of divines, was appoint- 
ed by parliament their prolocutor, in which station he con- 
tinued to his death, which happened after a lingering indis- 
position, about the 20th of July, 1646, in the seventy-first 
year of his age. He died in very necessitous circumstan- 
ces, having lost all his substance by the king's soldiers, in- 
somuch that when some of the asembly were deputed to 
visit him in his sickness, they reported, that he was very 
sick, and in great straits. He was allowed to be a person 
of extensive knowledge in school divinity ; a subtle dis- 
putant,;}; and withal, a modest, humble, and religious per- 
son. He was buried, at the request of the assembly, 
in the collegiate church of St. Peter's Westminster, near 
the upper end of the poor folks table, next the vestry, July 
24, and was attended by the whole assembly of divines : 
There his body rested till the restoration of King Charles 
II. when his bones were dug up by order of council, Sept. 
14, 1661, and thrown with several others, into a hole in 
the church-yard of St. Margaret's, before the back-door of 
the lodgings of one of the prebendaries. 

Towards the end of the year died the reverend and pi- 
ous Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs ; he was educated in Cam- 
bridge, but obliged to quit the university and kingdom for 
non- conformity in the late times. % Upon his leaving Eng- 
land, he was chosen minister of an English congregation 
at Rotterdam, with which he continued till the year 1643, 
when he returned to England, and became preacher to two 
of the largest and most numerous congregations about Lon- 

\ He distinguished himself by his writings against arminianism. The 
most learned of that party confessed that there was uothingmore accu- 
rate, exact, and full, on that controversy, than his works. His plain 
preaching was esteemed good : his solid disputations were accounted, by 
some, better : and his pious way of living was reckoned, by others, es- 
pecially the puritans, best of ail. Wood's Athenee Oxon. vol. ij. p. 
40. Ed. 

§ He for some time sheltered himself under the hospitable roof of the 
earl of Warwick. Granger's History of England, vol. ii. p. 193, Svo. 
This nobleman was a great patron of the puritan divines : and not con. 
tented with hearing long sermons in their congregation only, woiald 
have them repeated at his own house. Ibid. p. 116. Eih 


don, viz. Stepney and Cripplegate. He was one of the 
dissenting brethren in the assembly, but was a divine of 
great candor, modesty, and charity. He never gathered 
a separate congregation, nor accepted of a parochial liv- 
ing, exhausting his strength in continual preaching, and 
other services of the church. He was an excellent scholar, 
a good expositor, a popular preacher ; he published sev- 
eral treatises while he lived, and his friends have publish- 
ed many others since his death, which have met with a 
general acceptance. It was said, the divisions of the times 
broke his heart, because one of the last subjects he preach- 
ed upon, and printed, was his Irenicum, or an attempt to 
heal divisions among christians. Mr. Baxter used to say, 
if all the presbyterians had been like Mr. Marshall, aud 
the independents like Mr. Burroughs, their differences 
might easily have been compromised. He died of a con- 
sumptive illness Nov. i% 1646, about the forty-seventh 
year of his age. 



Proceedings of the Assembly ' Upon their Confession of 
Faith and Catechisms. Provincial Assemblies of Lon- 
don. The King taken out of the Parliament's Custo- 
dy, and conveyed to the Army. Controversy between 
the Parliament and Army. His Majesty's Conduct. 
He escapes from Hampton- Court, and is confined in the 
Isle of Wight. 

THE reverend, Mr. Charles Herle succeeded to the 
prolocutor's chair by order of parliament July 22, 1646, 
in the room of the late Dr. Twisse, when the discipline of 
the church being pretty well settled, it was moved to finish 
their confession of faith. The English divines would have 
been content with revising and explaining the thirty-nine 
articles of the church of England, but the Scots insisting 
on a system of their own, a committee was appointed to 
prepare materials for this purpose May 9, 1645 ; their 
names were Dr. Gouge, Dr. Hoyle, Mr. Herle, Gataker, 
Tuckney, Reynolds, and Vines, with the Scots divines, 
who having first settled the titles of the several chapters, 
as they now stand in their confession of faith, in number 
thirty-two, distributed them for greater expedition, among 
several sub-committees, which sat two days every week, 
aud then reported what they had finished to the committee, 
and so to the assembly, where it was debated paragraph 
by paragraph. The disputes about discipline had occa- 
sioned so many interruptions that it was a year and half 
before this work was finished, but on Nov. 26, 1646, the 
prolocutor returned thanks to the several committees, in 
the name of the assembly, for their great pains in perfect- 
ing the work committed to them. At the same time Dr. 
Surges was appointed to get it transcribed, in order to its 
being presented to parliament, which was done Dec. 11, 
by the whole assembly in a body, under the title of, The 


humble advice of the assembly of divines and others, now, 
by the authority of parliament, sitting at Westminster, 
concerning a confession of faith. The house of commons 
having voted the assembly thanks, desired them to insert 
the proofs of the several articles in their proper places, 
and then to print six hundred copies, J and no more, for 
the perusal of the houses. The reverend Mr. Wilson, 
Mr. Byfield, and Mr. Gower, were appointed, Jan. 6, to 
be a committee to collect the scriptures for confirmation of 
the several articles ; all which, after examination by the 
assembly, were inserted in the margin. And then the 
whole confession was committed once more to a review of 
the three committees, who made report to the assembly of 
such further amendments as they thought necessary ; 
which beiug agreed to by the house, it was sent to the 
press, May 11, 1647- Mr. Byjield, by order of the house 
of commons, delivered to the members the printed copies 
of their confession of faith, with scripture notes, signed 

Charles Herle, Prolocutor, 

Corn. Burges, 7 a 

xr -o ? \>Jlssessors, 

Herbert .Palmer, 5 

Henry Roborough, ? c -i. 
. t, y Scribes. 


And because no more were to be given out at present, ev- 
ery member subscribed his name to the receipt thereof. 

The house of commons began their examination of this 
confession May 19, when they considered the whole first 
chapter article by article ; but the disturbances which arose 
between the parliament and army interrupted their proceed- 
ing the whole summer ; but when these were quieted they 
resumed their work, and October 2, ordered a chapter of 
the confession of faith at least to be debated every Wed- 
nesday, by which means they got through the whole before 
the end of March following ; for at a conference with the 

J The MSS. to which Mr. Ncal refers, though supported by the au- 
thority of Rushworth, made a mistake here : for by a copy of the oris;, 
inal order, given by Dr. Grey, in his Appendix, No. 71, it appears, 
that the order of the house was for printing 300 copies and no more of 
"The humble advice," &c. See also Whitlocke's Memorials, p. 233. Ed. 

* Rushworth. part iv. vol. i. i». 482. 
Vol. in, 48 

37S- THE HISTOHT CilKV. 8., 

house of lords March 22, 1647-8, the commons presented 
them with the confession of faith as passed by their house, 
with s,ome alterations : they agreed with the assembly in 
the doctrinal part of the confession, and ordered it to be 
published, June SO, 1648, for the satisfaction of the foreign 
churches, under the title of Articles of religion approved 
and passed by both houses of parliament, after advice had 
with an assembly of divines called together by them for that 
purpose.^ The parliament not thinking it proper to call 
it a confession of faith, because the sections did not begin 
with the words I confess ;* nor to annex matters of church 
government, about which they were not agreed, to doctri- 
nal articles ; those chapters therefore, which relate to dis-' 
cipliue, as they now stand in the assembly's confession, 
were not printed by order of the house, but re-committed, 
and at last laid aside ; as the whole thirtieth chapter, of 
ahurch censures, and of the power of the keys ; the thirty- 
first chapter, of synods and councils, by whom to be called ? 
and of what force in their decrees and determinations ; a 
great part of the twenty-fourth chapter, of marriage and 
divorce, which they referred to the laws of the land ; and 
the fourth paragraph of the twentieth chapter, which de- 
termines what opinions, and parties disturb the peace of 
the church, and how such disturbers ought to be proceeded 
against by the censures of the church, and punished by the 
civil magistrate. These propositions, in which the very 
life and soul of presbytery consists, never were approved 
hy t\m English parliament, nor had the force of a law in 
this country : But the whole confession, as it came from 
the assembly, being sent into Scotland, was immediately 
approved by the general assembly and parliament of that 
kingdom, as the established doctrine and discipline of 
their kirk ;|| and thus it has been published to the world 
ever since, though the chapter above-mentioned, relating 
to discipline, received no parliamentary sanction in En- 
gland ; nevertheless, as the entire confession was agreed 
to by an assembly of English divines, I have given it a 
place in the Appendix. § 

Nor is it to be supposed, that the confession of faith it 

t Rushworth, p. 1035. * Savoy Conf. Pref, p. 18, 19. 

|| Savoy Couf. Pref. p. 20. § Appendix, No. VIII. 


self, which determines, so many abstruse points of divinity, 
should have the unanimous and hearty assent of the whole 
assembly or parliament : for though all the divines were 
in the antiarminian scheme, yet some had a greater latitude 
than others. I find in my JIIS. the dissent of several mem. 
tiers against some expressions relating to reprobation, to 
the imputation of the active as well as passive obedience of 
Christ, and to several passages in the chapters of liberty 
of conscience and church discipline ; but the confession, as 
far as related to articles of faith, passed the assembly and. 
parliament by a very great majority. 

Various censures have been passed by learned men upon 
this labored performance : some have loaded it with un- 
deserved reproaches ; and others, perhaps, have advanced 
its reputation too high. Mr. Collier condemns it, for de- 
termining in favor of the morality of the sabbath : for pro- 
nouncing the pope to be anti-christ; and for maintaining 
the calvinian rigors of absolute predestination, irresistible 
grace, and the impetency of man's will; doctrines, in his 
opinion, inconsistent with Christianity. § But then, he ob- 
serves, very justly, that it falls very short of the Scots claim 
in points of discipline ; it yields the magistrate a power of 
convening church assemblies, and of superintending their 
proceedings ; it is silent as to the independency of the church, 
and the divine right of presbytery, &c. Upon the whole,, 
the Assembly's Confession, with all its faults, has been 
ranked by very good judges among the most perfect sys- 
tems of divinity ? || that have been published upon the cal- 
vinistic or antiarminian principles in the last age. 

While the confession was carrying through the assem- 
bly, committees were appointed to reduce it into the form 
of catechisms ; one larger, for the service of a public expo- 
sition in the pulpit, according to the custom of foreign 
churches ; the other smaller, for the instruction of chil- 

§ Ecel. Hist. vol. ii. p. 842. 

|| Here maybe introduced, as it escaped our recollection in the more 
proper place, the remark made by Mr. Robinson on the Directory, 
**TIie best state instructions to preachers were given in the dikecto- 
' ry by the assembly of divines : but even these (he properly adds) in- 

• elude the great, the fatal error, the subjection of God's word to human 

* laws." Translation of Claude on the Composition of a Sermon, vol, 
ii. Prefatory Dissertation, p. 63. Ed. 


dren ; in both which the articles relating to church disci- 
pline are entirely omitted.* The larger catechism is a com- 
prehensive system of divinity, and the smaller, a very ac- 
curate summary, though it has by some been thought a lit- 
tle too long, and in some particulars too abstruse for the 
capacities of children. The shorter catechism was pre- 
sented to the house of commons, Nov. 5, but the larger, 
by reason of the marginal references to scripture, which the 
houses desired might be inserted, was not ready till the 
14th of April, 1648, when the house ordered six hundred 
copies to be printed for the service of the members ; and 
having examined and approved it, they allowed it to be 
printed by authority, for public use, September 15, 1648, 
The king, after many solicitations, at the treaty of the isle 
of Wight, offered to license the shorter catechism, with a 
suitable preface ; but that treaty proving unsuccessful, it 
was not accomplished. J 

The chief affairs committed to the assembly being thus 
finished, Mr. Rutherford, one of the Scots divines, moved, 
October 2% 1647? that it might be recorded in the scribes 
books, that the assembly had enjoyed the assistance of the 
honorable, reverend and learned commissioners of the 
church of Scotland, during all the time they had been de- 
bating and perfecting these four things mentioned in the 
covenant, viz. their composing a directory for public wor- 
ship ; an uniform confession of faith; a form of church 
government and discipline ; and a public catechism ; some 
of their number having been present during the whole of 
these transactions ; which being done about a week after, 
lie and the rest of the commissioners took their leave, and 
returned home : upon which occasion Mr. Herle, the pro- 
locutor rose up, and, in the name of the assembly, "thank- 
' ed the honorable and reverend commissioners, for their 
( assistance ; he excused in the best manner he could, the 
c directory's not being so well observed as it ought ; and 
i lamented that the assembly had not power to call offend- 
' ers to an account : he confesses, that their affairs were 
( very much embarrassed, and that they were still in a chaos 
tf of confusion ; [the king being now taken out of the hands 
( of the parliament, and in custody of the army] he takes 

• Rusliworth. p. 888. 1060. t Rushworth, p. 1326. 


' notice what distresses the parliament were in, while the 
' common enemy was high and strong ; and adds, that their 
' extraordinary successes hitherto, were owing to the pray- 

* ers of their brethren of Scotland, and other protestants 

* abroad, as well as to their own. He then mentions with 
'concern some other restraints the assembly lay under, 
' but that this was not a proper season for redress. * 

The commissioners went home under a very heavy con- 
cern for the storm that was gathering over England, and 
for the hardships the presbyterians lay under with respect 
to their discipline ; and having obtained the establishment 
of the directory, the confession of faith and catechisms, the 
presbyterian discipline, and Rouse's psalms in metre, for 
the service of their kirk, they appointed a general fast, to 
lament their own defection from the solemn league and cov- 
enant, and the distressed condition of their brethren in 
England, who were zealous for carrying on the work of 
God, but were now oppressed, under pretence of liberty, 
when no less was aimed at than tyranny and arbitrary power. 

If the parliament had dissolved the assembly at this 
time, as they ought to have done, they had broke up with 
honor and reputation, for after this they did little more 
than examine candidates for the ministry, and squabble 
about the jus divinum of presbytery ; the grand consulta- 
tions concerning public affairs, and practising upon the new 
establishment, being translated to the provincial assemblies, 
and weekly meetings of the London clergy at Sioa-college.* 

* Rapin, vol. ii. p. 297, note. 

* That the reader may form a judgment of what was intended to be 
established in England, it may not be improper, to set before him, in 
one view, the discipline that was then settled in the kirk of Scotland, 
and subsists at this time. '* In Scotland there are eight hundred and 
ninety parishes, each of which is divided, in proportion to its extent, 
into particular districts, and every district has its own ruling elders 
and deacons; the ruling elders are men of the principal quality and 
interest in the parish, and the deacons are persons of a good character 
for manners and understanding. A consistory of ministers, elders, 
and deacons, is called a kirk session, the lowest ecclesiastical judica- 
tory, which meets once a week, to consider the affairs of the parish. 
The minister is always moderator, but without a negative ; appeals 
lie from hence to their own presbyteries, which are the next higher 
judicatories. Scotland is divided into sixty-nine presbyteries, each 
consisting of from twelve to twenty-four contiguous parishes. The 


Though the city and suburbs of London had been form- 
ed into a province, and divided into twelve classical pres- 
byteries (as has been remembered) under the last year, new- 
complaints were still made to the parliament of certain ob- 
structions to their proceedings ; upon which the houses 
published their resolutions of April %%, 1647, entitled Rem- 
edies for removing some obstructions in church govern- 
ment ;* in which they ordered letters to be seut from the 
speakers of both houses to the several counties of England 
immediately to divide themselves into distinct presbyteries 
and classes ; u They then appoint the elders and ministers 
< of the several classes of the province of London, to hold 
t their provincial assembly in the convocation house of St. 
' Paul's in London, upon the first Monday in May next en- 
6 suing, and to adjourn their meetings de die in diem, and 

* conclude them with adjournment to the next opportunity, 
t according to the ordinance of parliament ; but that no act 
i shall pass or be valid in the said province of London, ex- 
i cept it be done by the number of thirty- six present, or the 
i major part of them, whereof twelve to be ministers, and 
1 twenty-four ruling elders. That in the classical meetings, 
'that which shall be done by the major part present, shall 

* be esteemed the act of the whole ; but no act done by a «y 
'classes shall be valid, unless it be done by the number of 

ministers of these parishes, with one ruling elder, chosen half yearly 
out of every kirk session, compose a presbytery. They meet in the 
head town and choose their moderator, who must be a minister, half 
yearly : from hence appeals lie to provincial synods, which are com- 
posed of several adjacent presbyteries. Two, three, four to eight; 
there are fifteen in all. The members are a minister and a ruling el- 
der out of every parish. These synods meet twice a year, at the prin- 
cipal town of its bounds. They choose a moderator, who is their pro- 
locutor. The acts of the synods are subject to the review of the gen- 
eral assembly, the dernier resort of the kirk of Scotland. It consists 
of commissioners from presbyteries, royal burghs, and universities. 
A presbytery of twelve ministers sends two ministers and one ruling 
elder ; a presbytery of between twelve and eighteen sends three, 
and one ruling elder 5 of between eighteen and twenty-four sends four, 
and two ruling elders ; of twenty-four sends five, and two elders ; ev- 
ery royal burgh sends one elder, and Edinburgh two ; every university 
sends one commissioner, usually a minister. The general assembly 
meets once a year, in the month of May, and is opened and adjourned^ 

* by the king's royal commissioner appointed for that purpose." 

* Vol. Panip. No. IV. 


< fifteen present, or the major part of them, whereof five be 
* ministers and ten ruling elders." So that the number of 
lay-elders in these assemblies was double to the number of 

According to this appointment the first provincial assem- 
bly met at the convocation- house of St. Paul's, May 8, con- 
sisting of three ministers and six ruling elders from the sev- 
eral classes, in ail about one hundred and eight persons $ 
at their first sessiou they chose the reverend Dr. Gouge 
prolocutor, who opened the assembly with a sermon at his 
own church in Black-friars, the reverend Mr. Thomas Man- 
ton, Mr. Ralph Robinson and Mr. Cardel, being appointed 
scribes. After their return to the convocation-house, a 
committee of seven ministers and fourteen ruling elders^ 
were chosen to consider of the business of the province. 

The Ministers were 

The Rev. Mr. Whitaker 
Dr. Seaman 
Mr. Ed. Calamy 

Mr. Spurstow 

The Rev. Mr. Tnekney 
Mr. Proffet 

Mr. Jackson, 

Sir Edw. Popham 
Dr. Clarke 
Dr. Bastwieke 
Dr. Biinley 
Mr. Bence 

The Ruling Eldehs were, 

Mr. Webbe 

Mr. Russel 
Mr. Bains 
Mr. Houghton 
Mr. Eyres 
Mr. Vausrhan 

Mr. English 
Col. Sowlonstal! 

Mr. , 

Any six to be a quorum, provided there be two ministers, 
and four ruling elders. Their next meeting to be at Sion- 
college, May 6, at two in the afternoon. 

At the second sessions it was moved, that application be 
made to parliament, for liberty to remove the assembly from 
the convocation-house to some other place; and accordingly 
they were allowed to adjourn to any place within the city 
or liberties of London, upon which they agreed upon Sion- 
college, where tSiey continued to meet twice a week to the 
end of the year 1659, as appears by a manuscript of the 
late Mr. Grange, now in Sion-college library. 

Before their adjournment from the convocation -house at 
St.PauVs, they came to the following resolutions ; resolved, 

381 tftE HlSTOtlt CHAP. Si 

1. That the Provincial Assembly shall meet twice every 
week, Mondays and Thursdays. 

2. That the moderator for the time being shall begin 
and end every session with prayer. 

3. When a new moderator is to be chosen the senior 
minister shall preside. 

4. The moderator shall be subject to the censure of the 
majority of the assembly, in case of complaint, and shall 
leave the chair while the complaint is debating, and the 
senior minister shall preside. 

5. Every one that speaks shall direct his speech to the 
moderator, and be uncovered. 

6. No man shall speak above three times to the same 
question at one sessions. 

7- When any business is before the assembly relating to 
any particular member, he shall withdraw, if desired by the 

8. After the assembly is set, no member sliall withdraw 
without leave. 

9. The names of the members present shall be recorded 
by the scribes. 

Every Provincial Assembly was dissolved in course at 
the end of six mortths, when notice was given to the sever- 
al classes to return new representatives ; but it was an ill 
omen upon them, that their meetings were interrupted almost 
the whole summer, by reason of the distraction of the times. 

The second Provincial Assembly met Nov. 8, Dr. Sea- 
man moderator, and presented a petition to the parliament 
in a body, Jan. 11, in which they humbly pray, 

1. s " That the number of delegates to the Provincial As- 
• sembly may be enlarged, because they found it difficult 
tf sometimes to make up the number of thirty-six. 

%. u That the houses would quicken the settlement of 
i those classes [in London] that were not yet formed, which 
i they say were four. 

3. " That some more effectual encouragement may be 
' provided for a learned ministry. 

4. rt That effectual provision may be made against clan- 
6 destine marriages, for the punishment of fornication, adul- 
f tery, and such uncleanness as is not fit to be named. 


5. "That church censures may be so established, that 
i scandalous persons may be effectually excluded from 
6 church communion." 

The parliament received them with respect, and prom- 
ised to take the matter of the petition into consideration, 
which Was all that was done in the affair. 

But besides the Provincial Assembly, it has been remem- 
bered, that the London clergy had their weekly meetings 
at Sion College, to consult about church affairs, iu one of 
which they agreed, since they could do no more, to hear 
their public testimony against the errors of the times ; 
and accordingly they published a treatise, entitled, A tes- 
timony to the truth of Jesus Christ, and to our solemn league 
and covenant; as also against the errors, heresies, and 
blasphemies of these times, and the toleration of them ; to 
tvhich is added a catalogue of the said errors, &c. dated 
from Sion-College, Dec. 14, 1647, and subscribed by fifty- 
eight of the most eminent pastors in London, of whom sev- 
enteen were of the assembly of divines. Some time after 
the ministers of Glocestershire published their concurrence 
with the London ministers, subscribed by sixty-four names. 
The ministers of the province of Lancashire by eighty- 
four. The Devonshire ministers by eighty-three ; and the 
Somerset ministers by seventy-one. 

The London ministers, in their first article, " touching 
1 matters of doctrine, declare their assent to the Westminster 
1 assembly's confession of faith, and heartily desire it may re- 

• ceive the sanction of authority,as the joint confession of faith 
i of the three kiugdoms, in pursuance of the covenant." 

Touching heresies and errors, they declare their detest- 
ation and abhorrence of these following, among others, 

1. " That the holy scriptures are not of divine authori- 

• ty, and the only rule of faith.* 

2. " That God hath a bodily shape ; that God is the 
' name of a person ; and, that God is the author of sin, 
' having a greater hand in it thau men themselves.^ 

3. " That there is not a trinity of persons in the God- 

• head ; that the Son is uot co-equal with the Father ; and 

• that the Holy Ghost is only a ministering spirit. f 

*L. Clarksoo. Bidille, p. 6. i Crisp, Eaton, Saltmarsh. 

t Paul Best. Biddle, p. 8. 
Vol. III. 49 


4. " That God has not elected some to salvation from 
f eternity, and rejected or reprobated others ; and, that no 
1 man shall perish in hell for Adam's sin. a 

5. "That Christ died for the sins of all mankind ; that 
6 the benefits of his death were intended for all ; and, that 
i natural men may do such things as whereunt© God has 
i by way of promise annexed grace and acceptation. b 

6. " That man hath a free will and power in himself ta 
i repent, to believe, to obey the gospel, and do every thing. 
■' that God requires to salvation." 

7. " That faith is not a supernatural grace, and that faith- 
6 ful actions are the only things by which a man is justified.' 1 

8. " That the moral law is not the rule of life ; that be- 
lievers are as clean from sin as Christ himself ; that such 
i: have no occasion to pray for pardon of sin ; that God sees 
? no sin in his people, nor does he ever chastise them for it. e 

9. "That there is no church, nor sacraments, nor sab- 
i bath ; the opinions of the Seekers, now called Quakers.^ 

10. 6i That the children of believers ought not to be 
< baptized, nor baptism continued among christians; that 
6 the meaning of the third commandment is, Thou shall 
i not forswear thyself/' 

11. " That persons of the next kindred may marry ; anct 
6 that indisposition, unfitness, or contrariety of mind, aris- 
i ing from natural causes, are a just reason of divorce. h 

i2. " That the soul of man is mortal ; that it sleeps with 
' the body ; and, that there is neither heaven nor hell till 
i the day of judgment.' 

The last error they witness against, and in which all 
agree, is called the " error of toleration^ patronizing and 
( promoting all other errors, heresies and blasphemies what- 
6 soever, under the grossly abused notion of liberty of 
tf conscience ;" and here they complain as a very great 

a Fulness of God's Love to Mankind, by L. S. b Hammond r s Pract. 
Cat. J Goodwin, p. 149. c J. Goodwin. d Ham. « Randal. 

John Simpson. *> Saitmarsh, Smoak in the Temple, p. 17. s Tombes. 
h Saltinarsh, Ham. Milton, p. 19. * P. 20. Man's Mortality, by R. O. 

k Mr. Emlyn jsjstly observes, " That the principle of the admired 
* Assembly's larger catechism, under the second commandment, is, that 
i it forbids toleration of all false religion." Emlyn's Works, vol. i. g* 
60 of the narrative edition of 1746. Ed. 


grievance, u That men should have liberty to worship God 
< in that way and manner as shall appear to theni mo9t 

* agreeable to the word of God ; and no man be punished 
^ or discountenanced by authority for the same; and, that 
6 an enforced uniformity of religion throughout a nation or 
f state coufounds the civil and religious, and denies the 
^ very principles of Christianity and civility."* 

They then bear their testimony to the covenant, and to 
■the divine right of presbytery. They lament the imperfect 
settlement of their discipline by the parliament, and lay 
the foundation of all their calamities in the countenancing 
of a public and general toleration, and conclude thus : 
•'Upon ail these considerations, we the ministers of Jesus 
' Christ do hereby testify to our flocks, to all the kingdom, 

* and to the reformed world, our great dislike of prelacy, 

* erastiani&m, brownism, and independency ; and our utter 
4 abhorreucy of anti-scripturism, popery, arianism, soci- 
6 nianism, armiuianism, antinomianism, anabaptism, liber- 
' tinism, and familism ; and that wc detest the fore-men- 
4 tioned toleration, so much pursued and endeavored in this 

* kingdom, accounting it unlawful and pernicious." What 
sad work would these divines have made, had the sword 
of the magistrate been at their disposal !|j 

The principal authors from whom these errors were col- 
lected, are mentioned in the margin ; two of whom deter- 
mined to vindicate the citations out of their books : Dr. 
Hammond published a vindication of three passages in his 
practical catechism, from the censures of the London miu- 

* Bloody Tenet. Five Holland Ministers, p. 22. 

|| It deserves to be mentioned here, as a fact remarkable in itself, 
and honorable to the assembly at Westminster, that, notwithstanding 
the zeal expressed against toleration, the confession of faith it drew up 
was not made the legal standard of orthodoxy. It was not subscribed 
by any member of that assembly, except by the prolocutor, assessors, 
and clerks. Nor \i\l forty years after was a subscription or assent to 
it required of any layman or minister, as a term of christian commun- 
ion. And Mr. Nye, a member of the assembly, informs us, when the 
Scots commissioners proposed, that the answers in the shorter cate- 
chism should be subscribed by all the members, the motion was reject- 
ed ; after a considerable number in the assembly had shewn it was an 
uuwarranta'ule iaiposition. " Conscientious Nonconformity," printed 
for Noon, 1737, p. 77. " The religious Establishment in Scotland ex- 

* amiqed." 1771, p. 101. Ed, 


isters ; in which he very justly complains of the hard 
names with which the ministers load the opinions they re- 
ject, as abominable errors, damnable heresies, horrid blas- 
phemies, many of which are destructive of the fundamen- 
tals of Christianity, and all of them repugnant to the holy 
scriptures, the scandal and offence of the reformed church- 
es abroad, and the unparalelled reproach of this church 
and nation; and, in a word, the dregs and spawn of those 
old cursed heresies which have been already condemned. 
The doctor then recites his three passages ; the first con- 
cerning universal redemption : the second concerning 
faith's being the condition of our justification ; and the 
third concerning the interpretation of the third command- 
ment ; and avers them all to be true, and agreeable to the 
doctrine of the church of England. In conclusion the 
doctor desires this favor, that either the first subscriber 
Mr. J. Downham, who licensed his catechism for the press, 
or else Dr. Gouge or Mr. Gataker, who are foremost in 
the second rank, or some other persons of learning, Chris- 
tianity, and candor, would afford him their patience, per- 
sonally and by fair discourse, or any other christian way, 
to debate the truth of these assertions, for which he will 
wait their leisure. Dated from Oxford, Jan. %% 1647-8, 
but no-body thought fit to accept the challenge. 

Mr. John Goodwin was a learned divine, and a smart 
disputant, but of a peculiar mould, being a republican, an 
independent, and a thorough arminian ; he had been vicar 
of Coleman-street, whence he was ejected in the year 
1645, by the committee for plundered ministers, because 
lie refused to baptize the children of bis parishioners pro- 
miscuously, and to administer the sacrament to his whole 
parish. He had published several large and learned 
books ; as, The divine authority of the scriptures. Re- 
demption redeemed. Jl treatise of justification. And, an 
exposition on the ninth chapter to the Romans ; out of 
which the above-mentioned exceptions were taken. This 
divine, taking it amiss to be marked for a heretic, chal- 
lenged any of the London clergy to a disputation, as think- 
ing it a very unrighteous method to condemn opinions be- 
fore they had been confuted. Mr. William Jenkins, at 
that time a warm and zealous presbyterian, though after- 


wards softened into more catholic principles, entered the 
list with our author, in a pamphlet entitled, The Busy Bi- 
shop. To which the other replied, in a book entitled, The 
Novice Presbyter instructed. By some passages in which; 
one may discover the angry spirit of the times. 

Mr. Jenkins had complained that the orthodox clergy 
had short commons, and were under the cross, whereas the 
sectaries met with the greatest encouragement. To which 
Mr. Goodwin replies, " If by orthodox ministers, he means 
' those of the adored order of presbytery, with what face can 
' he say that they are under the cross ? Is not the whole 
' Euglish element of church-livings offered up by the state 
'to their service ? Are not all the benefices of the "kingdom 
' appropriated to their order? And all others thrust out of 
' doors to make room for them ? Must they feed with hec- 
' atombs every day, or else complain of short commons ? Or 
' is Mr. Jenkins of Mar. Crassus's mind, who would have 
' no one accounted rich, unless he could maintain an army 
' with his revenue? In what sense can he affirm the pres- 
' byterian clergy to be under the cross ? Are they under the 
' cross who are scarce under the crown ? who are carried 

* by authority upon eagles wings : over whom the parlia- 
ment itself rejoices to do good ; heaping ordinance upon 
' ordinance to advance both them and their livings togeth- 
' er. But certainly there is something that Mr. Jenkins 

* calls a cross whfcli few men know by that name, but those 
'who are baptized into the spirit of high presbytery; 
'for the cross he speaks of is no other than this, that his 
' orthodox brethren have not the power to do all the evil that 
' is in their hearts against a quiet, peaceable, harmless gen- 
' eration of men, of whom they are jealous, lest they should 
' take their kingdom from them. How can this writer say, 
' that the independent preachers meet with encouragement, 
' and are under worldly glory ? Does he account it matter 

* of worldly glory, to be discountenanced by the state, to 
'be declared incapable of those favors and privileges 
' which other ministers in the land enjoy ; to be sequester- 
' ed from their livings, and to be thrust into holes and cor 

' ners ; to be represented both to the magistrate and peo- 

* pie, as sectaries, schismatics, erroneous, heretical, fac- 
' tious, troublesome, dangerous to the state, and what not ? 


* If this be worldly glory, then may the preachers, against 
i whom Mr. Jenkins writes, be truly said to be under 
( worldly glory." Old Mr. Vicars and some others, carri- 
ed on the controversy, but their writings are not worth re- 
membering ; especially since the English presbyterians of 
the present age have openly renounced and disavowed their 

To return to more public affairs. Hitherto the army 
had acted in perfect subordination to the parliament; but 
the war being over, and the king a prisoner, the great diffi- 
culty was to settle the nation upon such afoot as might con- 
tent "the several parties,or bring them at least to acquiesce ; 
this was the rock upon which they split, and which in the 
end proved the ruin of their cause. To give light to this 
affair it will be proper to consider the separate views of the 
king, the parliament, and the army. 

The royal party being broken, and the king a prisoner, 
his majesty had no prospect of recovering his throne but 
by dividing his enemies, in order to the making the best 
terms with them he could ; the presbyterians, being in 
league with the Scots nation, were most numerous and pow- 
erful ; but that which rendered their agreement with the 
king impracticable, was his majesty's zealous attachment 
to this point, that episcopal government urns essential to 
Christianity, and that he was bound by his coronation oath 
to maintain it; whereas the others held themselves equal- 
ly bouud by their solemn league and covenant to abolish 
episcopacy, and establish presbytery in its room. Both 
parties were immovable, and therefore irreconcileable. His 
majesty's agreement with the army was more open and 
practicable, because they would have set aside the coven- 
ant, and obliged the parliament to tolerate episcopal gov- 
ernment as well as the sectaries ; but the king could nev- 
er forgive those officers, who had destroyed his armies, and 
driven him out of the field : Though he dreaded their mil- 
itary valor, he had a very mean opinion of their politics, 
and therefore affected to play them against the parliament, 
hoping to take advantage of their divisions, and establish 
himself upon the ruins of both ; for it was his majesty's 
maxim, which he did not scruple to avow, that neither par- 


ty could subsist without him, and that those must be ruin- 
ed whom he abandoned. By which unhappy principle he 
lost his interest, both in the parliament and army, and (as 
bisnop Kennet observes) laid the foundation of his ruin. 

The presbyterians were no less unhappy in an imagina- 
tion, that as the majority of the house of commons, with, 
the city of London, and the whole Scots nation, were firm- 
ly attached to their interest, no opposition could stand be- 
fore them, and therefore would abate nothing of their de- 
mands, nor hearken to any other terms of accommodation 
with the king, than those of the covenant* which were the 
entire abolishing of prelacy, and the establishing presby- 
terian uniformity throughout both kingdoms, with an abso- 
lute extirpation of all sectaries whatsoever. This was 
not only an effectual bar to their union with the king (as 
has been observed,) but awakened the jealousy of the ar- 
my, who were thoroughly convinced, that when the pi-es- 
byterians were in the legal possession of their demands, 
they would exercise equal tyranny over the consciences of 
men with the bishops ; and indeed nothing less was to be 
expected, considering their steady adherence to the cove- 
nant in all their treaties, their efforts in parliament to get 
the power of the keys into their own hands, their frequent 
addresses for the suppressing all sectaries by the civil au- 
thority, and their declarations both from the pulpit and 
press, against toleration and liberty of conscience. In all 
their treaties with the king, even to that in the Isle of 
Wight (except when the army was iu possession of the cit- 
ies of London and Westminster) this was one article of 
peace, That an effectual course be taken by act of parlia- 
ment, and all other ways needful or expedient, for sup- 
pressing the opinions of the independents, and all other 
sectaries. To which his majesty had agreed in his pri- 
vate treaty with the Scots in the Isle of Wight, signed De- 
cember 27, so that the army was left unsatisfied. 

For although there were some few presbyterians in the 
army, the greatest part consisted of independents, anabap- 
tists, and men of unsettled principles in religion, who, for 
want of regular chaplains to their regiments, had used their 
own talents among themselves in religious exercises. The 
Scots treaty of the Isle of Wight says, the army was made 

39^ THE HIST 6lit CHAP. & 

up of anti-trinitarians, avians, socinians,anti-scripturists, 
anabaptists, antinomians, arminians, familists, brownists, 
separatists, independents, libertines, seekers, 8(c. 

Mr. Rap in, contrary to the testimony of all other writers, 
calls thein all independents, and represents the controversy 
between the parliament and them as a dispute, Whether 
presbytery or independency should be uppermost ; whereas 
the grand controversy was, presbytery with a toleration, or 
without one. The army consented that presbytery should 
be the national religion, but insisted upon a toleration of 
all christians in the enjoyment of all their civil and religious 
rights. This (says lord Clarendon J was their great char- 
ter, and till they had obtained it by a legal settlement, they 
agreed not to lay down their arms : They had fought the 
parliament's battles, and therefore thought it unreasonable 
to be told openly, if they could not comply witli the pres- 
byterian settlement, they must expect to be punished as sec- 
taries, and driven out of the land. To avoid this, they 
treated separately with the king, both before and after they 
had him in their hands ; and when they apprehended he 
did not deal sincerely with them, they made proposals to 
the parliament to establish the presbyterian discipline, 
with a toleration to all protestants, without him ; but when 
they found the presbyterians, even in their last treaty with 
the king, in the year 1648, insisted upon the presbyterian 
uniformity, without making the least provision for that lib- 
erty of conscience they had been contending for, they were 
exasperated and grew outrageous ; they seized his majesty's 
person a second time, and having purged the house of com- 
mons, in a most arbitrary manner, of all who were not dis- 
posed to their desperate measures, they blew up the whole 
constitution, and buried king, parliament, and presbytery, 
in its ruins. This was not in their original intention, nor 
the result of any set of religious principles they embraced, 
(as Rapin insinuates) but was a violence resulting from 
despair, to which they had been driven by a series of dis- 
appointments, and a train of mistaken conduct in the roy- 
alists and presbyterians. 

We left the king the beginning of the spring at his house 
at Holmby, where he continued under an easy restraint 
from the 16th of February to the 4<th of June following. 


The war being ended, the houses attempted to get rid of 
the army, by offering six months pay, and six weeks ad- 
vance, to as many as would go over to Ireland ; and by vot- 
ing, that the remainder should be disbanded, with an act 
of indemnity for all hostilities committed by them, in pur- 
suance of the powers vested in them by parliament; but tbe- 
army, being apprehensive that the presbyterians would 
make peace with the kiug, upou the foot of covenant uni- 
formity, and without a toleration, resolved to secure this as a 
kind of preliminary point ; for which purpose they chose a 
council of officers, and a committee of agitators, consisting 
of two inferior officers out of each regiment, to manage their 
affairs ; these met in distinct bodies, like the two houses of 
parliament, and came to the following resolutions, which, 
they sent to Westminster by three of their number, who de- 
livered them in at the bar of the house : " That they would 
1 not disband without their arrears, nor without full provis- 
ion for liberty of conscience ; that they did not look upon 
' themselves as a band of janizaries, but as volunteers, that 
4 had been fighting for the liberties of the nation, of which 
6 they were a part, and that they Were resolved to see those 
1 ends secured."* It was moved in the house, that the mes- 
sengers might be committed to the Tower ; but, after a long 
debate, they were dismissed only with a reprimand for med- 
dling in affairs of state, and for presuming to offer a peti- 
tion to parliament without their general. Upon this the of- 
ficers sent their petition by the general himself, but the par- 
liament, instead of taking it into consideration, ordered, 
May 21, that all who would not list for the Irish service, 
should be immediately paid off and disbanded; upon which 
the officers, seeing the snare that was laid for them, bound 
themselves and the army by an engagement May 29, not to 
disband till the grievances above-mentioned were redressed. 
Whereupon the two houses ordered lieutenant-general 
Cromwell who was then in town, and suspected to be at 
the head of these counsels, to be seized ; but being adver- 
tised of the design, he made his escape to the army. They 
then voted the petition seditious, and all those traitors who 
had promoted it; and having sent a message to the gener- 

* Rushworth, vol. vi. p. 485, 498. Rapin. vol. ii. p. 929, folio ed. 

Vol. III-. 50 


al, to remove the army further from London, they raised 
the city trained bands, and determined to put an end to the 
power of the army by a speedy conclusion of peace with 
the king. 

His majesty's answer to the propositions at Newcastle 
were read in the house May 18, in which " he agrees to 

* settle the presbyterian government for three years -to 

' ratify the assembly of divines at Westminster, proposing 
8 a few of his own clergy to consider what government to 

' settle afterwards he yields the militia for ten years 

6 — — desires ministers of his own to satisfy him about the 

'* covenant consents to the act against papists and 

6 to an act of oblivion and desires to come to London, 

* in order to give the parliament satisfaction upon the other 
< articles.'' Two days after the lords voted, that the king 
be removed to his house at Oatlands, and that it be imme- 
diately fitted for his reception. 

Things being come to this crisis, the agitators consider- 
ed, that the king being a prize contended for, whoever had 
him in their power must be masters of the peace, and make 
their own terms ; they therefore resolved, by the advice 
and direction of lieutenant-general Cromwell, to get pos- 
session of his majesty's person, which they accomplished 
by a bold stratagem, in the night of June 4, with very little 
opposition from his attendants or guards ; cornet Joyce at 
the head of fifty resolute horse, having secured the avenues 
to Holmby-House, entered with two or three of his compav 
ny, and going to the king's chamber, acquainted him with 
his design of carrying him to the army at New-Market; his 
majesty being surprised at so unexpected a visit, and so late 
at night, asked for his commission, who pointed to his troops 
drawn up before the gates ; his majesty answered, it teas 
venj legible ; and finding it in vain to resist, consented to go 
with the cornet next morning, on promise of safety to his 
person, and that he should not be forced to any thing against 
his conscience ; the chief officers of the army met his maj- 
esty at Child erley, four miles from Cambridge, and were 
admitted to kiss his hand; from thence he was removed to 
New-Market, where he took the diversion of the Heath, 
had the liberty of four of his own chaplains to wait upon 
him, and was attended with all due ceremony and respect ; 


Cromwell being beard to say among his friends, that now 
he had got the king into his hands he had the parliament 
in his pocket.* 

The two houses received the news of the king's being 
carried off to the army with the utmost surprize and aston- 
ishment; the whole city was in confusion, and all persons 
within the lines of communication ordered to arms ; the 
looby at Westminster was thronged with the disbanded of- 
ficers of the earl of Essex's army offering their service to 
the parliament ; for every one imagined the army would 
be at the gates of the city in a few hours ; when their panic 
was a little abated, commissioners were sent to the general, 
not to advance within forty miles of London ; but being al- 
ready at St. Albans, the general promised not to march 
his army nearer without due notice y\ and assured the two 
houses, that they would not oppose the presbyterial gov- 
ernment, nor set up the independent ; but only insisted that 
some effectual course might be taken, that such who upon 
conscientious grounds differed from the establishment, 
might not be debarred from the common rights, liberties, 
or benefits belonging equally to all, while they lived soberly 
and inoffensively towards others, and peaceably and faith- 
fully towards the state. §> June 10, another letter was sent 
to the lord-mayor, aldermen, and common-council of Lon- 
don, signed by Fairfax, Cromwell, and twelve other offi- 
cers, assuring them, " they intended no alteration of the 
civil government ; nor to interrupt the settlement of pres- 
bytery ; nor to introduce a licentious liberty, under col- 
our of obtaining ease for tender consciences, but that when 
the state had made a settlement they would submit or 
suffer. They wished that every peaceable subject might 
have liberty and encouragement, for the obtaining which 

(say they) we are drawing near the city. We seek the 

good of all, and shall wait for a time to see if these things 
may be settled without us, and then we will embark for 

Ireland. "£ 

The commons took no notice of these remonstrances, but 
declared in print, that his majesty was a prisoner, and bar- 

* Rushvvorth, p. 515, 549. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 530, folio e<l. 
t Rashworthj p. 516, 561, 589, &c. § Rapii), vol. ii. p. 379, 531 
t Rushworth. p. 551. 


harously used, because their commissioners could have no 
access to him, but in presence of some officers ; the army 
replied, <• that all suggestions of that nature were absolute- 
6 ly false, and contrary to their principles, which are most 
c clearly for a general right, and just freedom to all men, 
6 and therefore upon this occasion they declare to the world, 
*•' that they desire the same for the king, and others of his 
i party, so far as can consist with common right and free- 
' dom, and with the security of the same for the future. And 
6 we do clearly profess (say they) that we do not see how 
'there can be any peace to this kingdom firm or lasting, 
6 without a due provision for the rights, quiet, and immu- 
e nityofhis majesty, his royal family, and his late partak- 
6 ers ; and herein we think, that tender and equitable deal- 
ings, (as supposing their cases had been ours) and a spir- 
it of common love and justice diffusing itself to the good 
*and preservation of all, will make the most glorious con- 
quest over their hearts, to make them, and the whole peo- 
<ple of the land, lasting friends."* 

The leading members of the presbyterian party in the 
house of commons could not contain themselves within any 
reasonable bounds at these proceedings ; they said it was 
insufferable that the parliament, instead of treating with 
the king, should be obliged to treat with their own ser- 
vants, and therefore advised raising a new army, and op- 
posing force with force, till those who had the king in their 
custody should submit to their superiors, and deliver him 
back. On the other hand, the officers and agitators resolv- 
ed to get rid of these resolute gentlemen, and therefore im- 
peached eleven of the members of high-treason, June 16, 
for obstructing the business of Ireland ; for acting against 
the army and against the laws and liberties of the subject, 
&c. and desired they might be suspended from the house 
till they were legally acquitted ; % Their names were Den- 
til Mollis, Esq. Sir Phil. Stapleton, Sir William Lewis, 
Sir John Clotworthy, Sir William Waller, Sir John May- 
ward, Major-general Massey, Mr. Gltjn recorder, Colonel 
Walter Long, Colonel Edward Hartley, JLnthony Nichols, 
Esq. The commons not only rejected their impeachment, 

* Rushworth, p. 589, 590. 
| Rushworth, p. 570, 572. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 531, 


but ordered the king to be brought to Richmond, and that 
four full companies of the militia should guard the two 
houses. This quickened the resentments of the army, who 
sent the following proposals* among others, June 23, 

* That the king's coming to Richmoud be suspended ; 

* that no place be appointed for his residence nearer Lon- 
' don than the parliament will allow the quarters of the ar- 

6 my ; -that the impeached members be sequestered the 

' house ; that the multitude of soldiers that iiock to- 

'gether about the city be dispersed; and that no new for- 
*ces be raised, nor any preparations made for a new 
'war."* If these particulars are not complied with in a 
week's time, they declare they will march to London, and 
do themselves justice. The houses, being terrified with 
the approach of the army, agreed to content them for the 
present, in order to gain time ; and the impeached mem- 
bers having desired leave to withdraw, retired first into 
the city, and after some time left the kingdom. The other 
requests of the army were also complied with ; whereup- 
on, after returning thanks to the houses, they retreated to 
Wickham, and appointed commissioners to settle all re- 
maining differences with the parliament. || 

But the city of London, by the influence of the impeach- 
ed members, kindled into a flame ; for the parliament, by 
an ordinance of May 4, having put the nomination of the 
officers of the militia into the hands of the common coun- 
cil ; these had discharged the old ones, and put in such as 
they could confide in for opposing the army, and estab- 
lishing uniformity according to the covenant ; the officers 
in order to defeat their design insisted, that the ordinance 
of May 4, be repealed, aud the militia put into the hands 
of those who had conducted it during the course of the late 
war.f The houses, with much reluctance, consented to 
the repeal July 23, which alarmed the citizens, and occa- 
sioned those tumults which brought upon them the very 
mischiefs they were afraid of. Denzil Mollis, with the 
other impeached members who were retired into the city, 
prevailed with the common-council to oppose the repeal, 
aud petition the house, that the ordinance of May 4, might 

* Rushworth, p. 585. || Whitlocke, p. 264. Rapiu, vol. ii. p. 532. 

t Ibid. p. 533. 


remain ill full force. At the same time some citizens met 
at Skinners-Hall, and subscribed a solemn engagement to 
endeavor with the hazard of their lives to procure " aper- 
< sonal treaty with the king ; — that he might return to his 
'two houses with honor and safety; — that his majesty's 
e concessions of May 11, might be confirmed, and the mili- 
6 tia continue in the hands of the present committee."* 
How vain was all this bustle, when they knew the king 
was in the custody of those who would pay no regard to 
their demands. The houses indeed forbid the signing «sf the 
engagement by sound of trumpet; but such was the misguid- 
ed zeal of the citizens, that they held assemblies, listed sol- 
diers, and gave them orders to be ready on the first notice. 
The parliament was now in great perplexity, consider- 
ing the impossibility of contenting the presbyterians and 
the army at the same time ; while the citizens, resolved to 
carry their point by one method or another, went up to 
Westminster July 26, with such a number of apprentices 
and young men, as terrified the houses by their tumultuous 
and insolent behavior ; for they would scarce suffer the 
door to be shut ; some thrust themselves into the house with 
their hats on, crying out, vote, vote ; and when the speak- 
er would have left the chair to put an end to the confu- 
sion, they obliged him to return, till the militia was settled 
to their mind, and the king voted to come to London. || 
This (says Mr. Baxter) looked like a force upon the par- 
liament ; and indeed both houses were so terrified and 
pressed between the city presbyterians on one side, and 
the army on the other, that they adjourned immediately 
from Monday to Friday, in which interval the earl of Man- 
chester, speaker of the house of lords, with eight peers, 
and the speaker of the house of commons, with about a 
hundred members,! withdrew privately from the city, and 
joined the army ; — a surprising event in their favor I The 
officers received them with the utmost satisfaction and 
transport, paying them all imaginable honors, and assur- 
ing them, that they would re-establish them in their full 
power, or die in the attempt, f There must surely have 

* Rushworth, p. 637. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 533-4. 
|| Rushworth, p. 642. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 534. 
t Dr. Zach. Grey says there was but 59, but I don't know his authority. 


been some very pressing reasons for this conduct,* other- 
wise so mauy zealous presbyterians, as were most of the 
members who quitted the parliament-house, would not 
have had recourse to the protection of the army. Lord 
Clarendon believes, that they apprehended the army de- 
signed to restore the king to all his rights at this time, and 
that they were willing to avoid his majesty's vengeance, 
by concurring with them in his restoration, which is not 
unlikely, if they could have brought him to their terms. 

However, the presbyterian members that remained in 
London assembled on Friday according to adjournment, 
and having chosen a new speaker, voted that the king 

should come to London ; that the eleven impeached 

members should be restored ; that a committee of safe- 
ty should join the city militia : and that forces should 

be immediately raised under the command of Waller, 
Massey, and Potjntz ; iu all which they appeared so res- 
olute, that no man could imagine but either that they had 
the king at their disposal, or intended a brave and valiant 
defence of the city.|| The common-council gave orders for 
the trained bands to repair to the works, and for all capa- 
ble of bearing arms to appear at the places of rendezvous. 

* Rapiu, as well as Mr. Neal, expresses his surprise at this secession 
of these members of parliament 5 he supposes, that it proceeded from 
a disapprobation of the measures pursued by their brethren and the 
common-council of London ; and from an apprehension, that they would 
be infallibly oppressed by the army. By joining the army they sought 
their security from the ruin which threatened their own party ; and, 
says Mr. Hume, "paid their eourt in time to that authority, which be- 
4 gap to predominate in the nation." What Whitlocke reports con- 
cerning the reason which the carls of Warwick, Manchester, &c. as- 
signed for their conduct, appears to have escaped the attention of these 
writers. He says, that they sent to the general to acquaint him, " that 
* they had quitted the parliament, for that there was ho free-setting for 
' them, and they cast themselves into his protection." Memorials, p. 
265. Dr. Grey, in his Appendix, No. 72, has confirmed this account 
of the matter, by giving, at length, their letter to Sir. Thomas Fairfax, 
signed by the speaker of the house of lords and eight peers, and by the 
speaker and 58 of the commons. Mr. Neal, and since him Mrs. Ma- 
caulay, say au hundred commoners seceded. All, probably, did not 
sigu the letter. Dr. Grey is rather severe here upon our author. Ed. 

(I Rapin, vol. ii. p. 399, 534. Rushworth, p. 737. 


Massey, Waller, and Poyntz, were also busy in forming 
regiments and companies ; and the committee of the mili- 
tia were empowered to punish such as did not repair to 
their colors. At the same time they wrote to their breth- 
ren in Scotland, to return with their army immediately to 
their assistance ; but alas ! they were at too great a dis- 
tance ; however they published a declaration in the name 
of the kirk and whole kingdom, Aug. IS, wherein they en- 
gage, by a solemn oath, to establish the presbyteriau gov- 
ernment in England ; to redeem his majesty out of the 

hands of schismatics, and place him at the head of his par- 
liament with honor ; to vindicate the honor of the elev- 
en impeached members, and to settle the privileges of par- 
liament against the overawing power of the army. A lit- 
tle after they declared against toleration and liberty of con- 
science, resolving to the last man to stand by the covenant, 
whatever the English parliament might submit to. 

Pursuant to the order of the two houses, the general had 
removed his head-quarters above forty miles from the city, 
till, upon the representation of the members, who fled to 
them for protection from the outrageous violence of the city 
mob, they resolved to push their advantage, and bring the 
mutineers to justice; accordingly they resolved to march 
to London, and rendezvous the whole army on Hounslow- 
Heath, August 3, to the number of twenty thousand men, 
with a suitable train of artillery, accompanied with fourteen 
peers, and about one hundred members of the house of 
commons.^ The citizens were no sooner informed of this, 
than their courage sunk at once, and, instead of defending 
the city they ordered the militia to retire from the lines, and 
sent their submission to the general, promising to open their 
passes, and give all assistance to the replacing of those mem- 
bers who had withdrawn to the army. Aug. 6, being ap- 
pointed for this servicc,the mayor and aldermen met the gen- 
eral at Hyde-Park with a present of a gold cup, beseeching 
him to excuse what had been amiss ; but his excellency re- 
fused the present, and having dismissed them with very lit- 
tle ceremony,conducted the members to their seats in parlia- 
ment, who immediately voted all proceedings in their absence 
void, and gave thanks to the army for their safe conduct. || 
t Rushwortb, p. 745, 760i II Rushworth, p. f&l, 756-. 


Next day the array marched through the city without any 
disorder, and constituted colonel Titchburn lieutenant of 
the Tower, contrary to the request of the lord-mayor and 
citizens ; the militia was changed, and put into the hands 
of the old officers who had conducted it before ; the fortifi- 
cations and lines of circunivallation about the city were 
levelled, and sundry peers, who had been at the head of 
the late tumults, were impeached of high-treason, as the 
earl of Suffolk, Middlesex, Lincoln, lord Willoughby of 
Parham, Hudson, &c. ; the lord-mayor, and some of the 
principal citizens, were sent to the Tower ; and it was re-' 
solved to purge the house of all who had been active in the 
late unhappy riot ; which put a full period to the presby- 
terian power for the present ; and the army being quarter- 
ed near the city all the next winter, there was a council of 
officers at their head-quarters at Putney, whose debates 
and resolutions had, no doubt, a very powerful influence 
upon the resolutions of the two houses. 

The odium of this grand revolution, by which the army 
became masters of the city of London, and of the parlia- 
ment itself, fell chiefly on the presbyterians themselves, 
whose intemperate zeal for covenant uniformity carried 
them to very impolitic excesses. The sermons of their 
ministers were filled with invective against the army while 
at a distance ; in their public prayers they intreated the 
Almighty to incline the hearts of the Scots to return to their 
relief; and the conversation of their people was riotous 
and disorderly ; however, lest the weight of this revolution 
should fall too heavily on the London ministers, §> as the 
chief incendiaries of the people, they wisely prepared a 
vindication of themselves, and published it four days be- 
fore the army entered the city ; it was dated from Sion-col- 
lege, August 2, 1647; and is to this purpose : 

C( We the ministers of London, whose names are sub- 
? scribed, do profess in the presence of the Searcher of all 
4 hearts, 

1. <•' That we have never done any thing purposely and 

§ The assembly of divines also, Dr. Grey informs us, presented a 
petition for peace : which he has preserved, from the MS8. of Dr. 
'Williams, No. 74, of his Appendix. Ed. 

Vol. III. M 


6 wittingly to engage the city against the army, or the army 
e against the city, but have sincerely aud faithfully endeav- 
i ored to prevent it. 

S. " That seeing both the parliament and city have de- 
6 dared the necessity of putting the city into a present pos- 
'. ture of defence, yet protesting against any desires of a 
' new war, and thereupon have called 'upon us to stir up 

* the people to prepare for their defence : we accordingly 
4 have done, and shall do our duty therein, that the people 
i may be encouraged to their own just and necessary pres- 
' ervation. 

3. " But withal, we profess our abhorrence of the slied- 
1 ding any blood on either side ; and we humbly pray all 
c whom it may concern, that they will be very careful in 
\ preventing it by a seasonable treaty." 

feigned by about twenty of the London ministers, and 
presented to a committee of both houses, sitting at Guild- 

Let the reader now pause a little, and judge of the au- 
thors of this grand revolution, which brought the parlia- 
ment under the power of the army, and how far the presby- 
terian ministers were concerned in it. Mr. Baxter, in a 
very angry stile, lays all the blame at the door of the inde- 
pendents. li A few dissenting members of the Westmin- 
' ster synod (says lie) began all this, and carried it far on. 
6 Afterwards they increased, and others joined them, who, 

< partly by stiffness, and partly by policy, increased our 
i flames, and kept open our wounds, as if there had been 
i none but they considerable in the world ; and having an 

* army and city -agents fit to second them, effectually hin- 
8 dered all remedy, till they had dashed all into pieces as 
' a broken glass. One would have thought, that if all their 
i opinions had been certainly true, and their church-order 
' good, yet the interest of Christ and the souls of men, and 

< of greater truths, should have been so regarded by the 

< dividers in England, as that the safety of all these should 
( have been preferred, and not all ruined, rather than their 

* way should want its carnal arm and liberty ; and that they 
6 should not tear the government of Christ all to pieces, 
i rather than it should want their lace."\ I am far from 

t Abridg. p. »7. 


clearing the independents from all manner of blame in their 
conduct: their principles might be too narrow and mis- 
taken in some points, and their zeal for christian liberty 
betray them into some imprudencies. But on which side 
was tiie stiffness ? on theirs who only desired a peaceable 
toleration ; or, on theirs who were determined to make the 
whole nation stoop to presbyterian uniformity? Were not 
these the men who kept open the church's wounds? Had 
their discipline been ever so good, yet certainly they might 
have had some regard to men of piety and virtue, who had 
not equal discernment with themselves ; could they not be 
content with being the established religion, and having 
most of the livings of the kingdom divided among them, 
without trampling on the religious rights of mankind, by 
enforcing an absolute uniformity, which can never be main- 
tained but on the ruins of a good conscience, and therefore 
is no means of promoting the true interest of Christ and 
salvation of souls ? Mr. Baxter had milder sentiments in 
his latter days ; and it is for the honor of the present gen- 
eration of those commonly called presbyterians, that tiiey . 
have not only abandoned and renounced these servile doc- 
trines,* but have appeared in defence of the civil and re- 

* " To know whether the presbyterians have indeed abandoned their 
« persecuting principles," says bishop Warburton, " we should see them 
i under an establishment. It is no wonder, that a tolerated sect should 
' espouse those principles of christian liberty, which support their tol- 
' eration. Now the Scottish presbyterians are established, and we find 
* they still adhere to the old principle of intolerance. " His lordship's 
reflections are too well founded in fact and experience. The recent 
prosecution of Dr. M'Gill for his valuable and guarded "Essay on 
*the Death of Christ," may be adduced as a new proof of the intole- 
rance of Scotch presbyterianism. But, strictly speaking, presbyteri- 
anism hath no existence amongst the English dissenters ; who form so 
many independent societies. The name is, indeed, applied to one part 
of them; but they are invested with no power but what arises from 
the management of a fund for the assistance of small congregations. 
This they are known to direct on a truly liberal plan, without de- 
manding subscription to any articles, or making any inquisition into 
the sentiments, on doctrine or discipline, of the ministers or churches 
to whom they grant, exhibitions. And the writings of those who have 
been called presbyterians, the bishop could not but know, were most 
able vindications of the principles of liberty. In this cause did a 
Browne, an Evans, a Grosvenor, a Chandler, and many others, argue 
and plead. His lordship's argument, I would add, applies to an extent 
to which it is conceived he did not wish io have it carried ; it more 


ligious liberties of mankind, upon the most solid and gen- 
erous principles. 

His majesty was obliged all this time to attend the re- 
moves of the army : from New-market he came to Roys- 
ton, June 24 ; from thence to Hatfield ; from thence to 
Windsor, and two days after to Caversbam, where he had 
the pleasure of conversing with his children. Eut when 
the city of London threatened a new war, his majesty was 
removed to a greater distance; about the middle of July 
he was at Maidenhead ; and towards the end of the month 
at Latimer's in Buckinghamshire ; when the army had 
got possession of the city they brought his majesty back 
to Oatlands, Aug. 14, and two days after to Hampton- 
court, where he appeared in state and splendor about three 
months, being attended by the proper officers of the court, 
and a vast resort of people both from city and country. 

While the king was with the army, lieutenant-general 
Cromwell and Ireton took sundry opportunities to confer 
with his majesty privately about his restoration. They of- 
fered to set him upon the throne with the freedom of his 
conscience upon point of episcopacy, or lose their lives in 
the attempt, if he would consent to their proposals to the 
parliament, and bestow some particular preferments on 
themselves and a few of their friends, wishing that Gx>d 
would deal with them and their families according to their 
sincerity.* Nay, they engaged to indemnify his whole 
fartij, if they would be quiet, f Sir J. Berkley, the king's 
agent, intreated his majesty in the most importunate and 
submissive manner, considering the state of his affairs, to 
accept of the said proposals, but the king treated them with 
a haughty reserve, and said if they intended an accommo- 

than implies that toleration and an establishment are incompatible : 
that when once the tolerated are possessed of power they of course he- 
come intolerant. If so, an establishment cannot exist without being 
inimical to the interests of truth and the rights of conscience. Could 
a severer reflection be passed on establishments, than is here conveyed 
by an episcopal pen? Ed. , 

* Dr. Grey fills, here, four pages with authorities to prove the in- 
sincerity and hypocrisy of Cromwell and Ireton: by which nothing 
that Mr. Meal had advanced above is invalidated. Ed. 

t Dugdale's Troubles of England, p. 264. 


dation they would not impose such conditions upon him. 
Sir J. Berkley said, he should suspect they designed to 
abuse him if they had demanded less ; and that a crown so 
near lost was never recovered on easier terms. But Mr. 
Jlshburnham, who came with instructions from France, fell 
in with the king's humour, and encouraged him to staud 
his ground, relying upon an ill-judged maxim which his 
majesty had imbibed, and which his best friends could not 
make him depart from, viz. that it was in his power to 
turn the scale, and that the party must sink which he aban- 
doned.^ This sealed his ruin, and made him play between 
both, till neither would trust him. When the parliament 
brought their propositions, he put them iu mind of the of- 
fers of the army ; and when the proposals of the latter were 
tendered in the most respectful manner, he put on a frown, 
and said, " I shall see you glad, ere long, to accept more 
( equal terms ; you cannot be without me ; you will fall to 
' ruin if I do not sustain you ; no man shall suffer for my 
i sake ; the church must be established according to law-.' 7 
The officers were confounded at this language. " Sir (says 
4 Sir J. Berkley) you speak as if you had some secret 
( strength, which, since you have concealed from me, I wish 
i you had concealed from these men." After divers con- 
ferences of this kind to no purpose, Cromwell told him 
plainly, Sir, ice perceive you have a design to be arbitrator 
between the parliament and us ; but we now design to be 
the same between your majesty and the parliament. This 
fluctuating temper (says bishop JCennet) was the king's ru- 
in, which he repeuted of when it was too late. Mr. Whit- 
locke says, the king's bishops persuaded him against what 
he was inclined to in his own judgment, and thereby ruin- 
ed him and themselves. 

When the officers found they could make no impression 
on the king, and had discovered his secret correspondence 
with the queen, they withdrew from court, which raised 
suspicions in his majesty's mind of a secret design against 
his life, and put him on attempting to escape out of their 
hands. It is very certain that Cromwell withdrew his pa- 
role of honor for the king's safety, and sent him word a 

t Rushwortb, p. 807, 810. * History of the Stuarts, p. 330, 

II Memorials, p. 271. 


few days before he left Hampton-court, that he would not 
be answerable any longer for what might befal him, which 
was owing to a discovery he had made of the king's insin- 
cerity in treating with him. Mr. Coke says, there was a 
report at that time, and he is confident that in time it will 
appear, that in the army's treaty with the king, Cromwell 
had made a private article of advantage for himself,* but 
his majesty not allowing himself to conclude any thing 
without the queen, wrote her word, " that if he consented 
i to those proposals it would be easier to take off Cromwell 
( afterwards, than now he was at the head of the army. "J 
Which letter Cromwell intercepted. Bishop Eennet says, 
" that it was reported, that Cromwell was to have ten thou- 
f sand pounds and a garter ; and that the bargain had cer- 
' tainly taken effect, if the king had not made an apology 
4 to the queen, and sufficiently implied that he did it by 
6 constraint, and that when he was at liberty, and in pow- 
< er, he should think himself discharged from the obliga- 
6 tion. This letter was sewed up in the skirt of a saddle 
6 to be sent to France^ but Cromwell and Ireton, having 
* information of it, went to an inn in Holborn, and seized 
*the letter — — ." Dr. Lane of the commons frequently de- 
clared, " that he had seen this original letter, that he knew 
'it to be the king's own hand, and that the contents were 
' as above." Another writer says, that the letter mention- 
ed his majesty's being courted by the Scots presbyterians 
as well as the army, and that they that bid fairest for hint 
should have him.|| Upon the discovery of this letter, 
Cromwell went to Mr. Ashburnham who attended the king's 
person, and told him, that lie was now satisfied the king 
could not be trusted ; that he had no confidence in the army, 
but teas jealous of them and their officers — that he had 
treaties with the city presbyterians, and with the Scots com- 
missioners, to engage the nation again in blood, and that 
therefore he could not be answerable if any thing fell out 
contrary to expectation. Sir Hichard Baker, Mr. Coke, 
and others, are of opinion, that till this time Cromwell and 
Ireton were hearty and zealous for restoring the king, and 
opposing the levellers who began to arise in the army, but 

* Detect, p. 323. | Complete History, p. 270. 

l] History of the Stuarts, p. 390. •' 


that after this discovery they forsook him, as did the rest 
of the chief officers, who seldom came to court ; the guards 
also changed their language, and said that God had har- 
dened the king's heart, and blinded his eyes. 

Under these circumstances the infatuated king left 
Hampton-court, Nov. 11, at night, and haviug crossed the 
Thames, took horse in company with Sir J. Berkley, Mr. 
Leg, and Mr. Ashburnham, and next morning arrived at 
Titchfield-house, where he stayed while Leg went over to 
the Isle of Wight, to treat with colonel Hammond the gov- 
ernor, about the safety of his person, who, without any 
treaty, brought the governor to the house where his majes- 
ty was, upon which the king said, he was betrayed ; as in- 
deed he was in all his affairs.* Hammond carried him 
over to the Isle Nov. 13, and after some time shut him up 
in Carisbrook castle, where his majesty remained almost 
a year with one or two servants only, having little conver- 
sation with the world, and time sufficient to contemplate 
on the uncertainty of all human affairs, and on the misera- 
ble circumstances to which Divine Providence had suffer- 
ed his own imprudent conduct to reduce him. 

Let us now attend to the projects of the several parties 
for restoring the public tranquillity : as soon as the army 
had got possession of the city of London, they made the 
following proposals to the two houses. With regard to re- 
ligion ; " that an act be passed to take away all coercive 
1 power and jurisdiction of bishops extending to any civil 
' penalties upon any. — That there be a repeal of all acts, 
' or clauses of acts, enjoining the use of the common -prayer, 
' and imposing any penalty for neglect thereof, and for not 

* coming to church, or for meeting elsewhere. That the 

' taking of the covenant be not enforced upon any, but 
' that all orders and ordinances tending to that purpose be 

1 repealed." With regard to the state, " that the 

' militia and great officers be disposed of by parliament for 

* ten years, and after that the houses to nominate three, 

4 out of which the king to choose one. That there be 

' acts of indemnity and revocation of all declarations against 

'the proceedings of parliament. That the present une- 

6 qual and troublesome and contentious way of ministers' 

* Rushwnrth, p. 920, 960. 


* maintenance by titheshe, considered of, and some remedy 

* applied. That none may be obliged to aecuse them- 

4 selves or relations in criminal causes ; and no man's life 

4 taken away under two witnesses. That consideration 

4 he had of all statutes, laws, or customs of corporations, 
4 imposing any oaths tending to molest or ensnare religious 
4 and peaceable people merely for non-conformity in reli- 

' gion. That the arbitrary power given to committees, 

4 and deputy-lieutenants, be recalled."* 

After several debates upon these proposals with regard 
to religion, the lords agreed October 13, " that the king be 
' desired to give his consent to the settling the presbyterial 
1 government for three years, with a provision, that no per- 
c son shall be liable to any penalty for non-conformity to 

* the said government, or form of divine service ; but such 
4 persons shall have liberty to meet for the service and wor- 

* ship of Grod, and for exercise of religious duties and or- 
' dinances in any fit and convenient places, so as nothing be 
' done by them to the disturbance of the peace of the king- 
' dom. Provided this shall not be construed to extend to a 
' toleration of the popish religion, nor to exempt popish 
i rescusants from any penalties imposed upon them for the 
4 exercise of the same. Nor shall it extend to the tolera- 

* tion of any thing contrary to the principles of the chris- 
4 tian religion, contained in the apostles creed, as it is ex- 

* pounded in the fifteen first articles of the church of En- 
' gland, as they had been cleared and vindicated by the as- 
4 sembly of divines now sitting at Westminster ; nor of 
' any thing contrary to such points of faith, for the ignor- 

* ance whereof men are to be kept from the sacrament, ac- 

* cording to the ordinance of Oct. 20, 1.645. Nor shall it 
8 extend to excuse any persons from the penalties of 1 
' Elizabeth, cap. %. for not coming to hear the word of Grod 
4 on the Lord's day in any parish church or chapel, unless 
i he can shew a reasonable cause for his absence, or that 
' he was present to hear the word of God preached or ex- 
' pounded elsewhere." || 

The commons likewise agreed, il That presbytery be es- 
tablished till the end of the next sessions of parliament, ot 

* Rushworth, p. 736. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 538, 9. 
|| Rushworth, p. 810. 


* till the second sessions; that the tenths, and all other 
' maintenance belonging to any church or chapel, shall be 
6 only for the use of them who can submit to the presbyte- 
' rial government, and none other. The liberty of con- 
science shall extend to none who shall print, preach, or 
' publish, contrary to the first fifteen articles of the thirty* 
' nine, except the eighth, relating to the three creeds. That 
6 nothing contained in this ordinance shall extend to popish 
' recusants. "§ Oct. 14*, they agreed further, 6i That such 
'tender consciences should be freed, by way of indulgence, 
'from the penalty of the statute for the presbyterian gov- 
' eminent, for their non-conformity, who do meet in some 
' other congregation for the worship of God on the Lord's 

* day, and do nothing against the laws and peace of the 
' kingdom, and that none others shall be freed from the pen- 
'alty of the statute of 1 Eliz. cap. 2." October 16, the 
commons voted, " That the indulgence granted to tender 
•' consciences should not extend to tolerate the use of common 
6 prayer in any part of the kingdom/'* Which was against 
the sense of the army, who were for a general indulgence, 
as appears from the declaration of the agitators, dated Nov. 
1, in which they say, that " matters of religion, and the 
' ways of God's worship, are not at all intrusted by us to 
'any human power, because therein we cannot omit, orex- 
' ceed a tittle of what our consciences dictate to be the mind 
' of God, without wilful sin ; nevertheless, the public way 
' of instructing the nation, so it be not compulsive, is left to 
f their discretion. "|| Here was a fair plan of accommoda- 
tion, but no ordinance was brought into the house to con- 
firm these resolutions. November 8, both houses agreed 
to the addition of some new propositions. As, 

1. " For the due observation of the Lord's day. 

2. " Against innovations in religion. 

3. " A uew oath for the conviction of papists. 

4. " For the education of the children of papists in the 
' protestant religion. 

5. " Against pluralities." 

The proposals of the presbyterians were the same with, 
those of Newcastle already mentioned \ but whereas the 

§ Rushworlh, p. 811. * Ibid. p. 8-12. || Ibid. p. 160, 

Vol. III. 52 

ill) THE HIS T Oil Y CHAP. 8'.< 

king declined to accept them without a personal treaty, they 
determined in the house of commons, to reduce them into 
four bills, which if his majesty refused to sign as prelimi- 
naries, they resolved to settle the nation without him ; but 
before they were perfected, the king withdrew from Hamp- 
ton-court and was secured in the Isle of Wight, where the 
commissioners from the two houses waited on him, and ten- 
dered him the following bills, December 2k, the first was 
for settling the militia, as has been related ; the second, for 
calling in all his majesty's declarations and proclamations 
against the two houses, and those that adhered to them ; 
the third, to disqualify those peers from sitting in the house, 
that had been created after the great seal had been convey- 
ed to Oxford ; the fourth, to empower the two houses to 
adjourn, as they should think fit. In matters of religion 
they insisted peremptorily on the establishment of the pres- 
byterian church-government upon the ruins of the prelati- 
cal ; upon the extirpation of all sectaries; and upon cov- 
enant uniformity in both nations, as will appear more ful- 
ly hereafter. But the king, instead of signing the prelim- 
inaries, insisted strenuously on a personal treaty, which it 
w r as hardly reasonable for him to expect, when he had so 
lately attempted to escape out of their hands, and now re- 
fused to yield any thing in a way of condescension. 

It had not been possible to unriddle the mystery of this 
escape, if it had not appeared soon after, that the king was 
at that very time throwing himself into the hands of the 
Scots, who being offended with the parliament (now under 
the influence of the army) for not acting in concert with 
them in the present treaty, according to their covenant, de- 
termined on a separate negociation for themselves ; and 
accordingly, by the mediation of some of their own nation, 
they concluded a secret treaty with the king, which was 
begun before his majesty left Hampton-Court, but not 
signed till the &7th of December following, three days- af- 
ter his majesty's refusal of the parliament's four bills. — 
6 This alliance (says lord Clarendon*) was most scan- 
' dalous, and derogatory to the honor and interest of the 
6 English nation,and would have been abominated if knowa 

* Vol. iii. p. 103. 


* and understood by all men." Bat Eajiin thinks it not 
so criminal on the part of the Scots as his lordship repre- 
sents, since they yielded to the establishment of their be- 
loved presbytery in England only for three years ; howev- 
er, it laid the foundation of the king's ruin with the army. 

In the preamble his majesty gives " a favorable testimo- 
' ny to the solemn league and covenant, and to the good in- 
' tentions of those that entered into it." In the treaty " he 
' obliges himself to confirm the covenant by act of parlia- 
i nient as soon as he can do it with honor and freedom in 
'both kingdoms ; with a proviso, that none that were un- 
i willing should be obliged to take it for the future. He 
( engages further, to confirm by act of parliament the pres- 
'byterial government in England, the directory for public 
< worship, and the assembly of divines for three years only, 
' with liberty for himself and his household to use that form 
' of divine service they had formerly practised ; and that 
tf during the three years there should be a consulation with 
' the assembly of divines, to whom twenty of the king's 
6 nomination should be added, and some from the church 
' of Scotland, to determine what form of church government 
6 should be established afterwards — ."* Then follows a 
scourge for the army ; " Than an effectual course should be 
'taken to suppress the opinions oftheanti-trinitarians,ari- 
i ans, socinians, arminians, & dependents, brownists, anti- 
4 nomians, anabaptists, separatists, seekers; and in gene- 
6 ral, all blasphemy, heresy, schism, and other doctrines 

* contrary to the known principles of Christianity, whether 
6 concerning faith, worship, conversation, or the power of 
' godliness, or which may be destructive to order and gov- 
1 ernment, or to the peace of the church and kingdom." 

In return for these concessions u the Scots engaged to 

* raise an army to deliver his majesty cut of captivity, to 
' assert his right to the militia, the great seal, the negative 
< voice in parliament ; aud in a word, to restore him to his 

* throne with honor and freedom ;" which occasioned a 
second civil war the next year. 

As soon as his majesty arrived in the Isle of Wight 
from Hampton-Court, he sent a letter to the speaker of the 

* Rapin, vol. ii. p. 513-4. 


house of lords, to be communicated to the commons, with 
the following concessions on his part, very inconsistent 
with the treaty last mentioned. — u For the abolishing arch- 
4 bishops, bishops, &c. his majesty clearly professeth, that 
6 he cannot consent to it either as a christian or a king ; 
' for the first he avows, that he is satisfied in his judgment, 
4 that this order was placed in the church by the apostles 
' themselves, and ever since their time has continued in all 
' christian churches throughout the world till this last cen- 

* tury ; and in this church, in all times of change and re- 
4 formation, it has been upheld, by the wisdom of his an- 
cestors, as the great preserver of doctrine, discipline, and 
4 order in the service of God. As a king, at his coronation 
4 he not only swore to maintain this order, but his majesty 
i and his predecessors, in their confirmations ofthe great 
6 charter, have inseparably woven the rights of the church 
<into the liberty of the subject; and.yet he is willing that 
6 it be provided, that particular bishops perform the sev- 
' eral duties of their callings both by their personal resi- 
4 dence, and frequent preaching ; that in their personal ex- 
4 ercise no act of jurisdiction, or ordination, be without con- 
4 sent of their presbyters ; and will consent, that in all 
4 things their powers be so limited, that they may not be 

* grievous to the tender consciences of others ; his majesty 
4 sees no reason why he alone, and those of his judgment, 
6 should be pressed to a violation of theirs. 

" Nor can his majesty consent to the alienation of church- 

< lands, because it cannot be denied to be the sin of sacri- 
6 lege ; as also, that it subverts the intentions of so many 

< pious donors, who have laid a heavy curse upon all such 
4 profane violations. And besides, his majesty believes it 
4 to be a prejudice to the public good ; many of his sub- 
ejects having the benefit of renewing leases at much easier 
4 rates, than if those possessions were in the hands of pri- 

* vate men ; not omitting the discouragement it will be to 
4 learning and industry, when such eminent rewards shall 

* be taken away ; yet considering the present distempers 
6 concerning church-discipline, and that the presbyterian 
e government is now in practice, his majesty to avoid con- 
4 fusion as much as may be, and for the satisfaction of his 


4 two houses, is content, that the same government be legal- 
* ly permitted to stand in the same condition it now is for 
' three years, provided that his majesty, and those of his 
'judgment, or any others who cannot in conscience submit 
4 thereunto, be not obliged to comply with the presbyterial 
4 government, but have free practice of our own profession, 
4 without any prejudice thereby : and that free consultation 
4 be had with the divines at Westminster, twenty of his 
'majesty's nomination being added to them, to consider 
'how to settle the church afterwards, with full liberty to 
' all those who shall differ upon conscientious grounds from 
4 that settlement ; always provided, that nothing aforesaid 
4 be understood to tolerate those of the popish profession, or 
1 exempt them from penal laws, or to tolerate the public 
4 profession of atheism, or blasphemy, contrary to the doc- 
4 trine of the apostles, the nicene and athanasian creeds ; they 
' having been received by, and had in reverence of all chris- 
6 tian churches, and more especially the church of England 
4 since the reformation. ?? f This was inserted to cajole the 
' army, and was entirely reversed by the Scots treaty five 
4 weeks after. 

From these inconsistent views of the contending parties, 
we may easily discern the precarious situation of the pub- 
lic tranquillity especially as there was a general distrust on 
all sides, and each party resolved to carry their point with- 
out any abatements : The king was held by ties of con- 
science and honor (as he said) to preserve episcopacy ; the 
Scots and English presbyterians, though divided at pres- 
ent, thought themselves equally bound to stand by their sol- 
emn league and covenant ; and the army was under a sol- 
emn engagement to agree with neither without a toleration. 
If the king could have submitted to covenant uniformity, 
he might have been restored by the presbyterians ; or, if 
either king or parliament would have declared heartily for 
a toleration, they might have established themselves by 
the assistance of the military power ; but his majesty seems 
to have been playing an unsteady, if not a double game. 
The reader will judge of the equity of the several propos- 
als, and of the prudential conduct of each party, from the 
respective circumstances in which they stood ; the king 

t Rushworth, p. 880. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 544. 


was a prisoner ; the parliament in possession of the 
whole legislative authority ; but the sword was in the hands 
of the army, who were determined not to sheath it till 
they had secured to themselves that liberty for which they 
had been fighting : This they had in vain solicited from 
the king, and were next determined to try their interest 
with the parliament. 

The houses being informed of the king's design to make 
his escape out of the Isle of Wight, ordered the governor 
to put away his servants, and confine him a close prisoner 
in the castle, so that no person might be admitted to speak 
to him without leave. His majesty having also declared, 
when he rejected the parliament's four bills, that nothing 
which could befal him could ever prevail with him to con- 
sent to any one act, till the conditions of the whole peace 
were concluded, they began to despair of an accommoda- 
tion. In this juncture the officers of the army sent a mes- 
sage to the houses, assuring them that they would live and 
die with them in settling the nation either with or without 
the king, and leave all transactions of state for the future 
to them alone. §> 

However, after the seclusion of the eleven impeached 
members, and the quartering of the army in the neighbor- 
hood of the city, the parliament, either from interest or fear, 
had a great regard to the opinion of those officers who were 
members of the house. Upon a motion that no more ad- 
dresses be made to the king from the parliament, nor any 
messages received from him, Ireton and Cromwell open- 
ed themselves very freely : Ireton said, t{ subjection to the 

< king was but in lieu of protection from him, which being 

< denied, we may settle the kingdom without him. Let us 
1 then shew our resolution (says he,) and not desert those 
* valiant men who have engaged for us beyond all possibil- 
' ity of retreat." Cromwell said, " That the parliament 
' should govern by their own power, and not teach the peo- 
' pie any longer to expect safety from an obstinate man,whose 

< heart God had hardened. The army will defend you 

i against all opposition. Teach them not, by neglecting 
« your's and the kingdom's safety, in which their own is 
i involved, to think themselves betrayed, and left hereafter 

§ Rnshwerth, p. 951, 953, 962. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 545. 


6 to the rage and malice of an irreconcileable enemy, 
i whom they have subdued for your sake, lest despair 
6 teach them to seek their safety by some other means than 
< adhering to you ; [here he put his hand to his sword} 
i and how destructive such a resolution will be (says he) I 
i tremble to think, and leave you to judge !" The question 
being then put, it was carried by a majority of fifty voic- 
es ; yea's one hundred forty-one, no's ninety-one. Jan. 
17, the lords concurred with the commons in their votes of 
non-addresses. Till this very time, says lord Clarendon, 
no man mentioned the king's person without duty and re- 
spect. But now a new scene was opened, and some of 
their officers at their meetings at Windsor, began to talk of 
deposing the king, or prosecuting him as a criminal, of 
which his majesty Avas advertised by Watson the quarter- 
master, but it made no impression upon him. 

The two houses having concurred in their votes for non- 
addresses, the army agreed to stand by the parliament in 
settling the nation without the king ; and that the people 
might be satisfied with the reasons of their proceedings, a 
remonstrance was published by order of parliament Feb. 
15, in which they recapitulate all the errors of his majes- 
ty's government; his insincerity in the several treaties of 
peace he had entered into with them ; and that though they 
Lad applied to him seven times with propositions, in all 
which the Scots had concurred except the last, yet he had 
never complied with any; from whence they conclude, 
either that the nation must continue under the present dis- 
tractions, or they must settle it without him. In the post- 
humous works of lord Clarendon,* there is a large reply 
to this remonstrance, in which his lordship endeavors to 
vindicate the king, and throw all the blame upon the par- 
liament ; but though there were ill instruments on both 
sides, and there might be no real occasion to rip up the 
misdemeanors of the king's government from the begin- 
ning, yet it is hardly possible for the art of man to justify 
his majesty's conduct before the war, or to vindicate his 
prudence and siucerity in his treaties afterwards ; the de- 
sign of commencing a new war being evidently at this time 
concerted and agreed upon, with his majesty's allowance, 

* Vol. iii. p. 92. 93. 


in pursuance of the Scots treaty, while he was amusing 
both the parliament and army with overtures of peace. 

Among the ordinances that passed this year for refor- 
mation of the church, none occasioned so much noise and 
disturbance as that of June 8, for abolishing the observa- 
tion of saints days, and the three grand festivals of Christ- 
mas, Easter, and Whitsuntide ; the ordinance says, 

< Forasmuch as the feast of the nativity of Christ, JEaster, 
' Whitsuntide, and other festivals, commonly called holy- 

* days, have been heretofore superstitiously used and ob- 

* served ; be it ordained, that the said feasts, and all other 

< festivals, commonly called holy-days, be no longer ob- 
\ served as festivals ; any law, statute, custom, constitu- 
\ tion, or canon to the contrary, in any wise notwithstand- 

u And that there may be a convenient time alloted for 
6 scholars, apprentices, and other servants, for their reere- 
i ation, be it ordained, that all scholars, apprentices, and 
•' other servants, shall, with the leave of their masters, have 

* such convenient reasonable recreation, and relaxation 
S from labor, every second Tuesday in the month through - 

* out the year, as formerly they used to have upon the/es- 
4 tivals ; and masters of scholars, apprentices, and ser- 
i vants, shall grant to them respectively such time for their 

* recreation, on the aforesaid second Tuesday in the month, 

* as they may conveniently spare from their extraordinary 
; necessary service and occasions ; and if any difference 

* arise between masters and servants concerning the liber- 
i tj hereby granted, the next justice of peace shall recon- 
I cile it." 

The king was highly displeased with this ordinance ; 
and therefore while the affair was under debate he put 
this query to the parliament commissioners at Holmby- 
House, April 23, 1647. I desire to be resolved of this 
question, why the new reformers discharge the keeping of 
Easter ? My reason fortius query is, " I conceive the cel- 

* ebration of this feast was instituted by the same author- 
' ity which changed the Jewish sabbath into the Lord's - 
c day or Sunday, for it will not be found in scripture where 

* Saturday is discharged to be kept, or turned into the 

* Seobel, p. 128. 


< Sunday ; wherefore it must be the churches authority that 
' changed the one and instituted the other ; therefore my 
1 opinion is, that those who will not keep this feast may as 
1 well return to the observation of Saturday, and refuse the 
* weekly Sunday. When any body can shew me that 
' herein I am in an error, I shall not be ashamed to confess 
4 and amend it ; till when you know my mind.f C. jR." 

Sir James Harington presented his majesty with au an- 
swer to this query, in which he denies, that the change of 
the sabbath was from the authority of the church, but de- 
rives it from the authority and example of our Savior and 
his apostles in the new testament; he admits, that if there 
was the like mention of the observation of Easter, it would 
be of divine or apostolical authority ; but as the case stands, 
he apprehends with great reason, that the observation of 
the christian sabbath, and of Easter, stand upon a very 
different foot. 

The changing the festival of Christmas into tifast last 
winter, was not so much taken notice of, because all parties 
were employed in acts of devotion ; but when it returned 
this year there appeared a strong propensity in the people 
to observe it, the shops were generally shut, many presby- 
terian ministers preached ; in some places the common-- 
prayer was read, and one or two of the sequestered clergy 
getting into pulpits prayed publicly for the bishops ; sever- 
al of the citizens of London, who opened their shops, were 
abused ; in some places there were riots and insurrections, 
especially in Canterbury, Avhere the mayor, eudeavoringto 
keep the peace, had his head broke by the populace, and 
was dragged about the streets ; the mob broke in divers 
houses of the most religious in the town, broke their win- 
dows, abused their persons, and threw their goods into the 
streets, because they exposed them to sale on Christmas- 
day.* At length their numbers being increased to above 
two thousand, they put themselves into a posture of defence 
against the magistrates, kept guard, stopt passes, examin- 
ed passengers, and seized the magazine and arms in the 
town-hall, and were not dispersed without difficulty. The 
like disorders were at Ealing in Middlesex, and in sev- 

+ Relig. Car. p. 370. * Rushworlh, p. 948. 

Vol. III. 53 


eral other counties. The parliament was alarmed at these 
disorders, and therefore commanded all papists and delin- 
quent clergymen to retire without the lines of communica- 
tion, and punished some of the principal rioters as a terror 
to the rest, it being apparent that the king's party took ad- 
vantage of the holy-days to try the temper of the peo'ple in 
favor of his release, for during the space of the following 
twelve years, wherein the festivals were laid aside, there 
was not the least tumult on account of the holidays, the ob- 
servation of Christmas being left as a matter of indifference. 
The war being thought to be at an end, many of the cler- 
gy who had followed the camp returned home, and endeav- 
ored to repossess themselves of their sequestered livings, 
to the prejudice of those whom the parliament had put in- 
to their places ; they petitioned the king while he was with 
the army, and in a state of honor and dignity, to take their 
poor distressed condition into his gracious consideration. 
His majesty recommended them to the general, at the very 
time when the difference between the parliament and army 
was subsisting, upon which they represented their griev- 
ances to him in a petition, shewing, that " whereas for di- 
i vers years they had been outed of their livings, co»- 
i trary to the fundamental laws of the land, by the arbitra- 
( ry power of committees, whose proceedings have usually 
i been by no rule of law, but by their own wills ; most of 
e them having been turned out for refusing the covenant, or 
' adhering to the king, and the religion establised,